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Engineering Planning
Bables, Rolly
Mendoza, Jaylord
Mondragon, Angela Rose L.

SE - 4301
 Comprehensive planning
 Takes into account the physical, social, economic, environmental, and related
factors of an area and attempts to blend them into a single compatible whole
that will support a healthy and efficient society.
 Planning
 Systematic process by which goals (policies) are established, facts are gathered
and analyzed , alternative proposals and programs are considered and
compared, resources are measured, priorities are established, and
recommendations are made for the deployment of resources designed to
achieve the established goals.
 Environmental Engineering Multimedia Considerations
 Some of the essential environmental health and environmental engineering
objectives, frequently overlooked and planning, will be identified to show how
they can be blended into the usual planning process to achieve more
comprehensive community plans and integrated environmental management.
 The usual single-purpose planning for a highway, housing development, or solid
waste facility must be broadened to consider the environmental, economic,
and social purposes to be served and the effects produced by the proposed
 The planner must ensure that potential problems are avoided in the
planning stages, that the solution of one pollution problem is not transferred
from one medium to another (from air to land or water and vice versa),
and the projects are so designed as to be pleasing and enhance the
quality of life.
 Environmental, Engineering, Planning and Site Selection Factors
 Geology
 Drainage and Flooding
 Transportation
 Aesthetics
 Noise Control
 Water Supply
 Wastewater Disposal
 Solid Waste Disposal
 Air Pollution Control
 Occupational Health
 Vermin Control
 Environmental Impact on Surrounding Area

 Communication should be maintained in the planning, design, construction,

and operation stages with official agencies and the people affected resolve
actual and perceived concerns, ensure compliance with special regulations.

Types of Planning
 Comprehensive Community Planning

 Functional Regional Planning

 Definitive or Project Planning

 Process of Comprehensive Community Planning
There are several choices with regard to the process of comprehensive
community planning.
First provides the more traditional process guided by a broad set of community
aspirations and goals.
Second emphasizes the environmental impact framework with emphasis on the
scope of the process and alternatives to be examined.

 Option 1: Traditional Process

 Statement of Goals and Objectives (Step 1): Community Aspirations and
Environmental Quality

 Basic Studies, Mapping, and Data Analysis (Step 2): Research and Problem
This is done by and includes the ff:
a. Mapping
b. Land Use
c. Population and Demographic Studies
d. Economic Studies and Proposals
e. Transportation Systems
f. Community Institutions Plan
g. Environmental Health and Engineering Considerations
h. Environmental Impact Assessment and Cost Benefit
i. Coordinate with Other Planning
j. Public Information
k. Infrastructure
l. Feasibility Studies and Concept Design
m. Reevaluate Goals and Objectives
n. Scope
 Plan Preparation (Step 3)
Plans should include the ff:
a. Land-use plan
b. Transportation or Circulation Plan
c. Community Institutions Plan
d. Special Planning Studies
e. Environmental Engineering Plans
f. Urban Renewal and Redevelopment Plans
 Plan Implementation (Step 4): Construction, Problem Correction, Prevention and
Implementation involves political and governmental decisions and public
a. Capital Improvement Program and Financing Plans
b. Detailed Engineering, Architectural, and Development Plans
c. Regulations, Laws, Codes, and Ordinances
d. Administrative Organization
 Public Information and Community Action (Step 5)
 Reevalution and Continual Planning (Step 6)
Step 5 Planners analyze goals, values, and data and identify preliminary
alternatives and preliminary criteria for evaluation of alternatives.
Step 6 Public review of proposed alternatives and criteria approved or
Step 7 Planners analyze approved alternatives using approved criteria.
Step 8 Public participation to select recommended alternatives.


