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Facility Layout: Manufacturing and Services

Suhas Rane
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Introduction
• Facility layout means planning:

– for placing of machines, utilities, employee


workstations, customer service areas, material
storage areas, aisles, restrooms, lunchrooms, internal
walls, offices, and computer rooms
– for the convenient flow patterns of materials and
people around, into, and within buildings

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Major Objectives of an ideal layout

• Providing enough production capacity


• Reduction in materials Handling cost.
• Efficient and effective utilization of space
• Safe working conditions (accident free)
• Easy supervision
• Ease of maintenance – with high
machine/equipment utilization.
• Efficient labor utilization & increased
employee morale.
• Improvement in productivity

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Various Types of Material Flows
Step 1 2 3 4 5 6

Straight Line
Cut Mill Weld Weld Grid Paint

U Shape L Shape

Sub assembly C
Sub assembly A

Sub assembly B
Serpentine
shape or
Convoluted
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Slide
Main assembly line 4 of 96
Types of Layout
Manufacuring –
• Fixed position (or Static) layout
• Process Focussed (or Functional layout)
• Product Focused (or Flow–line layout)
• Cellular Mfg. (or Group Technology layout)
• Hybrid (or Combination layout

Service Industry –
• Office layout
• Retail Layout
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Fixed-Position Layouts
 Typical of projects

 Job is Stationary,

 Eqpt., workers, materials,


other resources brought
to the Job site

 Highly skilled labor

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Process Focused Layout - Mfg.
(Similar m/cs grouped in process centers)
( Car Paint Shop,
Fee Collection Centre)
Grinding Forging Lathes

Suitable for small


batches of variety of
Painting Welding Drills
products (flexibility)

Mostly GPMs
Milling Requires Skilled Labor
Office Foundry
machines
Zig-Zag movement of
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products
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Product Focused – Assy. Line

Product 1

1. Lathe 2. Drill 3. Milling 4. Grinding

Product 2

1. Drill 2. Grinding 3. Polishing 4. Plating

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Group Technology / Cellular Mfg.
( Dis-similar M/cs grouped together)

• Whole lay-out consists of multiple Cells


• A cell consists of dissimilar machines.
• Each cell produces -range of similar products.

(e.g. Gear Shop within Machining Shop)

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Group Technology
Dis-similar m/cs grouped to produced
SAME Family Products ( Gears) Machine
2
Machine
Machine 3
1

Materials in

Finished
goods out

Machine
Machine 4
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Process Layout - Hospital
Similar facilities are located in respective centers

E.R.Triag Patient A
- broken
e room
E.R.leg
Admissions
y

Patient B -
r
ge

erratic
r
Su

pacemaker
Hallway

Ra
di
ol
o gy
E.R. bedsPharmacy Billing/
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Before : Process Layout
Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT
cells
Lathing Milling Drilling

L L D D
M M

D D
L L M M

Grinding

L L M M
G G

L L Assembly
G G
A A

Receiving and A A G G
shipping
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After : Group Technology

L L M D G Assembly
area
Cell 1 Cell 2 A A

Receiving L M G G

Cell 3

L M D
Shipping

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Mfg Processes at diff. Stages
of PLC Product
Focused
To Stock
Product (Continuous)
Focused
To stock
( Batch)

Process
focused
to Order
Process ( Batch)
focused
to Order
( job Shop)

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Hybrid Layout or Combined Layout

• A combination of the Product & Process Layouts

Product Layout

Raw F.P. G.C. G.G. Finished


H.T. Product
Materials
(Gears)

Raw H.T.
F.P. G.C. G.G.
Materials

G.C.
Process
layout

F.P. = Forging Press G.C. = Gear Cutting Machine 16


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H.T. = Heat Treatment Furnace G.G. = Gear Grinding machine
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Flexible Manufacturing Systems
(FMS)
• FMS consists of numerous programmable machine tools
connected by an automated material handling system
and controlled by a common computer network
• FMS combines flexibility with efficiency
• FMS layouts differ based on
– variety of parts that the system can process
– size of parts processed
– average processing time required for part completion

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Full-Blown FMS

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Service Facility Layout

Objectives are to maximize


– Customer satisfaction
– Utilization of space, equipment, & people
– Efficient flow of information, material, &
people
– Employee morale & safety

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Lay-out Innovations at McDonald
(3 out of 4 decisions are layout related)

• Indoor seating (1950’s)

• Drive-through window (1970s)

• Adding breakfast to the menu (1980s)

• Adding play areas (1990s)

• 2000s ………???
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Office Layout

• Design positions of people, equipment, & offices


for maximum information flow
• Arranged by process (which itself is a product)
– Example: Payroll dept. is by process
• Relationship chart used

• Examples
– Insurance company
– Software company

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© 1995
Corel Corp. Slide 21 of 96
Designing Retail Layouts
• Must be both attractive and functional

• Types
– Free flow layouts
• encourage browsing, increase impulse purchasing, are flexible and
visually appealing

– Grid layouts
• encourage customer familiarity, are low cost, easy to clean and
secure, and good for repeat customers

– Loop and Spine layouts


• both increase customer sightlines and exposure to products, while
encouraging customer to circulate through the entire store

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Types of Retail Store Layouts

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New
New Trends
Trends in
in Manufacturing
Manufacturing Layouts
Layouts

● Designed for quality and flexibility


● Simultaneous – Product Flexibility & Volume Flex.
● Cellular layout within larger process layouts
● Automated material handling
● U-shaped production lines
● More open work areas, fewer partitions/ obstacles
● Smaller and more compact factory layouts
● Less space for inv. storage throughout the layout

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Wrap-Up:
Wrap-Up: World-Class
World-Class Practice
Practice


Strive for flexibility in layouts

Multi-job training of workers

Sophisticated preventive-maintenance programs

Flexible machines

Empowered workers trained in problem solving

Layouts small and compact

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