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Introduction to

Open Hole Logging

Schlumberger Private
Fishing
Fishing

Fishing is the term used in the Oil Industry to any

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operation involving “the attempted removal of any
object which has recently become stuck, and/or

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undesireably left downhole on a previous operation
in wellbore well”.
The object is now a ‘fish’.
Learning Objectives

At the end of this learning session, each participant


should be able to:

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• Explain causes of sticking in both Open Hole and

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Cased Hole

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• Describe measures to avoid stuck

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• Describe the Client-Slb role during fishing
operation
• Describe reverse cut and thread fishing operation
Practical Objectives

• Identify fishing hardware


• Differentiate between uphole and downhole

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equipment

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Role of Schlumberger FE during
Fishing?
• Be familiar with the various types of fishing
techniques and hardware used (Adv / Dis-Adv of

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each method).

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• Ability to offer client knowledgeable advice /

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recommendations as to the best possible

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technique to be used.
• Competency to check, prepare and proactively
advise a successful fishing operation.
Causes of Sticking – Open Hole

• Differential Sticking
• Keyseating

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• Hole restriction (bridge / collapse)
• Damaged casing

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• Damaged cable
• Engineer negligence
Causes of Sticking – Cased Hole
• Wedging of tools by debris
• Collapsed or damaged pipe

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• Incorrectly Configured / Damaged Tool
• Partially set plug

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• Entry in to reduced pipe size
• Differential pressure sticking
• Cable damage
Measures to avoid sticking

• Careful planning of the job (conveyance method)


• Correct weakpoint selection

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• Adapt speed and technique to RIH and POOH
safely

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• Use appropriate equipment for the well conditions
Client-SLB relationship

• Schlumberger only renders assistance in an


advisory capacity.

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• Client is responsible for the fishing operation.

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• Client will cover the costs for any lost equipment

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except in cases of “gross negligence” by SLB

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which resulted in the fishing
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Fishing Equipment
Fishing
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Surface eq.
Fishing Equipment

Downhole end
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Fishing Equipment (Cont.)

Cable Hanger Kit


Grapple

• One time use only

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• Fix to one size of fish only
• Engineer need to make

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(from the Fishing Manual)
sure fish OD before RIH
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Grapple Installation
Grapple Engagement

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Normal engagement Partial engagement
Full engagement is Partial engagement occurs
possible with an when the bowl is bent or
undamaged bowl. damaged. The grapple is not
allowed to fully expand.
Inverted T-Bar

Turning the T-bar upside down


should never be done. Some

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wireline logging crews have

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attempted this to prevent drillpipe
thread damage only to find that

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the T-bar falls over due to its
instability and cuts the logging
cable. Instead, it should be rested
atop the C-plate (as shown on
the right).
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Ensure the tool can be fished
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Cut and Thread
Fishing
Step 1 – Hang Sheave in Derrick
• Hang upper sheave with fishing
sling in a rated/certified* cross-
member of the rig structure to avoid
cable interference when handling

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drillpipe
• Lower sheave must be moved

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away from rotary to prevent
interference with rig floor operations
and cable contact with top drive
• Stay away from under sheave while
derrick man hangs it
*Care must be taken to ensure the beam used is strong enough
to hold 2 x Breaking Strength of the Wireline cable
Use Longest Links (Bail Arms)
Available
• 108 in. ones are standard; try to use
140 in. ones or longer
• Inspect every 5,000 ft and before

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going into open hole for cable wear,
damage of fishing equipment, and

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tightness of fishing equipment
• If available, install roller assembly on
top drive to eliminate cable rubbing; If
one is not available, have rig make
one
• Do not use the Varco Wireline Adapter
commonly known as “Bicycle Wheels”
Flexible Wire Rope Sinker Bar
Assembly
• The flexible weight passes
smoothly around the top
drive as the block is

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lowered
• Note: Weight bars from the

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old SFT-157 should never
be used.
Tension Device

• IF TDK is available, switch to TDK if


using CMTD (Prevents cable

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backlash)

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• Compare TDK and CMTD readings

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so that fishing operation is

