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KINEMATICS OF MECHANISMS

KINEMATICS OF MECHANISMS
• Dynamics: Kinematics & Kinetics
– Kinematics: Study of motion without
regard to forces, gravity of motion.
– Kinetics: Study of forces on systems in
motion
MECHANISM
Mechanism – Part of a machine, which
transmit motion and power from input point to
output point
Example for Mechanism
KINEMATICS
RELEVANCE OF KINEMATIC
STUDY
• Motion requirements
• Design requirements
MOTION STUDY

Study of position, displacement, velocity and


acceleration of different elements of
mechanism

Given input Desired output


Motion requirement
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Design: determination of shape and size
2. Requires knowledge of material
3. Requires knowledge of stress
4. Requires knowledge of load acting
(i) static load
(ii) dynamic/inertia load
DYNAMIC/INERTIA LOAD

Inertia load require acceleration


Examples of rigid links
PAIRING ELEMENTS
Pairing elements: the geometrical forms by which
two members of a mechanism are joined together,
so that the relative motion between these two is
consistent. Such a pair of links is called
Kinematic Pair.
PAIRING ELEMENTS

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PAIRING ELEMENTS

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DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOF):

It is the number of independent coordinates


required to describe the position of a body.
DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOF):
• Degree of Freedom (DOF)
– The directions an object can move in.

In 2D plane

How about 3D Space?


DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOF):
• DOF (Contd.)
– 2D Motion (3 DOF)
• 2 translation & 1 rotation (2 lengths & 1
angle)
– 3D Motion (6 DOF)
• 3 translation & 3 rotation (3 lengths & 3
angles)
DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOF):
• How joints affect DOF
– Joints (or constraints) restrict specific
degrees of freedom between parts.
– In doing this, they limit the directions the
parts are free to move with respect to each
other.
Revolute Joint
1 DOF
(2 DOF restricted)

Slider Joint
1 DOF
(2 DOF restricted)

Pin in slot
2 DOF
(1 DOF restricted)
TYPES OF KINEMATIC PAIRS

Based on nature of contact between elements


 (i) Lower Order Joint : The joint by which two
members are connected has surface contact.
(ii) Higher Order joint: The contact between the
pairing elements takes place at a point or along a
line.
Based on relative motion between pairing elements

(a) Siding pair [DOF = 1]

(b) Turning pair (revolute pair) [DOF = 1]


Based on relative motion between pairing elements

(c) Cylindrical pair [DOF = 2]

(d) Rolling pair [DOF = 1]


Based on relative motion between pairing elements

(e) Spherical pair [DOF = 3]


Eg. Ball and socket joint

(f) Helical pair or screw pair [DOF = 1]


Based on the nature of mechanical constraint
(a) Closed pair

(b) Unclosed or force closed pair


CONSTRAINED MOTION

one element has got only one definite motion


relative to the other
(a) Completely constrained motion
(b) Successfully constrained motion
(c) Incompletely constrained motion
KINEMATIC CHAIN

Group of links either joined together or


arranged in a manner that permits them to
move relative to one another.
LOCKED CHAIN OR STRUCTURE
Links connected in such a way that no relative
motion is possible.
MECHANISM
A mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain.
Motion of any one link in the kinematic chain
will give a definite and predictable motion
relative to each of the others. Usually one of
the links of the kinematic chain is fixed in a
mechanism
MECHANISM

Slider crank and four bar mechanisms


Working of slider crank mechanism

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Unconstrained kinematic chain
MACHINE
A machine is a mechanism or collection of
mechanisms, which transmit force from the
source of power to the resistance to be
overcome.
Though all machines are mechanisms, all
mechanisms are not machines
PLANAR MECHANISMS

When all the links of a mechanism have plane


motion, it is called as a planar mechanism. All
the links in a planar mechanism move in
planes parallel to the reference plane.
Degrees of freedom/mobility of a
mechanism
It is the number of inputs (number of
independent coordinates) required to describe
the configuration or position of all the links of
the mechanism, with respect to the fixed link
at any given instant.
DOF of a mechanism
– What is DOF of a mechanism:
The number of links that have independent
motion.
– Formula:
F=3n-(2PL+Ph)
Where
n —— number of moving links
PL ——number of lower order joints
Ph —— number of higher order joints
Examples - DOF

F=3n-(2PL+Ph)
• Here, n = 3, PL= 4 & Ph = 0.
• F = 3(3)-2(4-0) = 1
• I.e., one input to any one link
will result in definite motion of
all the links.
Examples - DOF

F=3n-(2PL+Ph)
• Here, n = 4, PL= 5 & Ph = 0.
• F = 3(4)-2(5-0) = 2
I.e., two inputs to any two links are
required to yield definite
motions in all the links.
Examples - DOF

n=2
Pl=2
Ph=1
F=3n-(2Pl+Ph)
=6-(4+1)
=1
Conditions for a mechanism to have
determined motion
 DOF F ≥1
 The DOF of the mechanism should be
equal to the numbers of the driving links.

Example:

F=0 F=1 F=2