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7th Go Kart Design Challenge

Indian Society of New Era Engineers and ISNEE Motorsports
Judging Categories
Points Distribution System
Static Events
Disasm 50
Engineering Design Report 200
Cost Analysis 100
Innovation* NA
Business Plan** NA
Dynamic Events
Acceleration 80
Skid-Pad 60
Autocross 100
FLAT (Fastest Lap Time)
Fuel Efficiency 75
Endurance 225
Total 1,000
pencil analysis method used in engineering to document and
explore ways that a product design might fail in real-world

• Failure Mode & Effects Analysis is an advanced quality

improvement tool.

• FMEA is a technique used to identify, prioritize and

eliminate potential failures from the system, design or
process before they reach the customer.

• It provides a discipline for documenting this analysis for

future use and continuous process improvement.

• MIL-STD 1629, “Procedures for Performing a Failure Mode and

Effect Analysis”

• IEC 60812, “Procedures for Failure Mode and Effect Analysis


• BS 5760-5, “Guide to failure modes, effects and criticality

analysis (FMEA and FMECA)”

• SAE ARP 5580, “Recommended Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

(FMEA) Practices for Non-Automobile Applications”

• SAE J1739, “Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in

Design (Design FMEA)”

• SEMATECH (1992,) “Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A

Guide for Continuous Improvement for the Semiconductor Equipment
Limitations of FMEA
• They can only be used to identify single failures and not
combinations of failures

• Failures which result from multiple simultaneous faults are

not identified by this

• Unless adequately controlled and focused, the studies can be

time consuming

•They can be difficult and tedious for complex multi-layered


• They are not suitable for quantification of system

Responsibility and scope of DFMEA

• The DFMEA is a team function

- All team members must participate
- Multi-disciplinary expertise and input is beneficial
- Input from all engineering fields is desirable
- Representatives from all areas (not just technical
disciplines) are generally included as team members

• The DFMEA is not a one meeting activity

– The DFMEA will be refined and evolve with the product
– Numerous revisions are required to obtain the full benefit
of the DFMEA

• The DFMEA must include all systems, sub-systems and

components in the product design
Steps to conduct DFMEA

• Form the cross functional team.

• Call FMEA Meeting with advance intimation.
• Complete the top of the form
– Project, year, team members, date, and DFMEA iteration
– There will be many iterations
• List items and functions
– Start with the system, then subsystems and finally
• Document potential failure modes
– How could the design potentially fail to meet the design
– Consider all types of failure
• Document the potential effects of failure
– How would design potentially fail to meet the design intent?
Steps to conduct DFMEA

• Rate the severity of the failure effect

– See ranking guidelines
– Severity ranking is linked to the effect of the failure
• Document potential causes and mechanisms of failure
– Failure causes and mechanisms are an indication of design
– Potential failure modes are the consequences of the failure
– A single failure mode may have multiple failure mechanisms
– Use group brainstorming sessions to identify possible failure
– Don’t be afraid to identify as many potential causes as you can
– This section of the DFMEA will help guide you in necessary
– The output of the DFMEA will indicate on which item to focus
design efforts
Steps to conduct DFMEA

• Rate the occurrence

– See attached page for ranking guidelines
– Things that may help you rate the occurrence
• Are any elements of the design related to a previous device
or design?
• How significant are the changes from a previous design?
• Is the design entirely new?
• List the design controls
– Design controls are intended to:
• Prevent the cause of the failure mode (1st choice solution)
• Detect the cause of the failure mode (2nd choice solution) •
Detect the failure mode directly (3rd choice solution)
Steps to conduct DFMEA

– Applicable design controls include

• Predictive code analysis, simulation, and modeling
• Tolerance “stack-up” studies
• Prototype test results (acceptance tests, DOE’s, limit tests)
• Proven designs, parts, and materials

- List any critical or special characteristics

Critical characteristics: Severity > 8 and Occurrence >1
Special characteristics:
Severity > 6 and Occurrence >2

- Calculate the RPN of each potential failure effect

• RPN = (Severity) x (Occurrence) x (Detection)
• What are the highest RPN items?

- Define recommended actions

• What tests and/or analysis can be used to better understand the
problem to guide necessary design changes ?
Steps to conduct DFMEA
Functions & Requirements

• Functional Requirements
• Customer Requirements
• Legal Requirements
• Benchmarking Requirements
• State of the Art Trend

• Recommend Action, wherever RPN is high through

• Design Controls Design changes
• Process changes
• Special controls changes to

• Decide Responsibilities
• Decide Target date of completion.
What Next?

• Repeat: undertake the next revision of the DFMEA

• The DFMEA is an evolving document!
• Revise the DFMEA frequently & keep on reducing RPN!
• Diligence will eliminate design risk!
• Include documentation of your results!
Design Validation Plan (DVP)

• Design Validation is next step to DFMEA.

• Depending upon RPN in DFMEA, the components

are arranged in DVP.

• It contains all the information regarding the

acceptance criteria, responsible person or
team, type of test and start & finish dates.
Why Design Validation?

• ‘Are we building it right?’

• Major costs of projects are incurred in early design stages.
• The cost of fixing a design and faulty decisions at later
stages is exponentially greater than at an earlier stage.

• Early Validation/Verification:
• reduces risk early in the program
• provides feedback to designers before delivery
• proves that requirements are met
• saves costs
• reduces complexity of fault detection
Validation Definition

• The documented act of proving that any procedure, process,

equipment, material, activity or system, actually leads to
the expected results.

