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J The egocentric tendency to rate ourselves more
favourably than others is also labeled as self-serving
J Uncharitable attitude towards others can affect
communication leading to judgmental messages ,
and self serving defenses of our own actions can
result in a defensive response when challeged.
There are four reasons that we notice some messages and ignore
others ,when confronted with tidal wave of sense data :
£  (loud music, brightly dressed men)
 (persistent people, dripping faucets)
£     (a normally happy person who acts grumpy)
£     also determine what information we select from our



J iabeling people according to our first impressions is
an inevitable part of the perceptions process.
J If they are accurate, it could be useful in deciding
how to respond best to people.
J But if the labeling is incorrect, we tend to hang on to
it and make any conflicting information fit our
J Keep an open mind & be willing to change our
opinion when proved wrong.
J |eople commonly imagine that others possess
the same attitudes and motives that they do
J Assuming that others always think or feel the
way we do can lead to problems
J Ge can overcome this problem by asking
directly, sometimes by checking with others,
and sometimes by making an educated guess
J Ghen people are aware of both the positive
and negative traits of another, they tend to be
more influenced by the negative traits.
J Much of the time it is a bad idea to pay
excessive attention to negative qualities and
overlook positive ones.
J The way we feel about ourselves strongly
influences how we interpret others¶
J Ghen we are feeling insecure, the world is a
very different place from the world we
experience when we are confident
J D 
  r Ghat meanings have similar
events held?
J *  r Anticipation shapes interpretations
J Ñ    : the behaviour that seems
positive when you are in a satisfying relationship
might seem completely different when the
relationships not going well.
* r the ability to re-create another person¶s perspective ,to
experience the world from the other¶s point of view

A   *

J |    : the ability to take on the
viewpoint of another person
J *     : allows us to experience the
feelings that others have
J  : we go beyond just thinking and feeling as
others do and genuinely care about their well being
   r is a tool for helping us
understand others accurately instead of assuming
that our first interpretation is correct. |erception
checking has three partsr
J ‰    

J ‰          

J ‰ !

a ! "  r 
J |#   |  r
  % #       #  
           %   ' ! 

      #   (
%! % %    


    %  '       !    
     !       a        %'
 #   # %! %     %

   a !
J G 
    r Ge play multiple
roles in life
Xirtually all conversations provide an arena in which communicators
construct their identities in response to the behaviour of others.
Ôome of our communication involves a conscious attempt to
manage impressions
J   A
ÿigh self- monitors have the ability to pay attention to their own
behaviour and other¶s reactions ,adjusting their communications to create
the desired impressions as compared to low self monitors
%  " a 


  r )*
  %      + )*  


r consists of a communicator¶s words and
non-verbal actions
J ‰ 
 r the personal items people use to shape
an image
J   r physical items we use to influence how
others view us.