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ACOUSTICS

UNIT - II
Introduction
What is Acoustics?

means
Acoustics Science of sound

derived means
Acoustics Greek word Acovein To hear

Acoustics provide proper hearing conditions to normal people


Functions Of Acoustics

1. To prevent out side sound coming inside and vice versa

2. To reduce noise levels and secure the desired quiet conditions in all types
of spaces like offices, factories etc

3. To help achieve the desired hearing conditions in various types of spaces


like Auditoriums , Halls etc

Factors Involving Sound

When we hear a sound 3 factors are involved

1. Source of sound
2. The medium it travels through

3. The ear as the receiver


The Sound
Sound is the simplest form of energy

It is a wave motion in the air

These waves are created by any vibrating body and travel through the
medium
Air Speed of sound 343.2m/s

Medium Water Speed of sound 1482 m/s

Steel Speed of sound 5800 m/s

Transverse Motion of the particle is perpendicular


waves to the direction of the wave
Waves

Longitudinal Motion of the particle is parallel to the


waves direction of the wave

Sound waves are mostly longitudinal waves


The Sound Transmission

A vibrating body induces the layer of air particles next to its surface to vibrate

These air particles transmit their motion to its next layer

But a small interval is required to set the next layer in motion

Properties of Sound

1. Sound waves spread out in all three dimensions and so are spherical in shape

2. Every air particle vibrates only in the direction in which the wave is travelling

3. Every air particle vibrates only in the direction in which the wave is travelling
Oscillation

An equilibrium position is a


point where an oscillating object
experiences 0 resultant forces

1 Complete Oscillation
A complete
oscillation occurs when
the vibrating object
moves to and fro from its
original position and
moves in the same
direction as its original
motion
Amplitude

Amplitude is the maximum


displacement of an object from its
equilibrium position

The SI unit for amplitude is meter, m

Period

Period is defined as the time required for one complete oscillation or


vibration
Frequency

Frequency, f is the number of complete oscillations that take place in one


second

The SI unit for frequency is hertz, Hz


Important Formula: Frequency (f)= 1/T(period)
The number of sound waves produced in unit time is called the frequency of
sound waves
Wavelength
The wavelength, λ, of a
wave is the distance from
any point on one wave to
the same point on the next
wave along

To avoid confusion, it is best to measure wavelength from the top of a crest to
the top of the next crest, or from the bottom of a trough to the bottom of the
next trough
Velocity Of Sound
Distance covered by sound wave in unit time is called the velocity of sound
wave
Velocity of sound wave is

Velocity = Frequency X Wavelength

Therefore, velocity can be


defined as distance travelled per
second by sound wave
Sound Intensity (I)
Sound intensity also known as acoustic intensity is defined as the
sound power per unit area

The SI unit of sound intensity is the watt per square meter (W/m2)

Inverse Square Law (sound)


Another very important but little known acoustical phenomena is the
Inverse Square Law

As a sound wave propagates spherically, the sound energy is distributed over
the ever-increasing surface diameter of the wave front surface

The Inverse Square Law teaches us that for every doubling of the distance
from the sound source in a free field situation, the sound intensity will diminish
by 6 decibels
Inverse Square Law (sound)

The intensity of sound is inversely proportional to the square of the distance


from the source of sound

Decibel Scale
Decibel Scale

 Describes intensity relative to threshold of hearing based on multiples


of 10

Threshold of hearing is at 10-12 W/m2


Sound Decibel
s
Rustling 10
Decibels of Everyday Sounds
leaves
Whisper 30
Ambient office 45
noise
Conversation 60
Auto traffic 80
Concert 120
Decibel Additions