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performed under correct tension
• Do not pre-load lower sheave with
air hoist tension; Sheave should
hang freely until weight is applied
Step 2 – Cut the Cable
• Pull 1,000 to 2,000 lbf over normal
tension and secure T-Bar cable
clamp to cable

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• If hole is straight, cut cable 5 to 7
feet above rotary table

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• If hole is deviated, cut cable 10 feet
above rotary table plus 1 foot for
every 1,000 feet greater than
10,000 feet
• Use proper size cable bushing in T-
Bar and mark cable to ensure there
is no slippage
Rig Up Spearhead Overshot

• Use Wire Rope Weight with


Swivel from the SFT-644

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• Minimum restrictions for all
drilling hardware (jars, drill

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collars, and heavy weight)

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must be known to determine
size of overshot guide to use
• Always use the largest guide
that will fit through drilling
hardware
Rig Up Spear
• Never use spears which contain
“W’s” in their work order numbers
• Always use Hexagon Adapter when

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stripping over;

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• Hexagon Adapter will stop on top of

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no-go if dropped accidentally

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• Only use plain adapter when drill
pipe ID is too small for Hexagon
Adapter and switch back to Hexagon
Adapter as soon as drill pipe ID
All connections should be tightened
permits
to 235 ft.lbf and retightened every
5000 ft during drill pipe RIH.
• Never use “after-market” rope
sockets
Step 3 – Assemble Overshot
• Assemble 4-11/16 in. overshot,
spiral type grapple, and no-go
(preferred method)

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• If basket type grapple is used,

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assemble 5-3/4 in. overshot, basket
grapple, and no-go

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• If fishing for AMS, use extensions to
engage below bottle-neck section
and choose appropriate guide shoe
• ALWAYS VISUALLY INSPECT
grapple for proper size for job and
NEVER install a used grapple
Thread Cable Through Overshot

• Remove hex adapter, pass well end of cable through downhole


overshot and reinstall hex adapter

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• Remember, 2 ¼ in. hex adapter will not pass through the smaller ID
no-go

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Install Drain Sub

• Drain sub with blow out disk aids


in grapple cleaning and prevents

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pulling wet drillpipe after disk is
blown

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• Install above downhole overshot

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assembly
• Commonly Used in North
America
Step 4 – Thread Through

• Slowly pull overshot


assembly to derrickman to

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thread through bottom hole
assembly

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• Make sure minimum

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restrictions are known
Remove T-Bar

• Tighten overshot to bottom


of first stand of drillpipe

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• Stab spearhead overshot,
pull cable tension, and

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remove T-bar cable clamp

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• Remove IDW and position
spooling arm to one side
When Slips Are Set
• After the slips are set,
floorhand should position
elevators away from
spearhead assembly until

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elevators are clear of
assembly. If not done,

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elevators could catch hex

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adapter and cause cable to
break
• Afterwards, install C-plate,
slack off cable, and release
overshot with special tongs
Step 5 – Flag Line
– After tripping in with drill
collars, jars, and heavy
weights, flag line at drum

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and bottom sheave with

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rags, tape, paint, etc.

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• When spearhead overshot

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is positioned over drillpipe
by the derrickman
– Derrickman will thread
overshot assembly through
drillpipe
Flag Line Again

• Flag line again at drum and


bottom sheave when spear is

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stabbed in spearhead overshot

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Trip In Slowly

• Maintain Proper Cable


Tension (1,000 to 2,000 lbf

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plus normal)
• Pay particular attention to

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top drive; If Weighted Rope

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bar gets caught on top
drive, slack off but do so
carefully
Step 6 – Rethread Overshot

• Pull overshot to derrickman who will thread through


another stand of drillpipe (watch flag at at drum)

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Stab Overshot
• Attach drain sub to second
stand of drillpipe
• Position pipe over

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spearhead overshot and
slack off until “the other flag
” on the drum is reached

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• Keep hands in safe position
Make Overshot Connection

• Make overshot connection, pull


enough tension to remove C-plate,

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and adjust tension again to normal
plus 1,000 lbf to 2,000 lbf

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• Re-tighten connections to 235 ft.lbf

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every 5000 ft.
Step 7 – Make Up Drillpipe

• Drillpipe is made-up and


tightened

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• Slips are pulled and the
descent begins

