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Seismic Analysis of

Bridges
NAME:- ADITYA SINGH
BITS Pilani ID NO.-2018H1430065P
Pilani Campus
OLD SURAJBADI HIGHWAY BRIDGE

• The Old Surajbadi Highway Bridge across the Little


Rann of Kachchh on National Highway 8A (NH8A), is the
longest bridge in the region.

• It suffered significant damage in the January 26, 2001


earthquake due to lack of ductility, damage to bearings,
shear failure of the hinges, and significant ground
movement and liquefaction.

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FAILURE OF BRIDGES

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FAILURE OF BRIDGES

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RUDRAMATA BRIDGE

• The Rudramata Bridge, built in 1966, is located on State


Highway 45, 16 km north of Bhuj. The bridge is 7.3 m
wide and is composed of 10 simple spans of 16.8 m
each, with expansion joint at the piers.
• Due to the seismic excitation, lateral spreading and
ground cracking at the north abutment resulted in
settlement of the bridge approach (Figure 19-18).
• Also, cracks developed at the north abutment parallel to
the stream bank (Figure 19-19)

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INDIRECT DAMAGE

San Francisco Earthquake 1989 section of the Bay Bridge collapsed

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A part of the Cypress Freeway in Oakland California that collapsed during
the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

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a pedestrian bridge collapsed at Florida International University on March
15, 2018 in Miami.

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Highway overpass at the I-5 and I-14 interchange collapsed during the San
Fernando Earthquake in California on February 9, 1971.

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Super structure or slab failure (Claro River Bridge, Chile, 2010)

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(a) Column shear failure during the 2007 Pisco-Chincha earthquake
(b) Bridge collapse due to pier shear failure during Chi-Chi, Taiwan
earthquake 1999 .

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Bridge Collapse in Kobe Earthquake

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Bridge failure from earthquake, Japan 1995

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Collapsed Morandi bridge, in Genoa, Italy, 19 August 2018

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Shear Failure at West Column of Bent 5 of the Northwest Approach

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Typical shear key damages during the Wenchuan earthquake
(diagonal shear failure).

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Curtain wall shear failure at abutment of Bottom flange damage to Chada
Chada bridge. bridge

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I-10 closed at collapsed bridge in Desert Center

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Nishinomia Bridge 1995 Kobe earthquake, Japan Flow failures of structures -
caused by loss of strength of underlying soil

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The Road Damaged by Earthquake Experience in Traffic after
Great East Japan EQ, 2011

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Odisha Bridge Collapse near Kunjipani on NH-215

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Bridge failure after an earthquake. A crumpled section of the
Hanshin Expressway after the 7.3 magnitude Great Hanshin
Earthquake of 1995
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Side view of support-column failure and collapsed upper deck,
Cypress viaduct.

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SCOPE

IS: 1893 (Part 3) 2014


• Deals with railways bridges also. The earthquake effect
on bridge abutments is also covered.

• This standard does not deals with the construction


features relating to earthquake resistance design of
bridges.

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SCOPE (Cont.)
IRC: SP-114 -2018
• The guidelines are applicable for bridges with design life up to 100 years
and shall be designed for Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) only. Bridges
having design life more than 100 years are not covered under these
guideline.

• Ductile detailing is part of these guidelines.

• The present guidelines also cover the seismic design of the bridges with
seismic isolation devices.

• The earthquake resistant design due to ground motion effects has been
included in these guidelines. The ground surface rupture, tsunami,
landslides and near-field effects of earthquake hazards are not included in
these guidelines.
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Design philosophy

Special investigations
IS: 1893 (Part 3) 2014
• single span is greater than 600 m, even if there are no
geological discontinuities.
• In case of bridges over potentially active tectonic faults,
the probable discontinuity of the ground displacement
should be estimated and accommodated either by
adequate flexibility of the structure or by provision of
suitable movement joints.
IRC: SP-114 -2018
• Bridges with individual span length more than 150 m.

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Design philosophy
IRC 114 2018 IS 1893-2014 PART 3

Culverts and minor bridges up to 10m Masonry and plain concrete arch bridges
length in all seismic zones need not be with spans more than 10 m shall not be
designed for seismic effects. built in the seismic zones IV and V.

Bridges in seismic zones II and III satisfying Box, pipe and slab culverts need not be
both limits of total length not exceeding 60 designed for earthquake forces. Bridges of
m and individual simply supported spans total length not more than 60m and
not exceeding 15m need not be designed individual span not more than 15m need
for seismic effects. not be designed for earthquake forces
other than in Zones IV and V.

