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Introduction to

Open Hole Logging

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Dipmeter and Borehole Imaging Tools
Dipmeter & Borehole Imaging Tools Water-
base Mud
Dips Only
 3 Arms Dipmeter Tool “CDR” (1945) – 3 sensors
 High Resolution Dipmeter Tool “HDT” (1968) – 4 sensors
 Stratigraphic High Resolution Dipmeter Tool “SHDT” (1982)

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SHDT
8 sensors
Dips AND Images
 2 pads Formation MicroScanner “FMS2”
(1986)
54 (2x27)+ 10 = 64 sensors
 Formation MicroImager “FMI”- 192 sensors (1991)

 4 pads Formation MicroScanner “FMS4” (1988)


RA 16x4=64 sensors
B FMI
 Resistivity At the Bit “RAB”- LWD tool (1995)
.
9/21/2019
In Italic = now obsolete
Dipmeter & Imaging Tools Borehole
coverage

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FMS to FMI Borehole
Coverage
FMS2 FMS4 FMI

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20%* 40%* 80%* * In 8.in hole
Stratigraphic High-resolution Dipmeter Tool (SHDT)

4-arm electrical dipmeter

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Speed button

1pad per arm


2 buttons per pad
Measurement buttons
Stratigraphic High-resolution Dipmeter Tool (SHDT)

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SHDT results
Original SHDT displayed as
resistivity curves curves or
Pseudo Images
Dip computation Focusing
plane
Around the normal
to the tool axis Plane outside the
(default) Search Angle

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Plane inside the
Search Angle

Plane back inside the


Search Angle
Around a chosen plane
digital telemetry
cartridge FMI* Tool
digital telemetry
specifications
adaptor Maximum Operating Pressure
1400 bar
20,000 psi
depth
correlation tool  Maximum Temperature 350 F 175 C

controller
cartridge  Minimum Borehole Diameter 6 in.
flex joint
153 mm

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insulating  Maximum Borehole Diameter 21 in.
sub 533 mm
inclinometer
 Outside Diameter 5 in
acquisition
cartridge 127 mm

 Maximum Borehole Deviation 90  with flex joint


Pad Flap
 Maximum Logging Speed 1800 ft/hr (Full image)
3600 ft/hr (Four-pad)
5400 ft/hr (Dip)
 Image width 2.46 in. 6.27 mm
 Borehole coverage 98% for 6 in.; 78% for 8 in.;
four-arm 73% 51% for 12.25 in.
sonde
with  Maximum Mud Resistivity 50 ohm-m
pad & flap
assembly  Minimum Mud Resistivity Image degradation
*Formation
when Micro-Imager resistivity contrast between
FMI
Sensors
Pa
d
192 pad mounted buttons
(24 buttons per1 pad & 1
flap per arm) to provide

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an electrical image of the
borehole with a resolution
Fla of 0.2 in (5 mm).
p

FMI FMI
sonde Pad/Flap
FMI Measurement Prin

Upper
electrode
s

Mass

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insulate
d sub

Current

Lower
electrode
s

The FMI measurement principle uses passive


focussing around the measurement electrode.
FMI Inclino
digital telemetry
cartridge All SLB Dipmeter & Borehole imaging tools use the same GPIT
digital telemetry Inclinometry cartridge:
adaptor
GPIT = 3 Accelerometers and 3 magnetometers
depth
correlation tool to compute the well deviation and the tool orientation
controller
cartridge The Inclinometry quality control is a
flex joint critical step of the processing chain

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insulating
sub
inclinometer
acquisition
cartridge

Pad Flap

four-arm
sonde
with
pad & flap
assembly

Good plots: circular shape due to tool rotation


FMI
Inclinometry
Any Idea ?

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This interval was logged in the casing….
FMI Image Processing BOREID
Module
Raw Image Equalized and Ordered Speed Removed from sticking
Corrected effect

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FMI
Applications
mage facies analysis for enhanced reservoir analysis

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Poor permeability High permeability along dip
OH logs indicate 2 Sandtsones with same porosity
(18%). FMI image shows that permeability is
extremely different
FMI
Applications
Image facies analysis for enhanced reservoir analysis

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High permeability & mud Poor permeability (isolated
losses vugs)
OH logs indicate 2 Limestones with same porosity
(14%). FMI image shows that permeability is
extremely different
FMI
Applications
Image facies& dip analysis for reservoir geometry
NE
Dun
e
Inter-Dune

