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Consumer Motivation

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“If you build it, they will come.” Wouldn’t it be nice if it were
that simple?

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Model of the Motivation Process

Learning

Needs Goal or
wants, need
Tension Drive Behavior
and fulfill-
desires ment

Cognitive
processes

Tension
reduction

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Types of Needs

• Innate Needs
– Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are
considered primary needs or motives

• Acquired needs
– Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs
that are considered secondary needs or motives

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self-Actualization
(Self-fulfillment)
Ego Needs
(Prestige, status, self esteem)

Social Needs
(affection, friendship, belonging)

Safety and Security Needs


(Protection, order, stability)

Physiological Needs
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(Food, water, air, shelter, sex)
Goals
• Generic Goals
– the general categories of goals that consumers
see as a way to fulfill their needs
– e.g., “I want to get a graduate degree.”
• Product-Specific Goals
– the specifically branded products or services
that consumers select as their goals
– e.g., “I want to get an MBA in Marketing from
Kellogg School of Management.”

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The Selection of Goals

• The goals selected by an individual depend


on their:
– Personal experiences
– Physical capacity
– Prevailing cultural norms and values
– Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social
environment

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Motivations and Goals

• Positive Motivation • Negative Motivation


– A driving force – A driving force
toward some away from some
object or condition object or condition
• Approach Goal • Avoidance Goal
– A positive goal – A negative goal from
toward which which behavior is
behavior is directed directed away

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The Dynamic Nature of
Motivation
• Needs are never fully satisfied
• New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
• People who achieve their goals set new and
higher goals for themselves

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Failure to achieve a
goal may result in
frustration. Some
Frustration adapt; others adopt
defense mechanisms
to protect their ego.

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Methods by which
people mentally
Defense redefine frustrating
Mechanism situations to protect
their self-images and
their self-esteem.

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