The dynamic earth pressures on abutments


during earthquakes shall not be considered
in Zones II and III.

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Site specific spectrum

IRC 114 2018 IS 1893-2014 PART 3

Bridges with individual span length more For special bridges as defined in 3.9 and 3.16
than 150 m and/or pier height is more than in seismic zones IV and V where soil
30 m in zone IV and V. Cable supported conditions are poor consisting of marine clay
bridges, such as extradosed, cable stayed or loose fine sand and silt (e.g. where the
and suspension bridge. Arch bridges having soil up to 30m depth has SPT N value equal
more than 50m span. Use of Site specific to or less than 20) and for bridges located
response spectrum of the bridge including near a known fault or the area is known for
geometrical nonlinearity, P-delta effect and complex seismo-tectonic geological setting,
soil- structure interaction is needed. detailed investigations will be carried out to
Dynamic analysis may be done to ascertain obtain the site specific spectrum. Site
the energy dissipation characteristics of specific spectrum is also required for bridges
ductile members with spans greater than 150m. Such a
spectrum shall be used for design in place of
code spectrum subject to minimum
requirements specified in this standard.

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Site specific spectrum (contd.)
IRC 114 2018 IS 1893-2014 PART 3

The bridge should be designed for DBE/MCE The seismic forces due to design basis earthquake
according to the design philosophy specified in (DBE) should not be combined with design wind
the guidelines, using limit state design procedure forces.
employing Force Based Method of seismic design
and response reduction factors. The Force Based
Design should meet the design philosophy and
the principles of capacity design should be
followed to protect the structure from collapse.

The scour to be considered during seismic design The scour to be considered for design shall be
shall be based on average of yearly maximum based on mean design flood. In the absence of
design floods. The average may preferably be detailed data the scour to be considered for
based on consecutive 7 years’ data. In any case, design shall be 0.9 times the maximum design
the scour depth to be considered for design scour depth.
during seismic shall not be less than 0.9 times the Note: The designer is cautioned that the
maximum design scour depth. maximum seismic scour case may not always be
governing design condition.

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Calculation of Natural Period
of Bridge
IS 1893 PART 3
For Simply Supported Bridges
Where the vibration unit of substructure can be idealized as a single
cantilever pier carrying the superstructure mass, resting on well, pile or
open foundation, the fundamental period shall be calculated from the
following equation.

T  2
g
Where
 = horizontal displacement at the top of pier due to horizontal force equal to mg, m
is equal to lumped mass at the top of pier. The elasticity of substructure and
foundation should be accounted for while evaluating the displacement.

For Other Types of Bridges


Where idealization by a single cantilever pier model is not possible, the natural periods
of vibration may be calculated by solving Eigen value problem of an appropriate
mathematical model of bridge superstructure, substructure, foundation and soil.

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Calculation of Natural Period
of Bridge (contd.)
IRC SP 114
The fundamental natural period T (in seconds) of pier/abutment of the
bridge along a horizontal direction may be estimated by the following
expression:

Where,
D = Appropriate dead load of the superstructure and live load in kN
F = Horizontal force in kN required to be applied at the centre of mass of
superstructure for one mm horizontal deflection at the top of the pier/ abutment for the
earthquake in the transverse direction; and the force to be applied at the top of the
bearings for the earthquake in the longitudinal direction.

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 Its applicability on specific structure type is given below
along with comparison in Table 5.2

• Pier height of bridge is less than 30m.


• Bridge having no abrupt or unusual changes in mass,
stiffness or geometry along its span
• Bridge should be straight in and adjacent piers do not
differ in stiffness by more than 25%

This method is not applicable for arch bridge of span


more than 30m, cable supported bridges, suspension
bridges and other innovative bridge
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Seismic Force on Live Load

IRC 114 2018 IS 1893-2014 PART 3

The seismic force shall not be considered when The seismic force due to live load shall not be
acting in direction of traffic, but shall be consider in considered when acting in the direction of traffic,
direction perpendicular to traffic. but shall be considered in the direction
perpendicular to traffic.

• The horizontal seismic force in the direction The live load on the bridges for urban highways
perpendicular to the traffic shall be calculated shall be 20% of design live load, 0% for rural roads
20 percent of live load (excluding impact factor) and 30% of design live load for railway bridges
• The vertical seismic force shall be calculated for without impact.
20 percent live load (excluding impact factor) Note: The bridge owner authorities can modify
these percentages on the basis of location of
All live load combination for verification of bridge and intensity of traffic.
equilibrium, structural strength, serviceability limit
state etc. the Tables B.1 to B.4 of IRC: 6-2017 shall
be referred.

