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WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

Web Essentials: Clients, Servers, and Communication

Internet:
 Interconnection of large number of computer networks (Networks of Network)

Internet Evolution:

1950 – US defense organization ARPA

[ Advanced Research Project Agency]

1970 – ARPANET Created. (TCP)

1971 – TELNET & FTP

1972 – Electronic Mail

1983 – Internet, TCP/IP Standardized

1992 – 3 Million Hosts

1993 – WWW Launched

1995 – 30 Million Users


WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

Internet Application:
1. Electronic Mail (E-Mail)
2. FTP – File Transfer
3. TELNET – Remote Computing
4. IRC – Internet Relay Chat
5. Usenet News
6. Gopher
7. WWW – Commonly known as WEB
Protocol :
 Set of Rules ( That defines how components, Systems are communicating)
Basic Internet Protocols:
 TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

 MIME - Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions

 IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol

 HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

 SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

Clients, Server Communication:

WWW:
 The World Wide Web (WWW) is combination of all resources and users on the Internet that
are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

Web Client & Web Server:


 A Client and a Server are two parts of a connection, these are two distinct machines.
Web Client:
 The web client can be said as an application or web browser (like Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet
Explorer) which is installed in a computer and used to interact with Web servers.

Web Server:

 Web server is basically system the deals with the client’s request and provides a client with web pages by
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and files via File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

 URL (universal resource locator) is basically the address where you want to receive data from.
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

There are four leading Web Servers:


Apache:
 This is the most popular web server in the world developed by the Apache Software Foundation.

 Apache web server is an open source software and can be installed on almost all operating systems including
Linux, Unix, Windows etc..
IIS:
 The Internet Information Server (IIS) is a high performance Web Server from Microsoft.

 IIS is tightly integrated with the all windows operating system.


Lighttpd:
 The lighttpd, pronounced lighty is also a free web server that is distributed with the FreeBSD operating
system.

 This open source web server is fast, secure and consumes much less CPU power. Lighttpd can also run on
Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris operating systems.
Jigsaw:
 Jigsaw (W3C's Server) comes from the World Wide Web Consortium. It is open source and free and can run
on various platforms like Linux, Unix, Windows, Mac OS X Free BSD etc.

 Jigsaw has been written in Java and can run CGI scripts and PHP programs.
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

HTTP request message-response message:

HTTP Request Format:


Client request to a server consists of:
1. Request method
2. Path portion of the HTTP (URL)
3. Version number of the HTTP protocol
4. Header information ( Optional)
5. Other data

HTTP Response Format:


1. GET – Fetch web page from server
2. HEAD – Request only header information like file size, version, date etc…
3. POST – Send data to the server
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

URL: Uniform Resource Locator


 A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a unique identifier used to locate a resource on the internet.

 It is also referred to as a web address.

 URLs consist of multiple parts -- including a protocol and domain name -- that tell a web browser how and
where to retrieve a resource.

 The first part of a URL identifies what protocol to use as the primary access medium.

 The second part identifies the IP address or domain name


Ex:

Protocol Path
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

HTML Vs CSS:
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

What is HTML : HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language


 HTML is the standard markup language for creating static web pages.

 HTML describes the structure of a Web page.

 HTML consists of a series of elements represented by tags. (Fixed and Well defined)

 HTML elements tell the browser how to display the content.

 Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to render the content of the page.

 Platform independent we can view any kind of browser.

HTML history:

 HTML 1.0 was released in 1993 with the intention of sharing information which can be readable and accessible
via web browsers.

 Then comes the HTML 2.0, published in 1995; which contains all the features of HTML 1.0 along with that few
additional features;

 Then comes the HTML 3.0. It included improved new features of HTML, giving more powerful characteristics for
webmasters in designing web pages. But these powerful features of new HTML slowed down the browser in
applying further improvements.

 Then comes the HTML 4.01 which is widely used and was a successful version of HTML, which is currently
released and used worldwide.

 HTML 5 can be said for as an extended version of HTML 4.01 which was published in the year 2012.
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

HTML Features :
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)

Basic HTML Structure:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<head>
<title>website title</title>
</head>
<body> content of website ... </body>
</html>
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)
WEB TECHNOLOGY (2017 REGULATION)