• Design Validation means establishing by objective evidence

that device specifications conform to user needs and
intended uses.
Design Validation Process

• Validation Plan

• Validation Review

• Validation Methods

• Validation Report
Validation Methods

• Testing ( Static as well as Dynamic)

• Analysis ( Using software's and simulations)

• Inspection Methods (Visual or with Test Rigs)

• Compilation of relevant scientific literature

• Study of historical evidences of similar design

Examples of validation methods & activities

• Worst case analysis of an assembly.

• Fault tree analysis of a process or design.
• Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA).
• Package integrity tests.
• Testing of materials.
• Comparison of a design to previous vehicles having an
established history of successful use.
Cost Report - Cost for Manufacturing

• The objectives of the Cost for Manufacturing Event are

• For teams to make trade off decisions between content and

cost based on the performance advantage of each part and
• To gain experience with creating and maintaining a Bill
of Material (BOM).
• For the participants to learn and understand the
principles of Design for Manufacture and Assembly, lean
manufacturing and Minimum Constraint Design.
Rules Objective

• To provide a logical, simple and time efficient rule set

enabling students to achieve the event’s objectives.
• To improve fairness by providing consistent pricing
guidelines independent of team geographical location by
using standardized Cost Tables.
• To require the minimal burden of supporting documentation

• Adjusted Cost – The final cost for the vehicle including penalties

• Amended Cost – The cost of the vehicle after modification by the

competition addendum
• Bill of Material – A hierarchical list of all parts of the vehicle.

• Cost Report – All materials, including electronic and hard copy,

submitted for judging
• Cost Score – Refers to the total number of points out of 100 earned
in the Cost Event
• Cost Tables – All tables that list costs for objects and processes

• Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) – The process where

parts are designed for ease of manufacture and assembly, resulting
in lower cost.

• Fixed Cost – Costs associated with production that is independent

of volume produced. Fixed cost items, such as tooling, are
converted to variable costs when included in the Cost Report.
• Initial Cost – The cost of the vehicle submitted for initial
judging in the Cost Report.
• Lean Manufacture – A methodology for producing goods that
emphasizes the elimination of waste and improvement in process flow
with the goal of optimizing the cost and quality of goods.
• Minimum Constraint Design (MCD) – A design methodology emphasizing
elimination of redundant constraints in the attachment of parts.
Each part requires constraint in six degrees of freedom and
additional constraints can make assembly difficult, force tight
tolerances and increase the cost of manufactured goods.

• Quantity – The amount of the item


• Purchased Parts – Also called bought parts; these items are listed
in the Cost Tables in a near as- installed condition. For example,
wheels, engines and motors are purchased parts. In some cases,
purchased parts may still require additional processing before they
can be assembled to the quad. Wheels, for example, do not include
the machined features for mounting to the hub. Purchased parts do
not include fasteners unless specifically noted in the Cost Tables.

• Raw Materials – Materials used for manufacturing parts, such as

aluminum, steel and rubber hose.
• Tools – Tools refer to hand or power tools used to assemble the
vehicle. The costs of these tools are not included in the Cost
Report. The effects of the tools used for assembly are captured in
the process tables for labor as different costs are given based on
the tools used for assembly.
• Variable Cost – Is a cost associated with production that is
proportional to the vehicle volume produced. All costs submitted
with the Cost Report will be variable costs.
General Requirements

• Use the standardized Cost Tables

• List and cost every part on the prototype vehicle
• Be based on the estimated costs of materials, fabrication,
purchased parts, and assembly of the quad
• Be based on the actual manufacturing technique used on the
• Include tooling (e.g. welding jigs, molds, patterns and dies) for
processes requiring it.
• Exclude R & D and capital expenditures (e.g. plant, machinery, hand
tools and power tools).
Business Plan

• Teams are to assume that they work for a firm that is designing,
fabricating, testing and demonstrating a prototype Go Kart for the
non- professional, weekend, competition market

• Ensure teams develop the concept of their entry with all of

these aspects correctly considered, from the outset.
• Ensure that static events are approached with a single
common concept and presented to each set of static judges in
the same manner.
• Ensure that participants gain experience in producing a
business case and balancing potentially conflicting
General Requirements

• Benchmarking (analysis of previous competition results, competitor

vehicle specifications and costs etc.)
• Short listing preferred concepts
• Assessing your team (company) capability to deliver different
concepts recognizing the budget and team that you have
• Selecting your initial concept and developing targets to be
achieved by the total vehicle (these will include target overall
cost; likely sales potential; major performance and handling
targets; timing plan for progressing the project;)
• Deciding on how to break down the total vehicle cost into different
areas of the vehicle, recognizing the performance targets you have
• Commencing your design to deliver the design concept and related
targets recognizing that the ensuing process will often be
iterative and trade-offs will be necessary but if you have never
defined the overall concept and what you plan to achieve, you will
not be able to control your program and measure your progress
• Inclusions

• Business Idea
• Type of Business
• Mission, Vision
• Company Hierarchy
• Target market/audience and their
• Initial Investment
• Investors Scope
• Investment Proposals
• Investment Policies
• Production Plans
• Infrastructure Required
• Labor/Employee Management
• Machinery Required
• Turnover & Figures Justification
• Break Even Analysis
Evaluation Process

Time and Members - Every team will be given a time period of

20 minutes for the evaluation that involves the questionnaire
round as well. The time can be extended in few cases when the
judge finds any idea good and feels to discuss things in
depth. The number of slides or the contents is not limited but
care should be taken for the time restriction.

No of Members – Maximum 5 and minimum 1 member can present the

business plan while 1 additional member can be accommodated in
the presentation room for changing the slides.

Page Limit – There is no limit on the number of pages to be

used in the B Plan report.