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S P 17-R EE -021
• Introduction
• Origin
• Orbits
• History
• Working
• Structure
• Types of Satellites
• Services
• Frequency Bands
• Satellites now-a-days
• Future
• References
• An artificial body placed in orbit around the earth to collect
information or for communication.
Origin Of Word:

• The word satellite originated from the Latin word “Satellit”- meaning
an attendant, one who is constantly hovering around & attending to a
“master” or big man.
• In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an
object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural
satellite around a planet
Types of Orbits:
• Geosynchronous
Same rotational velocity as Earth
Maintains position relative to Earth
• Asynchronous
Much lower altitude=Much higher velocity
Position over earth constantly changing
• Advantages:
1. Simple Ground station tracking.
2. Nearly constant range.
3. Very small Frequency shift.
• Disadvantages:
1. Transmission delay of the order of 250ms.
2. No polar coverage.
• Advantages:
1. Less booster power required.
2. Less Delay in transmission path.
3. Reduced Problem of Echo.
4. Suitable for providing service at higher altitude.
5. Low Cost to built and launch satellite.
• Disadvantages:
1. Complex problem of transferring signal from one satellite to
2. Less Expected life of Satellite.
3. Required Frequent replacement of Satellite.
• Problem of increasing space trash In outer space.
• Requirement of large number of orbiting satellites for global
• As each low earth orbit satellite covers the small portion of the
earth’s surface for the short time.

• In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite,
Sputnik 1.
Basic Satellite:
Satellite Communication:

• A communication Satellite is a radio relay station in orbit above earth.

• It receives amplifies and redirect analog and digital signals carried on
a specific radio frequency.
Types Of Satellites(Orbits):
• GEO (Geo-stationary earth orbit)
• MEO (medium earth orbit)
• LEO (Low earth orbit) and
• HEO (Highly elliptical orbit)
• A geostationary satellite is an earth-orbiting satellite, placed at an
altitude of approximately 22,300 miles directly over the equator, that
revolves in the same direction the earth rotates (west to east).

• Orbital Period: 24hrs (approx.)

• Used For: GPS
Advantages of GEO:
• Satellite always in same position relative to earth - antennas do not
need re-orientation
Disadvantages of GEO:
• Long path length, and hence losses when compared to LEO, or MEO.
• Satellites more costly to install in GEO in view of greater altitude.
• Long path length introduces delays.
• Geostationary satellite orbits can only be above the equator and
therefore polar regions cannot be covered.
Applications of GEO:

• Geostationary satellites have modernized and transformed

worldwide communications, television broadcasting, and
meteorological and weather forecasting. They also have a number of
significant defense and intelligence applications.
• Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular
orbit (ICO), is the region of space around the Earth above low Earth
orbit and below geostationary orbit.
• Orbital Period: 12hrs
• Used For: navigation, communication.
• No. of Satellites Req. : 8-20
(To cover Earth)
Advantages of MEO:
• Less number of satellites are needed to cover entire area of the Earth.
• Time delay from earth to satellite and viceversa is less (about 40 ms)
compare to GEO satellites (about 120 ms).
• It requires slightly higher transmission power compare to LEO
• The system is cheaper compare to GEO.
• The signals become weak when they reach earth from MEO compare
to LEO.
• More transmit power is needed to overcome path-loss and other
attenuating atmosphere.
• It is visible for only 2 to 8 hours from earth.
• Multiple MEO satellites are needed to cover the region continuously.
• The system is more expensive compare to LEO.
Applications Of MEO:

• Defense
• Communication Purpose
• LEO is very close to the Earth, especially when compared to other
forms of satellite orbit including geostationary orbit.
• Orbital Period: 84-127mins
• Used For: Telecommunication
• No. of Satellites req. : 66
Advantages of LEO:
• Least propagation delay (about 10ms).
• Provides better signal strength.
• It eliminates need for bulky receiver equipment due to higher S/N
signal ratio.
• It provides high elevation for polar regions of the Earth.
Disadvantages of LEO:
• As it is at lesser distance above the Earth, it covers less region of the
• Large number of satellites are needed to cover the entire region of
the Earth.
• It is only visible for 15 to 20 minutes from particular area of the Earth.
• Ground station is very complex as it requires to handle frequent
handoffs between LEO satellites.
Types Of Satellites(Power):