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Effect of Soil-Structure-
Interaction
• For bridges founded on soft/ medium soil where deep foundation is
used for the purpose of seismic analysis, soil structure interaction
shall be considered. However, it shall not be considered for open
foundation on rocky strata.(IRC SP 114)

• This standard specifies design of structures founded on rock and


medium soil, which do not liquefy or slide during ground shaking.
The bridge founded on soft soil would require detailed studies of soil
structure interaction. The structure founded on well or pile
foundation on soft soil would require consideration of soil structure
interaction. The soil-structure interaction may not be considered for
open foundations on rocky strata.(IS 1893 PART 3)

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Requirements of method of
Seismic Analysis
IRS SP 114

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Requirements of method of
Seismic Analysis(contd.)

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Requirements of method of
Seismic Analysis(contd.)
IS 1893 PART 3

NOTE : In case of MCE, non-linear analysis and Time history Method shall be
adopted for regular, special regular and special irregular bridges.

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Seismic Analysis Methods

IRC SP 114
For most of the structures of low to meduim heights with small spand and
small length of bridge, elastic seismic acceleration method (Seismic
coefficient method) is adequate. In this method structure is analysed its
fundamental(single) mode of vibration. The seismic force to be ressisted by
bridge components shall be computed as follows:

Fh = Ah x (Dead load +Appropriate live load)


Where,

Fh = horizontal seismic force to be resisted.


Ah = design horizontal seismic coefficient

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Seismic Analysis Methods
IS 1893 PART 3
The seismic force to be resisted by bridge component shall be competed as
follows:
F = Ah W
Where
F = Horizontal seismic force to be resisted
W = Weight of mass under consideration ignoring reduction due to
buoyancy or uplift
Ah = Design horizontal seismic coefficient

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Calculation of Sa/g
IRC SP 114

For use in Elastic Seismic Acceleration For use in Elastic Response Spectrum
Method (Seismic Coefficient Method method

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Calculation of Sa/g (contd.)

For use in Elastic Seismic Acceleration For use in Elastic Response Spectrum
Method (Seismic Coefficient Method) method

Note: in the absence of calculations of fundamental period of small bridges, the value of
Sa/g may be taken as 2.5 in elastic seismic acceleration method.

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Response Reduction Factor

• In IRC 6 bridge components a and b given in the table


are extra provisions and remaining are same in both IRC
6 and IRC SP 114.
Bridge Component ‘R’ with Ductile ‘R’ without Ductile
Detailing Detailing (For Bridges
in zone II only)
a) Superstructure of integral/Semi integral 2.0 1.0
bridge/Framed bridges
b) Other types of Superstructure, 1.0 1.0
including precast segmental construction
Substructure
(i) Masonary/PCC Piers, Abutments 1.0 1.0
(ii) RCC wall piers and abutments 1.0 1.0
transverse direction (where plastic hinge
cannot develop)

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Response Reduction Factor
(contd.)
Bridge Component ‘R’ with Ductile ‘R’ without Ductile
Detailing Detailing (For Bridges
in zone II only)
(iii) RCC wall piers and abutments in 3.0 2.5
longitudinal diection (where hinge
can develop)
(iv) RCC single column 3.0 2.5
(v) RCC/PSC Frames a) Column 4.0 3.0
b) RCC beam 3.0 2.0
c) PSC beam 1.0 1.0
(vi) Steel Framed Construction 3.0 2.5
(vii) Steel Cantilever Pier 1.5 1.0
Bearing and Connections (see note v also) 1.0 1.0

Stoppers (Reaction Blocks) Those 1.0 1.0


restraining dislodgement or drafting away
of bridge elements. (See Note (vi) also)
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Response Reduction Factor
(contd.)
As per IS 1893 (Part 3)
Sl. No. Structure, component or connection R
(i) Superstructure, reinforced concrete 3.0
(ii) Superstructure, steel, prestressed concrete 2.5
(iii) Substructure
(a) Reinforced concrete piers with ductile detailing cantilever type, wall 3.0
type 2.0
(b) Reinforced concrete piers without ductile detailing*, cantilever type, 1.5
wall type 5.0
(c) Masonry piers (un reinforced) cantilever type, wall type 1.5
(d) Reinforced concrete, framed construction in piers, with ductile
detailing
(e) Steel framed construction

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Response Reduction Factor
(contd.)

