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Objectives

By the end of this lesson you are expected to be


able to demonstrate sound understanding of:
1. The reasons for teaching speaking
2. The definition of “Speaking”
3. The special features of spoken language
4. The definition of “Teaching Speaking”
5. The rationales for teaching speaking using
communicative approach and collaborative
learning
6.The basic features of
communicative language teaching
& collaborative learning
7.Some communicative activities to
promote speaking
8.Things a teacher should/should not
do in teaching speaking
Speaking is a crucial part of second
language learning and teaching.
The mastery of speaking skills in
English is a priority for many second-
language or foreign-language
learners.
Our learners often evaluate their success
in language learning as well as the
effectiveness of their English course on the
basis of how much they feel they have
improved in their spoken language
proficiency.
Oral skills have hardly been neglected in
today’s EFL/ESL courses (witness the huge
number of conversation and other
speaking course books in the market)
Speaking is :
"the process of building and
sharing meaning through the use
of verbal and non-verbal symbols,
in a variety of contexts" (Chaney,
1998, p. 13).
3. Some Features of Spoken
Discourse in daily life:
• Composed of idea units (combined short
phrases and clauses)
• May be planned (e.g., a lecture) or
unplanned (e.g., a conversation)
• Employs more vague (rather unclear) or
generic (simple) words than written
language
• Employs fixed phrases, fillers, and
hesitation markers;
• Contains slips and errors reflecting online
processing;
• Involves reciprocity (i.e., interactions are
jointly constructed);
• Shows variation (e.g., between formal
and casual speech), reflecting speaker
roles, speaking purpose, and the context.
(Luoma, 2004)
Teaching speaking is to teach our learners to:
Produce the English speech sounds and sound
patterns
Use word and sentence stress, intonation
patterns and the rhythm of the second
language.
Select appropriate words and sentences
according to the proper social setting,
audience, situation and subject matter.
Organize their thoughts in a
meaningful and logical sequence.
Use language as a means of
expressing values and judgments.
Use the language quickly and
confidently with few unnatural
pauses, which is called as fluency.
(Nunan, 2003)
For many years, teaching speaking
has been undervalued and English
language teachers have continued
to teach speaking just as a repetition
of drills or memorization of
dialogues.
Today's world requires that the goal
of teaching speaking should
improve students' communicative
skills,

Only in that way, students can


express themselves and learn how to
follow the social and cultural rules
appropriate in each communicative
circumstance.
students learn to speak in the second language by
"interacting“

it is necessary for learners to recognize:


1. the very different functions speaking
performs in daily communication, and
2. the different purposes for which our students
need speaking skills.

communicative
language teaching
& collaborative learning
6. Communicative Language Teaching
& Collaborative Learning

