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Welcome to ISTD

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Explorer
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Why am I here??
Introduction
Dr. Bijal Sheth is a passionate OD Professional having 18
years of Industry experience in different organizations
namely HUL, Jet Airways and Hutchison group.

Besides being a Psychologist by qualification, she has a


post graduate degree in HR, Law and Doctorate in
Organizational Development.

She is a true believer of the “hedge hog concept”,


introduced by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great.

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Evolution of OB

The Academic Field Of Organizational Behavior Has Been


Around For At Least The Past Thirty To Forty Years (Luthans,
2005).
CLASSICAL THEORY OF ORGANIZATION

The following questions were important in organizing work.

How should work be divided by departments and by


individuals?
How much authority should be given to the incumbent of
each position?
What should his duties be?
What mean of coordination should be provided?
Emergence of Behavioual
Theory
BEHAVIORAL THEORY – ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

The criticism of classical theory as too mechanistic results in a new theory of


organization that emphasized that organizations are made up of human
beings and orders and policies will be subject to reinterpretation in the light
of psychological “set” of those who transmit them or carry them out as well
as the social environment. The people in the organization are motivated by
many forces beside those taken into account by the classicists and employees
of an organization are often seeking goals different from those expressed in
the organization manual. Theory developed in the field of organization
design and management based on behavioral variables of human beings in
the subject of organization behavior. Chester Barnard was probably the first
of the behavioral theorists of organization (Dale, 1965).
Reference Books

BENNIS, WARREN G. (1966), CHANGING ORGANIZATIONS,


MCGRAW-HILL, NEW YORK.

FILLEY, ALAN C., AND ROBERT J. HOUSE (1969), MANAGERIAL


PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, SCOTT, FORESMAN
AND COMPANY.

LUTHANS, FRED (1973), ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR,


MCGRAW-HILL, NEW YORK/BARNARD, CHESTER, THE
FUNCTIONS OF THE EXECUTIVE, 1938

LUTHANS, FRED, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, TENTH EDITION,


MCGRAW-HILL, 2005/SIMON, HERBERT A., ADMINISTRATIVE
BEHAVIOR, 1957
Organisational Behaviour
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a Driver a Analytical a Analytical
b Amiable b Driver b Expressive
c Analytical c Expressive c Driver
d Expressive d Amiable d Amiable

2 8 14
a Analytica a Ex pressive a Analytical
b Driver b Analytical b Expressive
c Amiable
c Amiable c Amiable
d Expressive d Driver d Driver

3 9 15
a Amiable a Amiable
b Expressive b Analytical
a
b
Expressive
Amiable Total Driver Score
c Analytical
d Driver
c Driver
d Expressive
c
d
Analytical
Driver
Total Analytical Score
4 10 16 Total Amiable Score
a
b
Expressive
Amiable
a Driver
b Amiable
a Analytical
b Driver
Total Expressive Score
c Analytical c Expressive c Amiable
d Driver d Analytical d Expressive

5 11 17
a Driver a Amiable a Driver
b Expressive b Driver b Amiable
c Amiable c Expressive c Analytical
d Analytical d Analytical d Expressive

6 12 18
A Amiable a Analytical a Amiable
b Analytical b Amia ble b Analytical
c Expressive c Driver c Driver
d Driver d Expressive d Expressive
In a Nutshell..

 A – Driver : Sales & Mktg


• Task / Result Focused – Goal ; Fight

 B – Expressive : HR
• People Focused ; Fight

 C – Amiable : Customer Service


• People Focused ; Flight

 D – Analytical : Accounts / Quality / Tech.


• Data Focused / Result Focused – Goal; Flight
Strengths of Driver

1. Want quick outcomes


2. Action oriented
3. Love challenges
4. Quick decision makers
5. Willing to accept changes
6. Want authority
7. Willing to face trouble head on
8. Able to solve problems easily
9. Strong willed and minded
10. Are achievers
11. Horizontally strong - knowledge
Strengths of Expressive

1. Cheerful & happy


2. Like to be around people
3. Very positive about life
4. Make a good impression on most
5. Are expressive and clear
6. Are outgoing and sociable
7. Good motivators
8. Very friendly with most
9. Are very enthusiastic
10. Good entertainers
11. Very pleasant to be around
Strengths of Amiable

1. Follows procedures
2. Are trustworthy
3. Do not make too much noise
4. Patient
5. Modest
6. Vertically strong
7. Cool as a cucumber
8. Are focused
9. Are loyal
10. Good listeners
11. Provide a calming influence

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Strengths of Analytical

1. Follow procedures
2. Are detail oriented
3. Enjoy predictability
4. Are diplomatic
5. Are accurate
6. Use critical thinking
7. Seek excellence
8. Are obedient
9. Do not challenge authority
10. Are careful
11. Are meticulous

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Weakness of Driver

1. Take hasty decisions


2. Over commit and take big risks
3. Very hasty & impatient
4. Not consistent
5. Talk then think
6. Assume a lot of things
7. As result focused hence insensitive about people
and their feelings
8. Not very flexible
9. Are intimidating
10. Seem unapproachable

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Weakness of Expressive

1. Can be naïve and be fooled very easily


2. Tends to neglect job given
3. Ignore risks
4. Get influenced by assumptions
5. Are not taken seriously
6. Can seem to push task away
7. Don’t follow through actions
8. Do not want to face reality
9. Can seem to patronize people
10. Can seem aloof and unconcerned
11. Are generally not risk takers and not confident