f) Steel cantilever piers 3.0


(g) Steel trussed arch 2.5
(h) Reinforced concrete arch 2.5
(i) Abutments of mass concrete and masonry 1.0
(j) R.C.C. abutment 1.5
(k)Integral frame with ductile detailing 3.5
(l) Integral frame without ductile detailing 2.5

iv Bearings (Elastomeric, pot, knuckle, roller-rocker) 0.8

v Expansion joints and connections within a span of structure, hinge 1.0


vi Stoppers in bearings 1.0

vii Foundations (well, piles or open). 1.0

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Importance Factor
• It is same for IRC 6 AND IRC SP 114
Table: 4.3 – Importance factors
Seismic Class Illustrative Examples Importance
Factor ‘I’
Normal Bridges All Bridges except those mentioned in other 1
classes

a) River bridges and flyovers inside cities


b) Bridges on National and State Highways
c) Bridges serving traffic near ports and
Important Bridges other centres of economic activities 1.2

d) Bridges crossing two existing/proposed


railway lines ( Future lines shall not be
considered as proposed railway line)
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Importance Factor (contd.)
Seismic Class Illustrative Examples Importance Factor ‘I’
Long bridges more than
1km length across perennial
Large critical bridges rivers and creeks
in all seismic zones
Bridges for which alternative routes 1.5
are not available
Bridges crossing more than two
existing/proposed railway lines

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Importance Factor (contd.)
As per IS 1893 (Part 3)
Sl Seismic class(2) Illustrative example of bridges(3) Importance

no. factor ‘I’

(1)

i) Normal bridges All bridges except those mentioned in other classes 1

ii) Important bridges River bridges and flyovers inside cities 1.2

Bridges on national and state highways 1.2

Bridges serving traffic near ports and other centers 1.2

of economic activities

Bridges crossing railway lines 1.2


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Importance Factor (contd.)
Sl Seismic class(2) Illustrative example of bridges(3) Importanc

no. e factor ‘I’

(1)

iii) Large critical bridges in all Long bridge more than 1 km length across 1.5

seismic zone perennial rivers and creeks

Bridges for which alternative routes are not 1.5

available

All other bridges on group A, B and C routes 1.25

All other bridges 1.0


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Importance Factor (contd.)

Sl no. Seismic class(2) Illustrative example of bridges(3) Importance

(1) factor ‘I’

iv) Railway bridges All important bridges irrespective of route 1.5

Major bridges on group A,B and C routes 1.5

(Route classification as per IRP way manual )

Major bridges on all other routes 1.25

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Seating Width
IRC SP 114
SE = 305 +2.50L+10.0H for seismic zones IV and V

• Seating width for seismic zones II and III is not given in IRC SP 114 & IRC 6

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Seating Width (contd.)
IS 1893 (PART 3)
• The bearing seat width SE (in mm) between the end of girder and
edge of substructure, Fig. 4 and minimum SE between the ends of
girder at suspended joint should be not less that the following
values:
SE = 203 +1.67L+6.66H for seismic zones II and III
SE = 305 +2.50L+10.0H for seismic zones IV and V

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Where
L = Length (in meters) of the superstructure to the adjacent expansion joints or
to the end of superstructure. In case of bearings under suspended spans, it
is the sum of the lengths of two adjacent portions of the superstructure. In
case of single span bridges, it is equal to the length of the superstructure.

H= the average height (in meters) of all columns supporting the superstructure
to the next expansion joint, for bearings at abutments. It is equal to zero for
single span bridges. For bearings at column or piers, it is the height of
column or pier. For bearings under suspended spans, it is the average
height of two adjacent columns or piers.

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Vertical Hold-Down Devices

• Provision for vertical hold-down devices is same in IRC SP 114 & IS


1893 (PART 3)

• Vertical hold-down devices shall be provided at all supports (or hinges in


continuous structures), where resulting vertical force U due to the
maximum elastic horizontal and vertical seismic forces (combined as per
relevant clause of the Code) opposes and exceeds 50% of the dead load
reaction D. Refer Fig for typical details of holding- down bars.

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Vertical Hold-Down Devices
(contd.)

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Vertical Hold-Down Devices
(contd.)
• Where vertical force U, due to the combined effect of maximum
elastic horizontal and vertical seismic forces, opposes and exceeds
50%, but is less than 100% of the dead load reaction D, the vertical
hold-down device shall be designed for a minimum net upward force
of 10% of the downward dead load reaction that would be exerted if
the span were simply supported.

• If the vertical force U, due to the combined effect of maximum


horizontal and vertical seismic forces, opposes and exceeds 100%
of the dead load reaction D, then the device shall be designed for a
net upward force of 1.2 (U-D); however, it shall not be less than 10%
of the downward dead load reaction that would be exerted if the
span were simply supported.

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