Air, water, and land pollution, inefficient transportation facilities, urban and
rural blight, and disease do not respect political boundaries. Adequate
highways, mass transit options, walking and cycling opportunities, land-use
management, parks and recreational facilities, water, sewers, solid waste
disposal, and other services necessary for proper community functions are
usually best designed within the context of a county or regional plan.
Coordination of planning among smaller communities within the context of
the applicable county, metropolitan, and regional plan is essential.
Content of a Regional Planning Report
An outline of a regional or area wide planning study and report showing
the elements that are common to most functional studies follows:
1. Letter of transmittal to the contracting agency
2. Acknowledgments
3. Table of contents
a) List of tables
b) List of figures
4. Executive summary, including findings, conclusions, and recommendations
5. Purpose and scope
6. Background data and analysis, as applicable, including base maps,
reports, and special studies
a) Geography, hydrology, meteorology, geology, groundwater
availability, aquifer recharge areas
b) Population density and characteristics: past, present, future
c) Soil characteristics; flora and fauna
d) Transportation and mobility; adequacy and effects produced: present
and future multimodalism
e) Residential, industrial, commercial, recreational, agricultural, and
institutional development and redevelopment
f) Land use: present and future; spread of blight and obsolescence;
inefficient and desirable land uses designated growth and non-growth
areas, energy and energy efficiency
g) Storm water and flood control management; relationships between
land and water management; wetlands
h) Water resources, multiuse planning, and development with priority to
water supply; environmental impact
i) Air and water pollution, sewage, solid waste management
j) Public utilities (electricity, gas, oil, heat) and their adequacy
k) Educational and cultural facilities, size, location, effects, adequacy
l) Economic studies: present sources of income, future economic base and
balance, labor force, markets, economic development opportunities,
retail facilities, stability
m) Sociological factors: characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, behavior of
the people and their expectations
n) Local government, political organizations, and laws, codes, ordinances
o) Special problems, previous studies and findings, background data,
including tax structure and departmental budgets; also applicability of
federal, state, and local environmental control legislation
7. Project study.
This would be a regional or area wide-in-depth study of one or more
projects or functions such as solid waste management, water supply,
recreation, vector control, wastewater, or environmental health.
8. Comprehensive regional plan
a) Alternative solutions and plans
b) Economic, social, and environmental analysis and evaluation of
alternatives, including adverse and beneficial environmental
c) Recommended regional plan
d) Site development and reuse plans
9. Administration and financing
a) Public information
b) Administrative and institutional arrangements, management, and costs,
including plans for infrastructure asset management
c) Capital improvement program and financing methods: general
obligation bonds, revenue bonds, special assessment bonds; also grants,
incentives, federal and state aid
d) Cost distribution, service charges and rates; capital costs: property,
equipment, structures, engineering, legal services; annual costs to repay
capital costs, principal and interest, taxes; regular and special service
charges and rates
e) Legislation, standards, inspection, and enforcement
f) Evaluation, research, and replanning
10. Appendices
a) Applicable laws
b) Special data
c) Charts, tables, and illustrations
11. Glossary
12. References
13. Index
 Project Study
Comprehensive Solid Waste Study
1. Additional background information and data analysis, including residential,
commercial, industrial, and agricultural solid wastes
a) Field surveys and investigations, including soils, hydrogeology,
groundwater, land uses
b) Existing methods and adequacy of collection, treatment, and disposal
and their costs
c) Characteristics of the solid wastes
d) Quantities, summary tables, and projections
e) Waste reduction at source; recycling, salvage and reuse
2. Solid waste collection, including transportation
a) Present collection routes, restrictions, practices, and costs
b) Equipment and methods used
c) Handling of special wastes
d) Recommended collection systems
3. Preliminary analyses for solid waste reduction, treatment, and disposal
a) Resource recovery: salvaging, recycling, refuse derived fuel and energy
conservation, economic viability
b) Available treatment and disposal methods (advantages and
disadvantages)— compaction, shredding, sanitary landfill, incinerator,
high-temperature incinerator, pyrolysis, fluidized-bed oxidation, bulky
waste incinerator, waste heat recovery, composting, garbage grinders
c) Pretreatment devices: shredders, hammermills, hoggers, compaction,
and their applicability, effectiveness, and hazards
d) Disposal of special wastes: automobile, water and wastewater
treatment plant sludges, scavenger wastes, commercial and industrial
sludges and slurries, waste oils, toxic and hazardous wastes, rubber tires,
agricultural wastes, pesticides, forestry wastes, construction and
demolition wastes
e) Treatment and disposal of commercial and industrial wastes. This would
normally require independent study by the industry when quantities are large
or when hazardous wastes and special treatment problems are involved
f) Transfer stations, facilities, and equipment
g) Rail haul; barge haul; other
h) Alternative solutions, costs, advantages, and disadvantages
4. Review of possible solutions
a) Social, political, and economic factors
b) Beneficial and adverse environmental consequences of proposed actions
