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An abridged/modified presentation by Mr.

Jeff Taylor with great respects to the author

Dr. Abdulkadir Erden, Atılım University, İncek, Ankara

... is defined as an activity of overcoming
difficulties for practical applications of concepts that
are proved to be true theoretically. This activity is
composed of mental activities, paperwork,
human power and machine power.
... is defined as an activity of overcoming
difficulties for practical applications of concepts that
are proved to be true theoretically. This activity is
composed of mental activities, paperwork,
human power and machine power.


Author Definition Keywords
C. Finding the right physical components of a physical structure. Finding, physical
L. B. A goal-directed problem solving activity. Goal-directed, solving activity
M. Decision making in the face of uncertainty with high penalties Decision making, uncertainty,
Asimow for error. high penalties for error
P. J. Simulating what we want to make (or do) before we make (or Simulating to feel confident
Booker do) it as many time as may be necessary to feel confident in
the final result.
M. Farr The conditioning factor for those parts of the product which Contact with people
come into contact with people.
S. Relating product with situation to give satisfaction. Product, satisfaction
J. C. The performing of a very complicated act of faith Act of faith
E. The optimum solution to the sum of the true needs of a True needs
Matchett particular set o circumstances.
J. K. The imaginative jump from present facts to future possibilities. Imaginative jump, Present
Page facts; future possibility
J. B. A creative activity-it involves bringing into being something Creative activity, useful not
Reswick new and useful that not existed has not existed previously. existed previously
J. P. The creation of an end result that satisfies a human need by Creation, Result satisfies
Vidosic taking definite action. human need, action
... is defined, in general, as the planning and
realization of a creative strategy to accomplish
a physical, mental, moral or artistic task or to
satisfy a real need.
... is defined, in general, as the planning and
realization of a creative strategy to accomplish
a physical, mental, moral or artistic task or to
satisfy a real need.

This is engineering!..
The purpose of design is defined [Mostow, 1985] as the
construction of a structure (artifact) description that;
 Satisfies a given (probably informal) functional
 Conforms to the limitations of the target medium,
 Meets implicit or explicit requirements on performance
(time, space, power, cost etc.) and structure (style,
simplicity etc.),
 Satisfies restrictions on the design process itself.
Design activities include
 Creativity,
 Decision-making,
 Modeling.
Time consuming activity Mental activity Mentally initiated time
consuming activity

Physical Conceptual Conceptually developed

physical products

Close to science Close to art Creative work based on

scientific principles

Methodological Intuitive Intuitive started


Solves problems Creates problems Solution-Problem, Problem-

Solution chains are
An iterative decision making activity to
produce the plans by which resources are
converted: preferably optimally, into systems
or devices to meet human needs.
The process that uses engineering tools-
mathematics, graphics, language-and scientific
principles to evolve a plan, which when fully
carried out will satisfy a human need.
The use of scientific principles, technical
information and imagination in the definition
of a mechanical structure, machine or system to
perform pre-specified functions with the
maximum economy and efficiency.
A purposeful activity directed toward the goal
of fulfilling human needs, particularly those
which can be met by the technological factors
of our culture.
The complete intellectual process from the
conception of an idea based on inspiration,
knowledge and experience to its final technical
and commercial realization.
Science-based problem solving with social-
human awareness, ... a high level
intellectual activity.
 Original design that involves elaborating an original solution
principle for a system with the same task, a similar task or a new
task. This may be the case of using a four-bar mechanism in the
development of a walking machine.
 Adaptive design, which involves adapting a known solution
principle to a changing task. Example: Design of a new gearbox,
based on the known gear trains.
 Variant design, which involves varying the size and/or
arrangement of certain aspects of the chosen system, while the
function and solution of the system remain, unchanged. Example:
Belt Conveyor design; Size of drum and belt width can be
computed for a given loading with no change on the design
 One-of-a-kind design; Design of special
purpose machines, Prototype machines,
 Design for mass production; Design of
washing machine,
 Large, expensive system design; Design of a
production line,
 Design to code; Shaft design, Boiler design.
 Selection design involves choosing one item from a list of similar
items; Selection of bearing for a shaft.
 Configuration design in which all the components have been
designed and the problem is how to assemble them into the
complete product; Plant design, Conveyor layout design
 Parametric design involves finding values for the variables or
parameters that characterize the object being studied; Conveyor
design, Crane design.
 Original design is the development of a process, component or
assembly not previously existing; Design of a machine with a
specific purpose.
 Others (such as redesign, routine design)
... is described as a creative thinking, planning
and synthesis supported by analyses in order
to produce a machine or system that will
accomplish a predefined physical work.
Besides, having the properties of the general
design concept, an important additional
characteristic of the machine design therefore is
that, the artifact to be designed should have a
certain functionality in terms of physical work.
... is defined as the transformation of parameters
influencing a physical process into concrete machine
The process of creating and selecting
configurations, shapes, materials, and
dimensions for something which is physical in
The transformation of the parameters
influencing physical process into concrete
machine components.
 To abstain from blindly copying the existing prototypes and to
design meaningfully, selecting from the entire store of the design
solutions offered by the present day mechanical engineering the
ones that are most suitable under given conditions.
 To be able to combine various solutions and find new, better ones.
 To continually improve the machines characteristics and to
contribute to the progress in the given branch of mechanical
 To follow the dynamic development of the industry and devise
versatile machines of long life amenable to further modernization
and capable of meeting the every growing demands of the
national economy without running the risks of obsolescent for a
long time to came.
 The formulation of a plan for a mechanism or
device capable of transmitting forces and
motions, and doing work or accomplishing a
specific function that must be done to satisfy a
human need as economically as possible.
 The formulation of plans to satisfy human
needs using the disciplines-engineering,
sciences, techniques, and other mental
processes-that are studied by mechanical
The application of many of the principles of
science and technology in the creation of a
product and the consideration of the various
factors that effect its production and use.





