Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 56


Unit two
– Describe basic human needs/physical,
emotional, spiritual
– Identify Developmental tasks associated
with the aging process
– Discuss age related conditions
– Discuss general characteristics of aging
– Discuss cultural diversity/ individuality
Describe Basic Human Needs
 Basic Human needs
are needs all
persons have.
However individuals
meet these needs in
different ways.
Most residents in
long term facilities
will need some
assistance to meet
their basic needs.
Ways to assist Residents with
Physical Needs
 Food  Oxygen/Air
– making meal time as – elevate HOB for
pleasant as possible resident with
– assist resident to breathing problems
eat, feed resident or SOB
when possible – position in bed and
– prepare foods such chairs to allow lung
as cutting meats, expansion
opening cartons – assist resident to
– assist nurse with
oxygen therapy.
Meeting Resident Physical
 Water:  Elimination:
– Offer fluids – Assist resident in
frequently toileting needs
– keep water – provide privacy
containers within – be matter of fact in
reach response to
– Keep water fresh, incontinent residents
other liquids at
Meeting Physical Needs
 Rest:  Stimulation
– Assist in preparation – Encourage resident
for sleep to participate in
– recognize changes in activities
patterns for sleep – Encourage residents
 Activity and Exercise to talk and listen
– Encourage ROM in
ADL’s – Do not isolate
resident. Place in
– ambulate, transfer area where they can
and move properly observe activity.
– Encourage activity
Meeting Physical needs
 Sexuality – Respond
– Encourage use of appropriately to
male/female resident who is
clothing, cosmetics, masturbating, (take
hair styles to resident to room,
maintain sexual don’t shame or be
identity. judgmental.
– Provide privacy to
couples expressing
intimacy needs,
knock before
Ways to Assist Resident with
Safety and Security Needs
 Safety  Security
– Keep area safe and – respect residents
free of hazards belongings
– Show residents how – orient resident to
to do activities safely new surroundings
– keep call light within – reassure resident
reach – welcome family and
– know how to do friends
tasks – provide privacy,
– be alert to safety. knock on doors
Use TB and brakes
Ways to Assist Love and
Belonging Needs
 Caring about someone
– listen to resident, encourage talk of past
– show interest in residents family
– encourage contact with other residents
– read social histories in resident charts
– some residents may have significant others
who are not family members
– take time with resident, pay attention
Love and Belonging Needs
 Being cared about
– Show interest in resident
– touch residents in a kind and gentle
– be kind and friendly to visitors
– inform family and residents of activities
– be patient and understanding
– treat residents as you would like to be
Ways to Meet Self Esteem
 Sense of Identity
– call resident by preferred name
– include resident and family in discussions
concerning resident care
– give and respect choices made by residents
– respect differences in culture, heredity,
interests and values
Meeting Self- Esteem Needs
 Feeling Important, worthwhile
– praise accomplishments of residents
– acknowledge residents at all times
– respect resident property
– talk to resident as an adult
– encourage resident to do as much as abble
for themselves
– Give residents simple responsibilities and
tasks to feel important
Meeting Self- Actualization
 The extra’s in life
– encourage hobbies
– praise accomplishments and strengths
 Spirituality
– respect religious beliefs
– provide privacy for clergy visit.
– Handle with care religious symbols
– refer clergy requests to Nurse in Charge
Describe Developmental Tasks
 Theorists suggest that as one matures
from infancy to old age, persons pass
through several stages. During each
stage developmental tasks must be
accomplished in order to mature in a
healthy way. Developmental tasks are
social, emotional, and psychological
growth experiences.
Growth & Development
 Occurs in an orderly pattern simple to
 Is continuous from infancy to adult
 Affects all body parts
 Rate varies from person to person
 Is a total process that affects people,
physically, mentally, emotionally,
Early adulthood
developmental tasks
 Age frame is from about late teens to
– establish personal and economic
– forming a support group of friends and
– developing work skills/career
– making a commitment in a relationship
– establishing a family
– managing optimal healthy lifestyles
Middle Adulthood tasks
 Age frame from about the thirties to the
mid sixties
– expand personal and social involvement
and responsibility
– adjusting to physiological and emotion
– reaching and maintaining job satisfaction/
preparing for retirement
– observing maturation of children
– managing chronic health conditions
Late Adulthood Tasks
 Age time frame from
mid sixties to death.
