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 Single-celled  DNA not surrounded

MONERANS Consists of all bacteria  Prokaryotic by a membrane. It is

organisms dispersed in the
Autotrophic perform cytoplasm.
photosynthesis to make  Protective cell wall
Nutrition around the cell

their own food.

Bacteria can be membrane.
autotrophic or
Most bacteria are
heterotrophic. heterotrophic and perform
the function of nutrition in
Reproduction different ways:
Asexually through  Saprotrophic: dead
binary fission (A organisms.
 Symbiotic: Establish a Bacteria can be classified into four groups
single cell divides into according to their shape.
relationship with other
two identical cells)
organisms. Both
organisms benefit.
Interaction  Parasitic: bacteria live
Some bacteria move on or in other organism
using their flagella. (host). Bacteria benefit
but host is damaged.

**Photosynthetic bacteria are producers that

release oxygen into the atmosphere.
Saprotrophic bacteria act as decomposers, they
transform organic matter into inorganic matter.
PROTOCTISTS There are two groups  Algae or autotrophic protoctists
 Protozoans or heterotrophic protoctists


Aquatic eukaryotic Algae can be single- No true stems, leaves Algae have a cell wall. Algae live in fresh and
organisms. celled or multicellular. or roots. Algae don’t form seawater
Perform tissue or organs. environments.


Nutrition Reproduction Interaction

All algae are autotrophic. In Algae can produce sexually (male Some single-celled use flagella
order to perform and female gametes), asexually, whereas multicellular algae can’t move
photosynthesis, algae have or both ways. by their own.
chlorophyll. Algae reproduce asexually Some planktonic algae produce light by
through binary fission, spores or bioluminiscence.


Green algae Brown algae Red algae

• Chlorophyll • Most are multicellular and grow in The reddish pigments allow them to
• They live in all types of aquatic marine habitats. perform photosynthesis in much deeper
environment. • They include kelp, the largest water than green or brown algae.
• Green algae store starch. protoctists.
PROTOCTISTS Single-celled, eukaryotic,
heterotrophic organism

PROTOZOANS Some are free-living and live in the soil, as well as

fresh or salt water while other are parasites.


Nutrition Reproduction Interaction

All protozoans are heterotrophs and They reproduce asexually by Some protozoans are immobile while
eat bacteria, algae or other binary fission or multiple fission, others move using cilia, flagella or
protozoans to obtain the nutrients sexually or both. pseudopods (false feet).
they need to live.
Protozoans ingest their food by a
process called phagocytosis.


Flagellates Ciliates Rhizopods Sporozoans

• Move using flagella • They have cilia at some point in their • They move using pseudopods. • They are parasitic and immobile.
• Some are free-living and some are life cycle. • These include amoebas and
parasites tha live in humans and other • They can be parasites or free-living. foraminifera.
animals. • Amoebas don’t have a shell. They are
usually free-living but also include
• Foraminifera are marine organisms
with a calcium carbonate shell.
FUNGI Includes Eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms

 Fungi cells have a cell wall that doesn’t  Fungi grow in the soil, in dark,  They can be single-celled, such
contain cellulose. damp places or on the organic as yeasts
 Don’t have chloroplasts. matter they feed on.  Or multicellular, such as moulds
 Don’t form tissues. and mushrooms.


Nutrition Reproduction Interaction

All fungi are heterotrophic. Asexually and sexually. Fungi are immobile.
 Saprophytic fungi: feed on decomposing organic matter.
 Parasitic fungi: cause diseases in plants and animals.
 Symbiotic fungi: Establish symbiotic relationship with other
organisms. Lichens are formed from a fungus and an alga.


Unicellular fungi Multicellular fungi

• Yeasts are unicelular fungi. Some are • Moulds are multicelular filamentous
harmful while other are beneficial. fungi. They grow on descomposing
organic matter.
• Mushrooms are multicelular fungi.