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5.

4
Exponential Functions:
Differentiation and Integration

The inverse of f(x) = ln x is f-1 = ex.


Therefore, ln (ex) = x and e ln x = x

Solve for x in the following equations.

7e x 1 Take the ln ln( 2 x  3)  5


of both sides. ln(2 x 3)
x 1 e e 5
ln 7  ln e
2x  3  e 5

ln 7  x  1 3 e 5
x  75.707
x  ln 7 1  .95 2
Operations with Exponential Functions

e 
a
e a b
e e e
a b a b
e a b e ab
b
e
The Derivative of the Natural Exponential Function

d x
dx
e  e x
 
d e u  e u u'
dx
Differentiate.

 3  3 x
e 
d 3 x
e  2
d 2x1 2 x 1  2 e
e dx x 
dx
Find the relative extrema of f ( x)  xex

f ' ( x)  x(e )  e (1)


x x

0  e x  1
x Since ex never = 0, -1 is the only
critical number.

neg. pos. Therefore, x = -1 is a min. by


the first derivative test.
-1
dec. inc.  1
Minimum @ ?   1, 
 e
Integration Rules for Exponential Functions

 e dx  e C  e du  e C
x x u u


Ex. 3 x 1
e dx Let u = 3x + 1
du = 3 dx
  e du u du
 dx
3
3
u 3 x 1
e e
 C  C
3 3
 5xe dx
Ex.  x2
Let u = -x2
du = -2x dx
  5 xe du
u
du
 dx
 2x  2x
5 u 5  x2
  e C   e C
2 2
Ex. 1x u
e e ( x 2 du ) Let u = 1/x = x-1
 x 2 dx   x 2 2
du  1x dx
du
 dx
 e  C
u
x 2

 e  C
1x
 x 2 du  dx
 sin x  e
cos x
Ex. dx Let u = cos x
du = -sin x dx

  sin x  edu u du
 dx
 sin x
 sin x
 e  C  e  C
u cos x

1 Let u = -x
Ex.
 e x
dx   e  du  u du = -dx
-du = dx
0


1
x
 e  e
u
0

  e   1   .632
1
  e1 0
e

1 x 1

0 1  e x dx  u  ln 1 e 
Ex.
e u' x

0
 ln 1  e  ln 2
 .620
 e dx
0
Ex.
x
cose x
Let u = ex
1 du = ex dx

  e x
cosudu du
e x
 dx
ex
 sin u  sin( e )  sin 1  sin( e 1 )  .482
0
x

1