Aging is influenced
by heredity,
nutrition, exercise,
lifestyle choices such
as smoking, and life
long adjustments to
Young-Old Tasks
 Age frame 65-74 years
– If healthy may not experience ages from
middle years
– beginning social and emotional
adjustments to decreasing physical
strengths and changes in body such as
vision and hearing limitations
– adjusting to retirement with loss of job
related activities
– adjusting to changing family roles with
Middle Old and Old- Old
 Middle old, 75-84  Old-Old, 85 and
– Adjusting to more older
chronic conditions, – Accept physical
such as arthritis limitations and
– adjusting to losses of dependence on
abilities to drive car others
– losses of friends and – acceptance of losses
siblings (deaths and
– need to accept life’s activities)
experiences – acceptance to
alternate living
conditions, such as
Age Related Conditions
 Aging is a gradual – After age 75 elderly
process/ not illness average at least 5
chronic conditions
– Most residents have
that limit some
experienced some
age related changes
or illness since late
40’s or early 50’s.
– Due to gradual
changes and
adaptations most
conditions are not
considered problems
Describe Normal Aging
 Integumentary  Occurring changes
System – Skin becomes
– Skin, hair, nails, fragile,tears easily,
sweat and oil glands loss of fatty tissue
– hair thins and grays
– nails thicken and
– less oil and
Describe Normal Aging
 Integumentary  Occurring changes
System – Skin becomes
– Skin, hair, nails, fragile,tears easily,
sweat and oil glands loss of fatty tissue
– hair thins and grays
– nails thicken and
– less oil and
Integumentary system
 Results  Nursing Assistant
– skin is less resistant responsibilities:
to injury – use lotion and other
– skin bruises easily skin care products
– skin is drier – prevent pressure
– skin is slow to heal areas and other
– body temperature
regulation is difficult – select appropriate
– decreased sensations
Musculo-Skeletal (bones and
 Changes  Results
– bones become – muscles lose
porous and brittle strength
– muscles reduce in – fractures occur
size – Range of Motion is
– joints and ligaments decreased
become less flexible  NAR responsibilities
– encourage exercise
and good nutrition
– balance activity and
Digestive (Stomach and
 Changes  Results
– Slowing down of – decrease in appetite
system – difficulty chewing
– decrease in taste and swallowing
– saliva reduced – constipation
– teeth missing (poor  NAR responsibilities:
fitting denture) – watch for choking
– encourage fluids,
small bites, and to
eat slower
Circulatory (Heart -blood
 Changes  Results
– heart does not pump – tires easily
as effectively – elevated blood
– blood vessels pressure
become less elastic – dizzy when changing
– heart disease is positions
common in elderly  NAR responsibilities
– provide rest times
– encourage exercise
– change positions
 Changes  Results
– decreased exchange – deep breathing more
of oxygen and difficult
carbon dioxide – susceptible to
– lungs lose elasticity infections
– cough reflex is weak – tires easily and SOB
 NAR Responsibilities
– pace activities
– prevent infections
Urinary ( Kidney - bladder)
 Changes  Results
– kidney function – susceptible to UTI’s
reduced – more urgent need to
– bladder elasticity void
lessened – difficulty and
– females have stress incontinence in
incontinence voiding
– males have prostate  NAR responsibilities
enlargement – encourage fluids
– follow B&B program
– good peri care
Nervous System
 Changes  Results
– nerve cells decrease – slower reaction to
in number stimuli
– blood flow to brain is – forgetfulness
decreased  NAR responsibilities
– diseases may cause – Provide adequate
abnormalities and time to complete
personality changes activities
– be alert to safety
Sensory (eyes and ears)
 Changes  Results
– gradual slowing – reduced vision and
down of all senses hearing
– tears and earwax – eyes dry, irritated
reduced – impacted ear wax
– problems with glare
 NAR responsibilities
– speak clear, slowly
– face resident
– be alert to safety
Digestive (Stomach and
 Changes  Results
– Slowing down of – decrease in appetite
system – difficulty chewing
– decrease in taste and swallowing
– saliva reduced – constipation
– teeth missing (poor  NAR responsibilities:
fitting denture) – watch for choking
– encourage fluids,
small bites, and to
eat slower
Females: Menstrual cycles ceases, vaginal
wall become thinner and drier
Males: scrotum is less firm, prostate gland
may enlarge.
NAR responsibility: Clean Perineums, watch
for signs of infections.
Endocrine system (glands)
 Changes:
– Less insulin produced, may result in
– Weight gain/loss
– Increased feeling of nervousness
 Nar’s should report any behavior or
physical changes to nurse.
Describe Needs of Family
 Definition of Family:
– Two or more people have chosen to live
together and share interest, roles,
resources commitment and love.
