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CUSTOMS OF THE

TAGALOGS
B Y: J UAN DE P L ASENC I A
DIFFERENT
PRACTICES
&CUSTOMS OF
T H E TA G A LO G S
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
• Fray de Plasencia (Joande Portocarrero real name)
• Born and raised in Extremadura, Spain in the 16th
century
• Member of the Franciscan Order
• His interaction with Tagalog converts to Christianity
influenced him in writing the book Relacion de las
Costumbres de los Tagalos (Customs of the Tagalogs,
1589)
ABOUT THE BOOK
• The original document of book is currently kept in the
Archivo General de Indias (A.G.I.) in Seville, Spain

• While the duplicate copy of it is kept in the Archivo


Frsnciscano Ibero-Oriental (A.F.I.O.) in Madrid, Spain

• The English translation appeared in Volume VII of the Blair


and Robertson’s The Philippine Islands
DESCRIPTION OF THE
AUTHOR ABOUT
PHIL . SOCIET Y
DURING PRE-
H I S PA N I C T I M E
ABOUT THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

• They have chiefs called “dato”. These chiefs


ruled over a few people called “barangay”.

• There were three castes: nobles, commoners,


slaves
ABOUT THE ECONOMICS
• The chief had some fisheries, with
established limits, and sections of the
rivers for markets. At these, no one could
fish or trade in the market without paying
for the privilege, unless he belonged to the
chief’s barangay or village
ABOUT THE SOCIAL AND CULTURE
• If two persons married, one was a commoners and
the other was slave, the children were divided

• “I have not been able to ascertain with any certainty


when or at age the division of children was made.”

• Upon the death of the wife, who in year’s time had


borne no children, the parents returned one-half the
dowry to the husband
SOCIAL STATUS
OF THE EARLY
FILIPINOS
SOCIAL CLASSES

CHIEFS
(DATOS)

NOBLES
(MAHARLICA)

COMMONERS
(ALIPING NAMAMAHAY)

SLAVES
(ALIPING SAGUIGUILIR)
CHIEF OR DATO
- Chief, captain of wars, whom governed, obeyed and reverenced.

There are Three Castes


- nobles, commoners and slaves

1.Nobles or Maharlica
Free-born, they did not pay tax or contribute to the Dato
2.Commoners or Aliping Namamahay
They lived in their own houses and lords of their property and gold
3.Slaves or Aliping Saguiguilir
They served their master in his house and his cultivated lands and can
be sold.
DATO NOBLES COMMONERS SLAVES
A person become slaves by:
• Captivity in war
• Reason of debt
• Inheritance
• By purchase
• By committed a crime

Slaves can be emancipated through:


• By forgiveness
• By paying debt
• By condonation
• By bravery (where a slave can possibly become a Dato) or
marriage
• In these three classes, those who are maharlicas
on both the father's and mother's side continue to
be so forever, and if it happens that they become
slaves, it is through marriage.

• If two persons married of whom one was a


Maharlica and the a slave, the children were
divided.

• Maharlicas could not, after marriage, move from


one village to another, or from one barangay to
another without paying a certain fine on gold, as
arranged among them.
• I N V E S T I G AT I O N S M A D E A N D S E N T E N C E S PA S S E D
B Y T H E D AT O M U S T TA K E P L A C E I N T H E P R E S E N C E
O F T H O S E O F H I S B A R A N G AY.

• T H E Y H A D L AW S B Y W H I C H T H E Y C O N D E M N E D A
M A N O F L O W B I R T H W H O I N S U LT E D T H E
DAU G H T E R O R W I F E O F A C H I E F O R W I T C H E S .

• F O R L OA N S , T H E D E B TO R I S C O N D E M N E D TO A L I F E
O F TO I L . B O R R OW E R S B E C O M E S L AV E S A N D A F T E R
T H E D E AT H O F T H E F AT H E R , T H E C H I L D R E N PAY
F O R T H E D E B T.

