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Haniyah R. Dida-agun
1) Connectionist/Emergentist models

Emphasis on usage.
Learners directly abstract regularities
from the linguistic environment.

(SOV) Watashi-wa wan-o kaimasu

I wine buy
“I buy the wine.”

(OSV) Chuushoku-o watashi-wa tsukurimashita

Lunch I made

‘’I made lunch.”

“It is lunch that I made.”

Giovana ha comprato il pane

“Joan has bought the bread.”

Allora, compro io il vino

‘’Then I buy the wine.”

Ha commprato il vino aldo

“Has bought the wine Aldo.”
2) Processing approaches

They are characterized by a concern with the

processing mechanism capacities of the human
brain and how those mechanism and capacities
operate when dealing within the context of second
language learning.
a) Processability theory
Learners treat second language forms through a
linguistic processor.
1 Canonical order strategy

2 Initialization/finalization strategy

3 Subordinate clause strategy

1 Canonical order
This predicts that
strategies that separate
linguistic units require 2Initialization/finalization
greater processing strategy
capacity than strategies When movement takes
that involve a direct place, elements will be
mapping onto surface moved into initial and/or 3 Subordinate clause
strings. final position rather than strategy
somewhere in the middle
of a sentence. Movement in
subordinate clauses is
b) Information processing

Automaticity, Restructuring, and

U-shaped learning
Automaticity fast, unconscious, and effortless

Speaker 1: Hi.
Speaker 2: Hi, how are you?
Speaker 1: Fine, and you?
Speaker 2: Fine.

Refers to the changes made to internalized

representation as a result of new learning.
learning A consequence of restructuring.

Grade 6 : He is taking a cake.

Grade 7 : He take a cake
Grade 8 : He is taking a cake
Stage 1 Stage 3
He is taking a cake. He is taking a cake.

Stage 2
He take a cake.
C) Input processing

How learners comprehend utterances and,

particularly, how they assign form–meaning
Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second Language
Acquisition: An introductory course