c) Existing and potential best land use within 1500 ft of treatment and disposal
site and aesthetic considerations
d) Site development and reuse plans
e) Special inducements needed
f) Preliminary public information and education
5. Compliance with the Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act, Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and state laws
6. Environmental impact analysis.
Comprehensive Wastewater Study
1. Additional background information and data analysis
a. Field surveys and investigations, including physical, chemical, biological,
and hydrological characteristics of receiving waters
b. Existing methods of municipal and industrial wastewater collection,
treatment, and disposal
c. Characteristics of municipal wastes and wastewater volumes, strengths
and flow rates
d. Characteristics of industrial wastes, quantities, and amenability to
treatment with municipal waste. Identify each.
e. Water pollution control requirements; federal, state, and interstate
receiving water classifications and effluent standards.
f. Wastewater reduction, reclamation, reuse
g. Extent of interim and private, on-lot sewage disposal (adequacy:
present and future), including soil suitability
2. Wastewater Collection
a. Existing separate collection systems (condition and adequacy),
including infiltration and exfiltration, surface, and storm water flows.
b. Existing combined sewer collection systems (condition and adequacy),
including infiltration and exfiltration, surface, and storm water flows
c. Areas or districts needing collection systems and construction
d. Soils, rock, and groundwater conditions
e. Routing and right-of-way
f. Storm water and/or combined sewer separation feasibility, holding tanks,
special considerations, local ordinances, and enforcement
g. Need for storm water drainage and collection systems
3. Preliminary analyses for wastewater treatment systems
a. Treatment plant sites; pollution load; degree of treatment required; land
requirements, including buffer zone; foundation conditions; outfall sewer;
hydrologic and oceanographic considerations
b. Areas served
c. Trunk lines and pumping stations
d. Property and easement acquisition problems
e. Design criteria
f. Industrial waste flows and pretreatment required, if any, at each industry
g. Effect of storm water flows on receiving waters and need for holding
tanks or treatment
h. Treatment plant and outfall sewer design considerations
i. Grit, screening, and sludge disposal
j. Alternative treatment and disposal solutions, total costs, and annual
4. Compliance with the Clean Water Act and state laws
5. Environmental impact analysis
Comprehensive Water Supply Study
1. Additional background information and data analysis
a. Sanitary surveys and source protection investigations of public water
source, treatment, wellhead area, distribution system, cross connections,
water pressure; breaks, water usage, storage adequacy, leaks, fire
requirements; water quality
b. Occurrence of waterborne diseases and complaints
c. Leak survey of existing system, flow tests, condition of mains, and water
d. Existing and future land uses; service areas, domestic and industrial
water demands
e. Areas and number of people served by individual well-water systems,
sanitary quality and quantity of water, chemical and physical quality, cost
of individual treatment
f. Recommendations of the Insurance Services Offices (formerly National
Board of Fire Underwriters) and others
g. Existing fire rates and reductions possible
2. Alternative sources of water
a. Chemical, bacteriological, and physical quality ranges
b. Average, minimum, and safe yields; source development
c. Storage needed at source and on distribution system
d. Flow requirements for fires e. Service areas, hydraulic analysis, and
transmission system needs
f. Preliminary designs of system and treatment required for taste, odor,
turbidity, color, organic and inorganic chemicals control
g. Right-of-way and water rights needed
h. Preliminary study of total construction and operation cost of each
alternative; advantages and disadvantages of each; annual cost to user and
how apportioned
i. Improvements needed in existing system: source, storage, transmission,
treatment, distribution system, operation and maintenance, costs, to meet the
requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act
3. Environmental impact analysis
 Comprehensive Environmental Engineering and Health Planning
 1. Epidemiological and demographic survey, including mortality, morbidity,
births and deaths, age and sex distribution, communicable, noninfectious
and chronic diseases, incidence and prevalence of specific diseases by
age groups; people most at risk; social, economic, and environmental
relationships; respiratory and chemical sensitivity; water-, insect-, and
foodborne diseases; domestic and wild animal and animal-related
diseases; airborne and air-related diseases and illnesses; indices of disease
vectors; pesticides and other chemical poisonings; congenital
malformations; mental disorders; health services and their availability;
adequacy of data and programs.
 2. Public water supply, treatment and distribution, including watershed
protection, population served, adequacy, operation, quality control, cross-
connection control, storage and distribution protection, operator
qualifications. For individual systems: population served, special problems,
treatment and costs, adequacy, control of well construction. Extension of
public water supply based on a comprehensive regional plan, including fire
protection, to replace inadequate and unsatisfactory small community
water systems and individual well-water supplies in built-up areas.
 3. Wastewater collection, treatment, and disposal; adequacy of treatment
and collection system, population served, operator qualifications, sewer
connection control. For individual systems: population served, special
problems, control of installations. Water pollution control. Provision of
sewage meeting surface water and groundwater classifications based on