 Family emotions include, anxiety, fear,
sadness, anger, relief, confusion
 Nursing assistants need to acknowledge
family members, have a non
judgmental attitude, be patient, be
sensitive, quietly listen, include family
when appropriate in cares. BE
 CLAS stands for culturally and
linguistically appropriate services.
 Developed in 2000 by the Dept of
health and human services.
 Clas focuses on health care
organizations, and also standards for
how health care should be delivered.
Personal guidelines
 Think about your personal belief system
 Examine how personal culture
influences your own behavior
 Don’t stereotype
 Ask patients about their culture
 Attend staff development activities and
develop cultural awareness.
Cultural influences
 Personal space
– Some cultures will not permit members of
the opposite sex to provide cares
– Some prefer distance during cares
 Gestures/ eye contact
– Gestures may have different meanings
– Eye contact may be offensive
Cultural Influences
 Pain:
– Some demonstrate pain by being very
– Some view displays of pain as being weak
 Personal hygiene:
– Bathing may not be done routinely/ or may
be very frequent
– Women may not want body hair removed
Cultural influences
 Clothing:
– Men may cover their heads
– Women may cover their heads and only have face
and hands in view
 Health Practices:
– May want cultural remedies
– May want herbs, spices, teas or wraps
– Check to see if this interferes with treatment
Common Characteristics of
Normal Aging
 There are many
myths about aging.
A myth is an
unproven idea or
belief such as “old
people can’t learn”.
Facts about Aging
 Aging is a natural process, begins at
 basic needs of the elderly are the same
as any age group
 Individuals age at different rates
 aging process is influenced by lifestyle,
nutrition, wellness, mental and
emotional health
 Most elderly live healthy, independent
Aging Facts
 Most elderly have satisfying
relationships with family and friends
 Most elderly enjoy retirement
 Many elderly are involved in community
and volunteer work
 Many elderly have a deep sense of
spirituality and feeling of peace
 Aging does not occur at a certain age
Home Health Aide

Unit Two
Basic Human Needs
Basic Human Needs
 Objectives:
– Discuss Life Span Growth and
– Discuss Family Dynamics
– Define Family Stress
Growth and Development
 Growth:  Development:
– Refers to physical – Refers to social,
changes in the body emotional, and
– growth begins at psychological
conception and changes that occur
continues to full throughout life.
physical maturity – It’s influenced by life
– Physical changes in experiences,
adulthood are individual behavior
influences by – Moves from simple
nutrition, lifestyle, to complex.
 A family is a group of people tied
together by common interests and
concern about the well being and needs
of members. “Traditional Family”
usually refers to a married man and
women and children. Today there are
many family units containing single
parents, extended families, and groups
of unrelated friends.
Family Dynamics
 The way individuals – Each person has a
in a family relate to role in the group, or
several roles.
and interact with
– Usually roles are
each other is known
learned from older
as family dynamics family members.
– Each family has There may not be a
individual needs. role model for
– Families have their healthy development
own rules related to – In a stressed family
how they operate as children may have
a group. an adult role.
Home Health Aide
 HHA’s need to be
aware of family
dynamics and how it
affects the client.
 Some family
dynamics may not
feel comfortable for
you. Discuss your
feelings with your
Define Family Stress
 Family Stress occurs when one or more
events or behaviors affects the normal
functioning of the family. Some events
might include:
– Chemical dependency/ substance abuse
– Loss of income due to illness or
termination. This effects living
arrangements, nutritional need, insurance
coverage, self esteem, everyday activities.
Child Abuse
 Child abuse is any
act that causes
harm or pain to
someone who is less
then 18 years old.
– Harm can be
physical, emotional,
or sexual.
– Includes situations
that pose a risk for
Chronic Illnesses
 Chronic illnesses are
those diseases that
last for a long time,
often the remainder
of life.
– Places stress on
entire family due to
loss of role in family
– Often places financial
Developmental Disabilities
 Any condition which interferes with
normal growth and development is a
– May interfere with the way a person
speaks, learns, or completes ADL’s
– Usually as a result of heredity, or birth
injury. (cerebral palsy, fetal alcohol,MR.)
– Places stress on family due to health care
costs and special services needed.
Children's Response to Family
 Children may not  Child fears and
get adequate anxiety will depend
attention and on age. They may
support for normal think a parent will
growth and leave or never get
development. better.
 Child may withdraw
or have untypical
Untypical Behaviors
 Child may become
over dependent on
others and
 May not follow
normal routines,
such as nap time.
 Regresses to earlier
 Physical complaints