• Passive Satellites
• Active Satellites
Passive Satellites:
• A satellite that only reflects signals from one Earth station to
another, or from several Earth stations to several others.
• It reflect the incident electromagnetic radiation without any
modification or amplification.
• It cant generate power, they simply reflect the incident power.
• Earth Stations required high power to transmit signals.
• Large Earth Stations with tracking facilities were expensive.
• A global system would have required a large number of passive
satellites accessed randomly by different users.
• Control of satellites not possible from ground.
• The large attenuation of the signal while traveling the large distance
between the transmitter and the receiver via the satellite was one of
the most serious problems.
Active Satellites:
• In active satellites, it amplify or modify and retransmit the signal from
the earth.
• Satellites which can transmit power are called active satellite.
• Require lower power earth station.
• Less costly.
• Not open to random use.
• Directly controlled by operators from ground.
• Requirement of larger and powerful rockets to launch heavier
satellites in orbit.
• Requirement of on-board power supply.
• Interruption of service due to failure of electronics components
Passive: Active:
One Way Services:
• Broadcast Satellite Service: Radio, Tv, Data broadcasting.
• Safety Services: Search & Rescue, Disaster Warning.
• Space Research Service.
• Earth Exploration Satellite Service.
Two Way Services:
• Fixed Satellite Service: Telephone, FAX, high bit rate DATA etc.
• Mobile Satellite Service: Land Mobile, Marine time mobile, Aero
• Satellite News Gathering.
• Inter Satellite Service.
Frequency Bands:
Band Freq. Range Wavelength Range
• Extremely Low Freq. <3kHz >100km
• Very Low Freq. 3-30Hz 10-100km
• Low Freq. 30-300KHz 1-10km
• Medium Freq. 300KHz-3MHz 100m-1km
• High Freq. 3-30MHz 10-100m
• Very High Freq. 30-300MHz 1-10m
• Ultra High Freq. 300MHz-3GHz 10cm-1m
• Super High Freq. 3-30GHz 1-10cm
• Extremely High Freq. 30-300GHz 1mm-1cm
Frequency Bands for Satellites:
• There are four radio frequency bands that communication and
military satellites operate within:
• C band – uplink 5.925-6.425 GHz; downlink 3.7-4.2 GHz
• X band – uplink 7.9- 8.4 GHz, downlink 7.25 – 7.75 GHz
• Ku band– uplink 14 GHz; downlink 10.9-12.75 GHz
• Ka band – uplink 26.5-40GHz; downlink 18-20 GHZ
C Band:

• The C band is primarily used for voice and data communications as

well as backhauling. Because of its weaker power it requires a larger
antenna, usually above 1.8m (6ft). However, due to the lower
frequency range, it performs better under adverse weather
conditions on the ground.
X Band:

• The X band is used mainly for military communications and Wideband

Global SATCOM (WGS) systems. With relatively few satellites in orbit
in this band, there is a wider separation between adjacent satellites,
making it ideal for Comms-on-the Move (COTM) applications. This
band is less susceptible to rain fade than the Ku Band due to the
lower frequency range, resulting in a higher performance level under
adverse weather conditions.
Ku Band:

• Ku band is used typically for consumer direct-to-home access,

distance learning applications, retail and enterprise connectivity. The
antenna sizes, ranging from 0.9m -1.2m (~3ft), are much smaller than
C band because the higher frequency means that higher gain can be
achieved with small antenna sizes than C-band. Networks in this band
are more susceptible to rain fade, especially in tropical areas.
Ka Band:

• The Ka band is primarily used for two-way consumer broadband and

military networks. Ka band dishes can be much smaller and typically
range from 60cm-1.2m (2' to 4') in diameter. Transmission power is
much greater compared to the C, X or Ku band beams. Due to the
higher frequencies of this band, it can be more vulnerable to signal
quality problems caused by rain fade.
Satellites now-a-days:
• Few Important satellites applications are:
I. Navigation
II. Communication
III. Weather
IV. Earth Observation

• Satellite navigation is a space-based radio positioning system that

includes one or more satellite constellations, augmented as
necessary to support the intended operation, and that provides 24-
hour three-dimensional position, velocity and time information to
suitably equipped users anywhere on, or near, the surface of Earth.
• Telecommunication satellites use 3 types of orbits
I. Geostationary Orbits
II. Molniya Orbits
III. Low Earth Orbits

molniya orbit
Applications of Comm. Sat. :

• Telephony
• Television and Radio
• Mobile Satellite Technology
• Satellite Broadband
• Weather Forecast using Satellite imagery.
• Two Types of Satellites used:
1. Polar Orbiters
2. Geostationary satellites
Earth Observation:
• Understand and analyzing global environmental conditions is an
essential element of guaranteeing our safety and quality of life.
• Satellites are used in:
I. Agriculture
II. Forest
III. Geology
IV. Risk Management (Pre-crisis, During crisis, Post-crisis)
V. Defense and Security
• In Future there are
I. Miniature Satellites.
II. Self-Navigating Satellites for GPS.
III. Satellites War.
IV. Rescue Satellites.
V. Micro-strip antennas for Satellites.
VI. Band Efficiently use.
• http://www.swiftutors.com/types-of-satellite-orbits.html

• http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/geostationary-satellite

• http://www.tech-faq.com/geostationary-satellite.html

• http://www.rfwireless-world.com/Terminology/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-MEO-orbit.html

• https://www.techopedia.com/definition/8044/low-earth-orbit-leo

• https://www.myprivatetutor.com/questions/details/8914/how-many-satellites-are-required-to-cover-the-earth

• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_spectrum

• http://www.idirect.net/Company/Resource-Center/Satellite-Basics/Frequency-Bands.aspx

• https://www.shapingtomorrow.com/home/alert/3769106-Future-of-Satellites

• http://www.iflscience.com/technology/future-personal-satellite-technology-here-are-we-ready-it/
• https://www.slideshare.net/mkmannu/satellite-communication-18183139
• https://www.slideshare.net/niranjan123456789/satellite-communications-ppt
• https://www.slideshare.net/chappidi_saritha/satellite-communications-15862346
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Band_Satellite_Communication
• https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-a-
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_band_(IEEE)
• http://www.satmarin.com/c-band%20and%20ku-
• https://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the-future-of-satellites