a drainage area, watershed, or regional plan to eliminate pollution by
existing discharges, including inadequate sewage and industrial waste
treatment plants and septic tank systems.
 4. Solid waste management: storage, collection, transportation, processing
and disposal, adequacy. Resource recovery, salvaging and recycling,
including municipal refuse, industrial and agricultural wastes; handling of
hazardous wastes, their environmental impact, prevention of contact, and
air, water, and land pollution. Use of solid wastes to accelerate
construction of open-space buffer zones and recreational areas.
 5. Air resources management and air pollution control, including sources,
air quality and emission standards, topographical and meteorological
factors; problems and effects on humans, livestock, vegetation, and
property; regulation and control program.
 6. Housing and the residential environment: control of new construction,
modern building code, including plumbing, electrical, heating; housing
conservation and rehabilitation and enforcement of housing occupancy
and maintenance code; effectiveness of zoning controls, urban renewal,
and redevelopment. Quality of housing, installed facilities, occupancy and
overcrowding. Realty subdivision and mobile home park development and
control, also effect of a development on the regional surroundings and
effect of the region on the development, including the environmental
impact of the development.
 7. Schools, public buildings, parks, and other recreation facilities and open-
space planning, including suitability of water quality and adequacy of
sewage, solid waste disposal, water supply, food service, restrooms, safety,
pesticide use, prevention of indoor air pollution and protection of persons
sensitive to pesticides and other air pollutants.
 8. Food protection program: adequacy from source to point of
 9. Nuclear energy development; radionuclide and radiation environmental
control, including fallout, air, water, food, and land contamination; thermal
energy utilization or dissipation and waste disposal; naturally occurring
radioactive materials, including radon; air, water, plant, and animal
surveillance; federal and state control programs; standards; site selection
and environmental impact; plant design and operation control;
emergency plans.
 10. Planning for drainage, flood control, and land-use management.
Surface-water drainage to eliminate localized flooding and mosquito
breeding. Development of recreational sites, including artificial lakes, parks,
swimming pools, bathing beaches, and marinas.
 11. Health care institutions and adequacy of medical care facilities such as
hospitals; nursing homes; public health, mental health, and rehabilitation
centers; clinics; service agencies; jails and prisons; day-care centers.
Staffing, budgets, work load.
 12. Noise and vibration regulations, abatement, and control.
 13. Noxious weed, insect, rodent, and other vermin control, including
disease vectors, nuisance arthropods; regulation, control, and surveillance,
including pesticide regulation use for control of aquatic and terrestrial
plants and vectors; federal, state, and local programs; effects on water,
recreation, housing, and other land resource development.
 14. Natural and man-made hazards, including slides, earthquakes, brush
and forest fires, reservoirs, tides, sand storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, high
rainfall, fog and dampness, high winds, gas and high-tension transmission
lines, storage and disposal of explosive and flammable substances and
other hazardous materials. See following pages.
 15. Aesthetic and environmental considerations: wooded and scenic
areas, prevailing winds and sunshine, solar energy utilization. 16. Laws,
codes, ordinances, rules, and regulations, including environmental health
criteria and standards, adequacy, enforcement, and education.
 Desirable Features It probably will not be possible to find a site that will meet all
the conditions authorities recommend as being essential. Desirable features
include the following:
 1. It is best to have an adequate groundwater or surface-water supply not
subject to excessive pollution that can be developed into a satisfactory supply
at an accessible and convenient location on the property if an adequate
public water supply is not available. The water supply source should meet the
 2. A permeable soil that will readily absorb rainwater and permit the disposal of
sewage and other wastewater by conventional subsurface means is most
desirable, if not essential, for the smaller establishment where public sewage is
not available. Such soil should contain relatively large amounts of sand and
gravel, perhaps in combination with some silt, clay, broken stones, or loam. The
underground water should not be closer than 4 ft to the ground surface at any
time and there should be a porous earth cover of not less than 4 to 5 ft over
impervious subsoil or rock. A suitable receiving stream or land area is needed if
a sewage treatment plant is required.
 3. Land to be used for housing or other structures must have suitable soil-bearing
characteristics and be well above flood or high-water level. There should be no
swamps nearby. The ground slope should normally not exceed 10 percent;
slopes of 10 to 35 percent require careful soils and rock analysis for stability.
 4. Elevated, well-drained, dry land open to the air and sunshine part of the
day, on gently sloping, partly wooded hillsides or ridges, should be
available for housing and other buildings. The cleared land should have a
firm, grass-covered base to prevent erosion and dust.
 5. The area of the property should be large enough to provide privacy,
avoid crowding, accommodate a well-rounded program of activities, and
allow for future expansion. While the property should be accessible by
automobile and bus and convenient to airports, local transit, highways,
railroads, and waterways, if needed. Careful attention should be given to
the traffic generating potential of the site and options for locating sites in
