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There is always a need for

improvement of products and


processes.

Use Design Optimization!

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Overview of the design process
Design optimization as systematic design
improvement.
Design optimization is a rational finding of a
design that is

the best of all possible designs for a chosen


objective and a given set of geometrical and
behavioural constraints.

A minimalist’s (a realist’s?) view: design


optimization is a systematic way of
improvement of designs.

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When is Optimization useful?
When there are many design variables
When the problem is complicated
When the design space is too large for
intuition

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How to Optimize?
1. By Evolution-Build a Design;Improve it in
the next version etc
2. By Intution-Follow Instincts, Based on
experience with this particular design
3. By Trial and Error-Each trial is exercised
and improved until satisfied (Optimum)
4. By Numerical Alogorithm-Use of
Mathmatical strategies to search for
optimum combinations.

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When there are many design variables
Flight simulator
Kinematic
optimization of a
Stewart platform
manipulator for a
flight simulator.

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When there are many design variables
Flight simulator
The goal of
optimization is to
design a
manipulator with
maximum
workspace whose
characteristics are
defined according
to the manoeuvres
of an aircraft.

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When the problem is complicated
Tractor-trailer
combination

Objective: to
improve the ride
characteristics

Design variables:
properties of the
suspension system
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When the design space is too large for
intuition

Optimization of front wing of J3 Jaguar


Racing Formula 1 car 8
APPLICATIONS OF OPTIMIZATION
TECHNIQUES
Genetic Algorithm

Front wing of
J3 Jaguar
Racing
Formula 1 car

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APPLICATIONS OF OPTIMIZATION
TECHNIQUES
Optimization problem: minimize mass subject to
displacement constraints (FIA and aerodynamics)
Result of optimization by a genetic algorithm (GA):
Obtained design weight: 4.95 Kg
Baseline design weight: 5.2 Kg
Improvement: 4.8%
GA convergence history

5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
Mass (Kg)

5.5
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5
4.9
Generations
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MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Geometrical interpretation of a constrained
maximization problem

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MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Geometrical interpretation of an optimization
process

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What is Design Optimization?

Selecting the “best” design within the


available means
2. What is our criterion for “best” design?-
Objective function
3. What are the available means?-
Constraints (design requirements)
4. How do we describe different designs?-
Design Variables

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MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Formulation of a design improvement problem
as a formal mathematical optimization problem
A formal mathematical optimization problem:
to find components of the vector x of design
variables:
F ( x ) → min
g j ( x ) ≤ 0, j = 1,..., M
Ai ≤ xi ≤ Bi , i = 1,..., N
where F(x) is the objective function, gj(x) are the
constraint functions, the last set of inequality
conditions defines the side constraints and x is
the design variables
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Exercise 1
Given the perimeter of a rectangle must
be at most 16cm, construct the
rectangle with maximum area.
Formulate this as an optimization
problem.

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Solution:

Maximize f(x,y) = xy
Subject to
2 x + 2 y ≤ 16
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0
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MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Formulation of a design improvement problem
as a formal mathematical optimization problem

Criteria of system’s efficiency

Criteria of structural efficiency are described by


the objective function F(x). Typical examples:
– cost
– weight
– use of resources (fuel, etc.)
– stress concentration
– etc.
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MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Formulation of typical constraints on
system’s behaviour
Constraints can be imposed on:
• equivalent stress
• critical buckling load (local and global), can
include postbuckling characteristics
• frequency of vibrations (can be several)
• cost
• etc.

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MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION
PROBLEM
Formulation of a design improvement problem
as a formal mathematical optimization problem
Constrained and unconstrained problems
Almost all realistic problems of design optimization
are constrained problems, i.e. there are some
limitations on the performance characteristics of an
engineering system.
Still, it is important to learn how to solve efficiently
an unconstrained problem because some of the
optimization techniques treat a general constrained
problem as an equivalent sequence of simpler
unconstrained problems. 19
EXAMPLES
Shape optimization

Optimization of a spanner

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Optimization of a spanner

A CAD model of a structure. Moves of the


boundary are allowed at the indicated
points

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Optimization of a spanner

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EXAMPLES

Shape optimization problems

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EXAMPLES

Shape optimization problems

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EXAMPLES

Shape optimization problems

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