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Weakness of Amiable

1. Repeat same thing again and again


2. Sometimes blind to change
3. Inflexible
4. Resist multiple tasks
5. Appear lazy
6. Seem aimless
7. Do not challenge others
8. Need predictability
9. Do not delegate well
10. Are usually threatened by change
11. Respond poorly to crisis

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Weakness of Analytical

1. Can be negative
2. Are pessimistic
3. Seem aloof
4. Can be withdrawn
5. Are loners
6. Get depressed
7. Resist delegating
8. Are slow decision makers
9. Seem inflexible
10. Tend to bottle up grievances

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What Motivates A Driver

1. Power
2. Authority
3. Prestige
4. Challenge
5. Opportunity to grow
6. Variety
7. Directness
8. Advancement in career
9. A free hand
10. Action

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What motivates a Expressive

1. Popularity
2. Need to recognized in front of everybody
3. Like to take care of extra curricular activities
4. Believe that all need to be treated equally
5. Wants a free environment
6. Wants an opportunity to be heard
7. Needs hand holding and coaching
8. Wants an environment which is comfortable
9. Somebody to give them confidence

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What motivates a Amiable

1. Security
2. Status quo
3. Leisure time
4. Credit for work done
5. Realistic expectations
6. Appreciation
7. Team support
8. Tradition

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What motivates a Analytical

1. Security
2. Standard Operating Procedures
3. A sheltered environment
4. Reassurance of their worth
5. No sudden changes
6. A team environment
7. Recognition
8. Status quo
9. Symbols of success

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In a Nutshell..

 A – Driver : Sales & Mktg


• Task / Result Focused – Goal ; Fight

 B – Expressive : HR
• People Focused ; Fight

 C – Amiable : Customer Service


• People Focused ; Flight

 D – Analytical : Accounts / Quality / Tech.


• Data Focused / Result Focused – Goal; Flight
The Field of Organizational
Behavior
Organizational Behavior studies the influence that
individuals, groups and structure have on behavior
within organizations.

Its chief goal is to apply that knowledge toward


improving an organization’s effectiveness.

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Focal Points of OB
 Jobs
 Work
 Absenteeism
 Employment turnover
 Productivity
 Human performance
 Management

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Complementing Intuition with
Systematic Study
 Intuition: the “gut feeling” explanation of behavior.

 Systematic study improves ability to accurately


predict behavior.
 Assumes behavior is not random.
 Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior.
 These can be identified and modified to reflect
individual differences.

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Systematic Study
 Examines relationships.

 Attempts to attribute causes and effects.

 Bases conclusions on scientific evidence:


 On data gathered under controlled conditions.
 Data is measured and interpreted in a
reasonably rigorous manner.

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Evidence-Based
Management
 Complements systematic study.

 Bases decisions on the best


available scientific evidence.

 Forces managers to become


more scientific in their thinking.

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Contributing Disciplines
to the OB Field

Micro:
The
Psychology
Individual
Study of humans, past
and present. To Social Psychology
understand the full sweep
and complexity of
cultures across all of
human history.
Sociology
Macro:
Groups &
Organizations Anthropology

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Few Absolutes in OB
 Impossible to make simple and accurate generalizations

 Human beings are complex and diverse

 OB concepts must reflect situational conditions:


contingency variables

Condition Behavior
Input “A”
“C” “B”

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Challenges and
Opportunities for OB
 The workplace contains a wide mix of cultures,
races, ethnic groups, genders and ages
 Employees have to learn to cope with rapid
change due to global competition
 Corporate loyalty has decreased due to
corporate downsizing and use of temp workers
 Managers can benefit from OB theory and
concepts
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Responding to Globalization
 Increased foreign assignments
 Differing needs and aspirations in
workforce

 Working with people from


different cultures
 Domestic motivational techniques
and managerial styles may not
work

 Overseeing movement of jobs


to countries with low-cost labor

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Managing Workforce
Diversity
Workforce diversity:
organizations are
becoming a more
heterogeneous mix of
people in terms of
gender, age, race,
ethnicity, and sexual
orientation

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Diversity Implications
“Managers have to shift their
philosophy from treating
everyone alike to recognizing
differences and responding to
those differences in ways that
ensure employee retention
and greater productivity
while, at the same time, not
discriminating.”

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Insight on understanding
self and others

 Values
 Attitude
 Personality
Implications for Managers

 OB helps with:
 Insights to improve people skills
 Valuing of workforce diversity
 Empowering people and creating a
positive work environment
 Dealing with labor shortages
 Coping in a world of temporariness
 Creating an ethically healthy work
environment

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OB Aids in Dealing
With:
 Stimulating Innovation and
Change

 Increasing “temporariness” in the


workplace

 Helping employees balance work-


life conflicts

 Improving ethical behavior

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Three Levels of OB
Analysis

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Thinking Positive
 Creating a positive work environment can be a
competitive advantage

 Positive Organizational Scholarship (Positive OB):


 Examines how organizations develop human strengths,
foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential.
 Focus is on employee strengths, not their weaknesses.

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Keep in Mind…
 OB’s goal is to understand and predict human behavior
in organizations.

 Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior.

 It is more important than ever to learn OB concepts.

 Both managers and employees must learn to cope with


temporariness.

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Summary

1. Defined Organizational Behavior (OB).


2. Explained the value of the systematic study of OB.
3. Identified the contributions made to OB by major
behavioral science disciplines.
4. Described how OB concepts can help make
organizations more productive.
5. Listed the major challenges and opportunities for
managers to use OB concepts.
6. Identified the three levels of analysis in OB.

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