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Dun
e

Inter-Dune

Dun
E
e

Inter-Dune

Outcrop of an actual aeolian sand dune and


reconstructed cross-section from FMI dips - Paleozoic of
Saudi Arabia
OBMI* Measurement
Principle
 AC voltage applied between
electrodes A and B

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 AC current I generated in
formation

 Resulting δV measured
between paired buttons C and
D

 Ohm’s law, R=kδV/I, gives


calibrated Rxo measurement

 Five measurements per pad


* Oil Base Mud MicroImager
Oil Base MicroImager (OBMI) Tool
Temperature 320°F
Specifications
Pressure 20,000 psi
Flex joint

Resistivity range 0.2 to >10,000 Ohm-m


Tool diameter 5.75 in. OBMI
Electronics
Maximum aperture 17.5 in. cartridge
17 ft
Recommended hole size (standard) 7-16 in. (5.4

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m)
Recommended hole size (Slim) 6-16 in.
Pixel size 0.4 in x 0.4 in (1 cm)
Sonde
Image resolution (vert. & horiz.) 1.2 in. (3 cm)
Depth of investigation (invasion) 3.5” (8.9 cm)
Rxo accuracy 20% (1-10,000 ohm-m)
Sensitivity to stand-off 0.5 in. @ 1-10,000 ohm-m
0.25 in. @ < 1 ohm-m
Image width 2.0 in. (5.1 cm)
Borehole coverage 42% for 6 in.; 32% in 8-in.;
Calipers and
30% for 8.5 in, 21% for 12.25 in. pads
Combinability (standard) All services, thru-wired tool
Combinability (Slim) Bottom only tool Through-
wired mandrel

OBMI Pad
OBMI OBMI image vs
Core image
UV core
photo

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This 5th pad is actually a UV core photo that has been
recolored and resolution-matched to the OBMI image
OBMI Quantitative Rxo and Sand
Count Sand
count

Silt
count

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Results: 2 days rig time saved by not coring & 50 ft of
extra pay zone identified
OBMI OBMI
vs UBI

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Open
Fractures
fracture
OBMI s
OBMI OBMI image vs
UBI image

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OBMI2 The power of
OBM I
coverage
34’
OBM I OBM I2
32’

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17’ 1
OBM I2 ft
15’

2
0’

OBMI2 –Double Coverage & Double Borehole Geometry Data


OBMI Applications
 Differentiation of structural and stratigraphic features

 Stratigraphic analysis

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 Quantitative, high-resolution Rxo

 Thin-bed detection

 High-resolution sand count

 Positioning for acquisition of samples from MDT Modular Formation


Dynamics Tester
UBI Ultra-sonic Borehole Imager

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 Acoustic pulse-echo scan
 Transducer frequency: 250 Khz (low res. ) - 500 KHz (high
res.).
 Transducer rotates at 7.5 rps
 180 azimuthal samples (2 deg. Interval)
 Transit time image & amplitude image
 Vertical Resolution 0.2-0.4 in. (5mm-1cm)
 Logging speed: 850 ft/hr (low res.) – 425 ft/hr (high res.)
 Can be used in water and oil-based mud
UBI(Ultra-sonic Borehole Imager) Physics Tool
UBI of
Principle
measurement
Focused
Transducer
Distance= Speed in mud x TT/2

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Wall
Borehole

Pulse Echo
Transit Time

Measurements:
 Transit time of first echo
 First echo amplitude
UBI
Field Print

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Amplitude Transit
image Time
image
UBI
Processed images

Amplitude Transit time


image image

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Spiral plot
UBI
transducer
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Limitations
UBI
Comparison
UBI 1:40 M

of Images vs
FMI & ARI

FMI Dynamic

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ARI Dyn 2m

UBI
Amplitude
UBI Transit Time for hole shape analysis

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Which tool?

 Structural dip : all

 Stratigraphic dip : all - but UBI poor in unconsolidated

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sands

 Bad holes/breakouts: FMI, UBI, OBMI - Dipmeters


poor

 Highly deviated holes: FMI, OBMI, UBI (eccentering


critical for large diameters)- Dipmeters poor

 Fractures: FMI, UBI, OBMI - Dipmeters poor

 Carbonates/facies: FMI, UBI, OBMI- Dipmeters poor


The ultimate

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Borehole
Imaging
Device?