the inner city or near community centers. Facilitating walking or biking
areas should be emphasized.
 6. A satisfactory area should be available for bathing and swimming and
other water sports at recreational sites. This may be a clean lake, river, or
stream or an artificial swimming pool. A river or stream should not have a
strong current or remain muddy during its period of use. An artificial
swimming pool equipped with filtration, recirculation, and chlorination
equipment may be substituted to advantage.
 7. Noxious plants, poisonous reptiles, harmful insects, excessive dust, steep
cliffs, old dumps, chemical burial grounds, old mine shafts or wells,
dangerous rapids, dampness, and fog should be absent. All this is not
usually possible to attain; however, the seriousness of each should be
 8. A public water supply, sewage system, and solid waste disposal system, if
available and accessible, would be extremely desirable.
 9. For residential and industrial development, electricity, gas, cable, and
telephone service; a sound zoning ordinance and a land-use plan that
provides for and protects compatible uses; fire protection; and modern
building construction and housing codes vigorously enforced by
competent people should all be ensured.
 10. Air pollution, noise, and traffic problems from the site and adjoining
areas should not interfere with the proposed use.
 B. Topography and Site Surveys
 With the map as a beginning, one should hike over as much of the area as
possible and carefully investigate the property. Complete notes should be
kept that refer to numbers placed on the topographic map showing
beautiful views and other desirable features as well as undesirable
conditions. Supplementary freehand sketches and rough maps of possible
camp, recreational, or building sites, with distances paced off, will be
valuable details.
 C. Geology, Soil, and Drainage
 The soil should be sampled at representative locations to determine its
characteristics. Borings should be made to a depth of about 15 ft in order
to record variations in the strata penetrated and the elevation of the
groundwater level, if encountered, with respect to the ground surface.
Borings, postholes, and earth auger tests will also indicate the depth to rock
and the presence and thickness of clay or hardpan layers that might
interfere with proper drainage or foundations for structures and old dump
sites requiring further investigation.
 D. Utilities
 The probable cost of a wastewater collection and treatment system should be
estimated before any commitments are made. Water classification, minimum
stream flow, and effluent standards for water pollution abatement will govern
the degree of treatment required and hence the cost of construction and
operation. For a large project, an elaborate wastewater treatment plant may
be required. For small establishments, a subsurface sewage disposal system may
suffice if the soil conditions are satisfactory.
 E. Meteorology
 Information about the direction of prevailing winds is of value if a summer or
winter place is proposed. An indication of the wind direction can be obtained
by observing the weathering of objects and the lean of the trees. This
information, plus average monthly temperature, humidity, snowfall, and rainfall
data, may be available at local universities, nearby government weather
stations, airfields, and some water or power company offices.
 F. Location
 The distance to airports, railroad and bus stations, first-class roads, shopping
centers, neighbors, resort areas, schools, hospitals, and doctors should almost
immediately be apparent to the map. State and highway department road
plans should also be investigated and proposed roads marked on the
topographic plan to see what their probable effect will be.
 G. Resources
 To determine the resources on a property (when it is a large tract), one
should seek the assistance of a person who is intimately familiar with wildlife,
forestry, geology, hydrology, and engineering. Since this is not always
possible, the next best thing would be for several persons having a broad
knowledge to make the survey on foot.
 H. Animal and Plant Life
 A broad knowledge and extensive investigation are needed to properly
evaluate the importance of animal and plant life and their conservation.
 I. Improvements Needed
 Each possibility and constraint should be examined and reviewed with the
regulatory agency having jurisdiction, the cost of the work estimated, and
the probable value of the improvement appraised
 J. Site Planning
 After properties have been explored and studied and a site is selected, the next
step is to prepare, if not already available, a complete large-scale topographic
map of the purchased property to a scale of 1 in = 100 ft, with contours at least
at 5-ft intervals, incorporating desirable and undesirable physical features and
the details already discussed.
 K. Environmental Assessment
 An environmental assessment may relate to an existing or proposed site or
plant. The environmental assessment attempts to identify all existing and past
activities that may have a deleterious effect on human health, the
environment, or safety. In so doing, compliance with all applicable federal,
state, and local laws, rules, and regulations and required permit conditions are
also determined.
 An environmental assessment may be conducted for different purposes. It may
emphasize compliance with existing regulations and permit requirements,
respond to a spill, or relate to the potential or existing environmental risks and
liabilities associated with the purchase or acquisition of a property.
 An assessment to determine compliance with regulatory requirements is
referred to as an environmental audit. It may be carried out by regulatory
personnel, in-plant personnel, or a consultant. The audit may relate to a single-
purpose facility, such as an incinerator, wastewater treatment plant, hazardous
waste operation, or water system, or to all operations and procedures at a plant
or site.