 Communicative language teaching is


based on real-life situations that require
communication.
 By using this method in ESL classes,
students will have the opportunity of
communicating with each other in the
target language.
 ESL teachers should create a classroom
environment where students have real-
life communication, authentic
activities, and meaningful tasks that
promote oral language.
 This can occur when students
collaborate in groups to achieve a
goal or to complete a task.
• Chatting to a passenger sitting next to you
during a plane
• Chatting to a school friend in a canteen
• A student chatting to his or her teacher while
waiting for the class.
• Telling a friend about an amusing weekend
experience, and hearing him or her recount a
similar experience he or she once had.
• Classroom group discussions and problem-solving
activities
• A class activity during which students design a
poster
• Discussing needed computer repairs with a
technician
• Discussing sightseeing plans with a hotel clerk or
tour guide
• Making a telephone call to obtain flight information
• Asking someone for directions on the street
• Buying something in a shop
• Ordering food from a menu in a restaurant
• Giving a class report about a
group/individual assignment
• Conducting a class debate
• Giving a speech of welcome
• Making a presentation
• Giving a long talk
9. Suggestions for Teachers in
Teaching Speaking
• Provide maximum opportunity to students to
speak the target language by providing a rich
environment that contains collaborative work,
authentic materials and tasks, and shared
knowledge.
• Try to involve each student in every speaking
activity; for this aim, practice different ways of
student participation.
• Reduce teacher speaking time in class
while increasing student speaking time.
Step back and observe students.
• Indicate positive signs when commenting
on a student's response.
• Ask eliciting questions such as "What do
you mean? How did you reach that
conclusion?" in order to prompt students to
speak more.
• Provide written feedback like "Your
presentation was really great. It was a good job.
I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the
materials and efficient use of your voice…“
• Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes
very often while they are speaking. Correction
should not distract student from his or her
speech.
• Involve speaking activities not only in class but
also out of class; contact other people who
can help.
• Circulate around classroom to ensure that
students are on the right track and see
whether they need your help while they
work in groups or pairs.
• Provide the vocabulary beforehand that
students need in speaking activities.
• Diagnose problems faced by students who
have difficulty in expressing themselves in
the target language and provide more
opportunities to practice the spoken
language.
8. Some Types of Communicative
Activities to Get Students to Speak
1. Discussions 8. Story Completion
2. Role Play 9. Reporting
3. Simulations 10.Playing Cards
4. Information Gap 11.Picture Narrating
5. Brainstorming 12.Picture Describing
6. Storytelling 13.Find the Difference
7. Interviews
1. Discussion
- A discussion can be held for various reasons: to
arrive at a conclusion, to share ideas about an
event, or to find solutions in their discussion
groups’
- Before the discussion, it is essential that the
purpose of the discussion activity is set by the
teacher. In this way, the discussion points are
relevant to this purpose, so that students do not
spend their time chatting with each other about
irrelevant things.
 For example, students can become involved
in agree/disagree discussions.
 In this type of discussions, the teacher can
form groups of students, preferably 4 or 5
in each group, and provide controversial
sentences like “people learn best when they
read vs. people learn best when they
travel”.
 Then each group works on their topic for a
given time period, and presents their
opinions to the class.
• It is essential that the speaking should be
equally divided among group members.
• At the end, the class decides on the winning
group who defended the idea in the best
way.
• This activity fosters critical thinking and quick
decision making, and students learn how to
express and justify themselves in polite ways
while disagreeing with the others.
• For efficient group discussions, it is always better not
to form large groups, because quiet students may
avoid contributing in large groups.
• The group members can be either assigned by the
teacher or the students may determine it by
themselves,
• but groups should be rearranged in every discussion
activity so that students can work with various people
and learn to be open to different ideas.
• Lastly, in class or group discussions, whatever the aim
is, the students should always be encouraged to ask
questions, paraphrase ideas, express support, check
for clarification, and so on.
• In role-play, students pretend they are in various
social contexts and have a variety of social roles.
• In role-play activities, the teacher gives information to
the learners such as who they are and what they think
or feel.
• Thus, the teacher can tell the student that "You are
Ahmad, you go to the doctor and tell him what
happened last night, and…" (Harmer, 1984)
1. Introduction. Explain the role-play setting, roles involved, duration,
requirements, etc.

2. Assessment. Make it clear to all students what aspects are to be


assessed in the role play (e.g. language accuracy, effort, imagination, costumes,
properties, etc)

3. Preparation. Allow enough time for students to prepare their


dialogues (if not available yet)

4. Check Understanding. the teacher should ensure that students


understand what they have to do and are confident with the vocabulary used on
the role play handout before they begin.

5. Practice. students are given time practice their dialogue (in or out of class),
and create the right mood.
6. Performance.
7. Feedback & Comment.
1. Imitative
2. Intensive
3. Responsive
4. Transactional (dialogue)
5. Interpersonal (dialogue)
6. Extensive (monologue)
1. Use techniques that cover the spectrum
of learner needs, from language usage
to language use.
2. Provide intrinsically motivating
techniques.
3. Encourage the use of authentic
language in meaningful contexts.
4. Provide appropriate feedback and
correction.
5. Integrate speaking and
listening.
6. Give students opportunities to
initiate oral communication.
7. Encourage the development of
speaking strategies.
1. Asking for clarification
2. Asking someone to repeat something
3. Using fillers (well, I mean, etc) in order to gain
time to process
4. Using conversation maintenance cues (right, yeah,
okay, hm, etc)
5. Using paraphrases for structures one can’t
produce.
6. Using mime and nonverbal expressions to clarify
meaning
1. The motivation of the activity is to
achieve some outcome, using language;
2. Achieving the outcome requires the
participants to interact, i.e. to listen as
well as speak;
3. The outcome is not 100% predictable;
4. There is no restriction on the language
used.
1. Questions and answers (dialogues)
2. Improvisations
3. Plays
4. Readings
5. Speeches
6. Small-group discussions
7. Games
8. Debates
9. Group projects
10. Field trips