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• Do not rotate pipe in hole
• Observe tension
Tripping in Hole
• Repeat procedure for each
stand of drillpipe until
circulation depth is reached

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• If excessive open hole is

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present, circulation every 10

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stands (especially of lost

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circulation material is used)
should be considered to keep
grapple clean
• Remember to watch your
speed!!! Going in the hole
slowly is the only way
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Step 8 – Install Circulating Sub
Circulate One Stand Above Fish

• Cuttings and debris should be


removed from downhole overshot

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assembly by circulation of mud at a
one stand maximum above top of fish

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• Only circulate long enough to ensure

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grapple is clean
• Never circulate too long or too fast;
cable damage will occur
Engage Fish
• Maintain normal tension plus 1,000 to 2,000 lbf
and approach fish slowly;
• Observe tension and set at least 2,000 additional

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pounds on fish;

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• Pull at least 2 joints of drillpipe (60 ft) and observe

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tension

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• A minimum tension loss of 2,000 lbf should be
observed to confirm latch (a tension resulting in 0
after pulling pipe would be a definite indication of
engagement)
• Repeat this engagement procedure at least twice
• If tension does not decrease, the fish in not engaged
• DO NOT ROTATE PIPE AFTER ENGAGING
Step 9- Blow Drain Sub Disk
• Apply mud pump pressure to blow
disk in sub
• Pump slug; especially for oil base

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mud

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• (Do not trip out with oil base wet

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string; it’s unsafe)

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• Afterwards, repeat engagement
process before breaking weak
point to make sure tool was not
blown out the overshot
Reconfirm Engagement

• Repeat engagement process at least


twice to ensure tool is still in downhole

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overshot
• Again, observe tension and set at least

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2,000 additional pounds on fish

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• Pull at least 2 joints of drillpipe (60 ft) and
observe tension
• A minimum tension loss of 2,000 lbf
should be observed to confirm latch (a
tension resulting in 0 after pulling pipe
would be a definite indication of
engagement)
Break Weakpoint
• Install T-Bar and calculate cable
stretch required to break weak point
• (Depth) X (Stretch Coefficient)

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• Move cable up and down within stretch
limit with block to work tension to weak

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point
• Use block to break weak point and
record tension at which break occurs
• Make sure rig floor is clear and inspect
lower sheave chain
Tie Square Knot

• Cut off rope sockets on both well end and unit end of cable
• Tie square knot in cable, pull tight, and tape ends

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Spool Cable

• Observe square knot as it goes over


upper and lower sheaves

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• Afterwards, reinstall IDW to measure
cable Schlumberger

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Step 11 – Tripping Out of Hole

• Do not rotate pipe while tripping out of


hole

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• Rotation may cause fish to disengage
and fall out of downhole overshot

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• DO NOT ROTATE DRILLPIPE!!!
At Surface

• Install make-up plate at first


available tool collar and

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remove overshot assembly
• Remove remaining tool string

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with air hoist, cover hole, and

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finish breaking and cleaning
tools in rat hole
• Make sure air hoist is rated for
tool string
Removing Fish

• Remove guide and bump


tool vertically against rig
floor to free grapple control

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• Spin tool and grapple out of
overshot by turning in a

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clockwise motion

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• Tool should come free
without applying excessive
force
• If another method is used to
release tool, remove
electronics from housing in
overshot to minimize
damage
Rig Crew Mistakes

• Sometimes a rig crew is used to doing something one


way, but on a fishing operation they cannot do these

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things. Make sure they do NOT do these things on a

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fishing job.

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• Running the blocks fast up to the derrick hand
• Tripping pipe fast into the hole
• Rotating drillpipe downhole
• Using other fishing methods on wireline
As New Personnel Arrive

• A fishing operation normally goes through multiple shift changes.


• If any new personnel arrive on location that have not been

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orientated to the fishing job, you must make sure they are trained
in the fishing operation.

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• Stop the fishing operation and hold another safety meeting and
cover all the topics you covered in your original safety meeting.
• Make sure you bring up any new hazards discovered on this
specific fishing job.
• Make sure each person leaving the job reviews with his relief as
to what their specific task are.

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