• F O R I N H E R I TA N C E , F O R T H E L E G I T I M AT E C H I L D R E N
O F A F AT H E R A N D M O T H E R I N H E R I T E Q U A L LY.
• Dowries are given by men to the women's
parents before marriage. If the parents are
both alive, they both enjoy the use of it.

• The case of divorce, if the wife left the


husband for the purpose of marrying
another, all her dowry will go to the
husband, but if he did not marry another the
dowry was returned.
Houses
• Made of wood, bamboo and Nipa palm

Mode on dressing
Male
• Headgear (called Putong symbolizes the number of persons the wearer had
killed)
• (Upper) Jacket with short sleeves called Kanggan
• (Lower) Bahag
Female
• (Upper) Baro or Camisa
• (Lower) Saya
ORNAMENTS
• A D E C O R AT I V E O B J E C T O R D E TA I L T H AT A D D S
Q UA L I T Y O R D I S T I N C T I O N TO A P E R S O N , P L AC E O R
THING.
T R I B A L G AT H E R I N G I S C A L L E D I N TA G A L O G A
B A R A N G AY

B A R A N G AY
• T H E U N I T O F G O V E R M E N T R U L E D B Y A D AT O A N D
C O N S I S T O F 3 0 TO 1 0 0 FA M I L I E S TO G E T H E R W I T H T H E I R
R E L AT I V E S A N D S L A V E S .

I N H E R I TA N C E
• T H E 1 S T S O N O F T H E H E A D O F B A R A N G AY I N H E R I T S
H I S F AT H E R P O S I T I O N , I F T H E 1 S T S O N D I E S , T H E 2 N D
S O N S U C C E E D S T H E I R F AT H E R , I N T H E A B S E N C E O F
M A L E H E I R , I T I S T H E E L D E S T D A U G H T E R T H AT
B E C O M E S T H E C H I E F O R D AT O .
RELIGIOUS AND
SPIRITUAL BELIEF OF
T H E E A R LY F I L I P I N O
WORSHIP OF THE
TA G A L O G S
WORSHIP OF THE TAGALOGS
• Worship many gods and goddesses
• Batala or Bathala as their supreme god
• Ancient Filipino believed in “Animism” (all objects has spirits
where inhabited by such or to be governed by certain gods
• Filipino temples knowna the “simbahan” were attached to the
chief’s large houses
• During the festival of “Pandot or worship” the whole barangay
or family united and joined in the worship which they called
Nagaanitos
• Evil Omen and Good Omen
• Filipinos believed in the immortality of the
soul and in life after death
• They also believe in magical powers of amulet
and charms
REASONS FOR
OFFERING
SACRIFICES
•Proclaim a feast and offer to the devil
what they had to eat
•Anointing idols with fragrant
perfumes
•Catolonan
•Place a good piece of cloth with chain
or large gold ring
•Sacrifices of goats, fowls, and swine
•Ceremony by cooking a jar of rice
•Personal matters
•Recovery of sick person
•Prosperous voyage of those
embarking on the sea
•Good harvest in the sowed lands
•Propitious results in wars
•Successful delivery of birth
•Happy outcome in married life
R E L E VA N C E O F
THE DOCUMENT
TO THE PRESENT
TIME
• Plasencia’s Customs of the Tagalogs is a very
popular primary source as it vividly describes the
way of life of the Filipinos before Spanish and
Christian influences. It also covers numerous
topics that are relevant in many disciplines.
Plasencia’s account also preserves and
popularizes the unwritten customs, traditions
and religious and superstitious
• It contains insights that can helpand inspire
priests and missionaries to become effective
evangelizers
• Through historical writings also disprove the
claim of some Spaniards that when they arrived
in the Philippines, Filipinos were still uncivilized
and lacking of culture.
• It is written in a document that Filipino’s were
already politically and economically organized
including the functioning government, tax
system, set of laws, criminal justice system,
indigenous calendar, and long standing customs,
and traditions.
• Based on the Plasencia’s custom of the
tagalog they already had a concept of
having a supreme being or what they
called “ Bathala”, practice burial customs,
and believed in life after death.
• Placensia also mentioned that the people
he met where wearing garments and gold
ornaments, and their houses were
decorated with idols.