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Basic Properties of

Materials
Presented By:
Zain Ali 2k16-CHE-129
Hammad-ur-Rehman 2k16-CHE-130
Usama Zia 2k16-CHE-131
Junaid Ishaq 2k16-CHE-158
Muhammad Usman 2k16-CHE-165
Hafiz Nadeem Abbas 2k16-CHE-166
Basic Properties

 Elasticity:
Original Shape is regained when load is removed.
 Plasticity:
Original shape is not able to regained when load is removed.
 Brittleness:
Ability of materials by which they can break or develop cracks.
 Ductility:
Degree of plastic deformation that takes place before fracture.
Basic Properties
Basic Properties

 Stiffness:
Ability of materials to resist deformation.
 Malleability:
Ability of materials they can converted into thin sheets.
Basic Properties

 Resilience:
Amount of energy absorbed by material during elastic deformation.

 Toughness:
Total amount of energy absorbed till a material fractures.
Engineering Stress

 The ratio of average uniaxial tensile force to original cross-sectional area.


 Units: N/m^2, Pa
Engineering Strain

 The ratio of change in length of sample in direction of force to the original


length of sample.
 Units: inch/inch, m/m
True Stress

 True stress is the stress determined by the instantaneous load acting on the
instantaneous cross-sectional area.
True Strain

 The rate of instantaneous increase in the instantaneous gauge length.


True Stress and Strain Curve
Tensile Test

 It is used to evaluate the strength of metals and alloys.

 The force on the sample being tested is plotted by the instrument on moving
chart graph paper, while the corresponding strain also recorded on chart
paper.
Mechanical property data obtained from
Tensile Test
Modulus of Elasticity:
 The ratio of engineering stress to engineering strain.
 First part of tensile test and have elastic deformation.
Mechanical property data obtained from
Tensile Test
Yield Strength:
 The strength at which a metal or alloy shows significant plastic deformation.
Mechanical property data obtained from
Tensile Test
Ultimate Tensile strength:
The maximum strength reached in engineering stress-strain curve.
Mechanical property data obtained from
Tensile Test
Percent Elongation:
 The amount of elongation that a tensile specimen undergoes during testing.
Mechanical property data obtained from
Tensile Test
Percent Reduction in area:
 The ductility of metal or alloy can be expressed in terms of percent reduction
in area.
Hardness and Hardness Testing

Hardness:
It is a measure of the resistance of a metal to permanent deformation.

Hardness Testing:
 The hardness of a metal is measured by forcing an indenter into its surface.
 Indenter can be a ball, pyramid or cone.
Hardness Measurements

1) Macro Hardness Testers Loads > 1 kg :


 Brinell
 Rockwell
 Vickers
2) Micro Hardness Testers < 1 kg :
 Knoop diamond
Brinell Hardness Test

 The Brinell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with
a 10 mm diameter hardened steel.
Rockwell Hardness Test

 The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material
with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter.
Vickers Hardness Test

 The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with
a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an
angle of 136 degrees.
The Knoop hardness number KHN

 KHN is the ratio of the load applied to the indenter, P (kgf) to the
unrecovered projected area A (mm^2).
Fatigue of Metals

 Failure under fluctuating stress known as fatigue.


Rotating Beam Test

 Specimen is subjected to alternating compression and tension stresses of


equal magnitude while being rotate.
Rotating Beam Test

 Data from this test are plotted in the form of SN-curve.


 For Ferrous Alloys:
Rotating Beam Test

 For Non-Ferrous Alloys:


Factors Affecting Fatigue Strength

 Stress Concentration
 Surface Roughness
 Surface Condition
 Environment
Creep

 Deformation under constant stress at elevated temperature.


 Time dependent phenomena.
 If material is exposed to a temperature which is 0.4 of it’s melting point (0.4
Tm), it will fracture in less time.
Creep Mechanism

 Primary Creep
 Secondary Creep
 Tertiary Creep
Creep Test

 The effects of temperature and stress on the creep rate are determined by
the creep test.