Requirements, Needs, Problems



Methods and Procedures

Engineering Engineering Engineering Production

TOOLS Mathematics Science REALITIES
Science Design Technology Construction

Industrial Limitations




Intuition, Creation
DESIRES; Requirements, Needs, Problems
Effective as design criteria, and design rules

Engineering Design and other disciplines Politics

Legal codes, Standards,
Decisions regarding use of coal, or natural gas,
Promotion of a industrial sector.
Traditions should be carefully analyzed by the designers. A slaughterhouse should be
designed according to local religious factors.
Sociology, Psychology Social preferences cannot be overcome easily. Cooking kitchenware is an example.
Design user is a human. His/her preferences amy be the same as the designer

Engineering design mainly deals to produce products to sell somebody else. Therefore
economical conditions are of utmost importance that determine the demand on the particular
product. It is not only demand to be considered, also the group of people who has developed
this demand is also important.

CONCEPTS; Intuition, Creativity

More focused on the user preferences, and ergonomic design to some extend. They
Industrial Design developed kind of empty shells wherein some machine components and machine elements
are placed by the engineering designers.

Architectural design Aesthetic design criteria are more overwhelming.

Satisfaction of the humans are more pronounced. Surface finish, selection of colors are
Artistic Design
Art Gives the basic rules like the color effect, etc.
TOOLS; Methods and Procedures
Statics, Dynamics, Strength of materials, Thermodynamics, Heat transfer, Fluid mechanics,
Engineering Science
Elasticity, Plasticity.
Science Physics, Chemistry,
Mathematics Calculus, Differential equations, Algorithms, Numerical analysis,
REALITIES; Limitations
Engineering Technology Machine elements, Manufacturing technology, quality control, reliability,
Production Production shop,
Design activities include
 Creativity,
 Decision-making,
 Modeling.
E n g i n e e r i n g C r e a t i v i t y

Market Production
Conditions Facility
Engineering creativity is a process in
which a set of machine components is
selected to perform a predetermined

It is mainly a mental activity; assistance

by computer technology is suggested.
Designer's experience is also a
determining factor.
Among the many factors which effect creativity in
design are; designer’s experience, designer’s ability,
economic factors, and designer’s own preference.
 The stage and level of industrialization of the
society is a factor in design,
 The social traditions cannot be overcome
 Sophistication and complexity of the design
product is to be determined by the user,
 Economical conditions,
 Geographical and climatic conditions.
 Design should not violate scientific rules,
 Design should be economical,
 Design should be compatible to psychology
and ergonomics,
 Design must satisfy requirements stated in
standards, laws, regulations,
 Level of education and capabilities of the user,
 Production facilities.
Scientific Principles Design
and Technology Process Evaluation

Design Information Feedback


100 % Perfection

Level of

Time / Effort
Improvement of Level of Design with Time / Effort