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Patterns and Algebra

AY 2019-2020/Term 2
Lesson 9:
Polynomial Equations
Time Frame: 3-5 meetings 16 Sep 2019
Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian
At the end of the lesson, the learner will be able to:
 Illustrate polynomial equations
 Solve polynomial equations
 Solve problems involving polynomial equations

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Definition
A polynomial equation of degree n in one
variable x is an equation that can be written as
𝒏
𝒂𝒏 𝒙 + 𝒂𝒏−𝟏 𝒙 𝒏−𝟏 + 𝒂𝒏−𝟐 𝒙 𝒏−𝟐 𝟐
+ ⋯ + 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 +
𝟏
𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒂𝟎 = 𝟎,
where 𝒂𝒏 , 𝒂𝒏−𝟏 , 𝒂𝒏−𝟐 , … , 𝒂𝟎 are real numbers.

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 3 of 21
Rational Root Theorem
If 𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒂𝒏 𝒙𝒏 + 𝒂𝒏−𝟏 𝒙𝒏−𝟏 + 𝒂𝒏−𝟐 𝒙𝒏−𝟐 + 𝒂𝒏−𝟑 𝒙𝒏−𝟑 + ⋯ 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒂𝟎
has integer coefficients where 𝒂𝒏 ≠ 𝟎, 𝒂𝟎 ≠ 𝟎, and p/q is a rational
root of f(x), then p is an integer factor of the constant term 𝒂𝟎 and q is
an integer factor of the leading coefficient 𝒂𝒏 .

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 4 of 20
Example 1
Solve each polynomial equation:
1. 𝟗𝒙𝟒 − 𝟗𝒙𝟐 + 𝟐 = 𝟎
𝟓 𝟑
2. 𝟒𝒙 − 𝟐𝟏𝒙 + 𝟐𝟕𝒙 = 𝟎
𝟐 𝟒
3. 𝒙 + 𝟐 𝒙 − 𝟏 = 𝟎
4. 𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝒙 − 𝟑 𝟑 = 𝟎
𝟑 𝟐
5. 𝒙 − 𝟏𝟎𝒙 + 𝟑𝟐𝒙 − 𝟑𝟐 = 𝟎

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 5 of 20
Quadratic Surd Roots
Theorem
Surds are numbers left in root form ( 𝑎) to express in exact value. These
are irrational numbers.
If the quadratic surd 𝑎 + 𝑏 is a root of a polynomial equation, where
a and b are rational numbers, and 𝑏 is an irrational number, then
𝑎 − 𝑏 is also root of a polynomial equation.

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Example 2
If the given quadratic surd is a root of a polynomial
equation, give the other quadratic surd that is also a root
of the polynomial equation.

1. 𝟐 + 𝟐
2. −𝟔 𝟑 − 𝟐
3. −𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 7 of 20
Example 3
Determine if the given value of c is a root of the given
equation.
1. 𝒙𝟑 − 𝟑𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙 + 𝟒 = 𝟎; 𝒄 = 𝟐
𝟓 𝟒 𝟑 𝟐
2. 𝟒𝒙 + 𝟏𝟔𝒙 + 𝟗𝒙 − 𝟗𝒙 = 𝟎; 𝒄 = 𝟎

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 8 of 20
Example 4
Solve each polynomial equation.
1. 𝟐𝒙𝟑 − 𝟓𝒙𝟐 − 𝟏𝟒𝒙 + 𝟖 = 𝟎
𝟒 𝟑 𝟐
2. 𝒙 − 𝟔𝒙 − 𝟗𝒙 + 𝟏𝟒𝒙 = 𝟎
𝟓 𝟒 𝟑 𝟐
3.𝒙 + 𝟔𝒙 + 𝟏𝟎𝒙 + 𝟑𝒙 = 𝟎

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 9 of 20
Example 5
One of the roots of the polynomial equation is given. Find
the other roots.
𝟔 𝟓 𝟒 𝟑
𝒙 − 𝟑𝒙 − 𝟏𝟏𝒙 + 𝟐𝟏𝒙 = 𝟎; 𝒙 = 𝟑 − 𝟐

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 10 of 20
Example 6
Find the length of the edge of a cube if an increase of 2
cm in one dimension and of 6 cm in another, and a
decrease of 5 cm in the third, makes the volume 420
𝒄𝒎𝟑 .

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 11 of 20
Example 7
A wooden cube is to be cut 2 inches from one side. If the
remaining solid is 1440 cubic inches, how long is the edge
of the cube?

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 12 of 20
Example 8
A certain company is using a box with dimensions 20
inches by 15 inches by 10 inches in packing their
products. The marketing department would like to
increase each of these dimensions by the same amount
to create a new box so that the volume is five times the
volume of the original box. What should be the
dimensions of the new box?

Sir Well/Ms. Pearl/Ms. Gian Polynomial Equations 16 June


18 September
2018 2019 13 of 20
Formative Assessment
(Computational Exercises)
FA# 1
I. One of the roots of the polynomial equations is given. Find the
other roots.
1. 𝒙𝟓 − 𝒙𝟒 − 𝟕𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝟔𝒙 = 𝟎; 𝒙 = 𝟏
2. 𝒙𝟒 − 𝒙𝟑 − 𝟕𝒙𝟐 + 𝟏𝟑𝒙 − 𝟔 = 𝟎; 𝒙 = 𝟏
Formative Assessment
(Computational Exercises)

II. Form the polynomial equation with integral coefficients whose


only roots are given.
1. −𝟏, 𝟐, −𝟑
𝟏
2. , 𝟐, − 𝟐
𝟐
Formative Assessment
(Computational Exercises)

III. Factor completely.


𝒙𝟓 + 𝟖𝒙𝟒 + 𝟏𝟒𝒙𝟑 + 𝟏𝟑𝒙𝟐 + 𝟔𝒙.
IV. Find the sum and product of the roots of 𝒙𝟒 + 𝒙𝟑 − 𝟏𝟑𝒙𝟐 −
𝟐𝟓𝒙 − 𝟏𝟐.
Modelling/Application
Exercises
V. Solve the following problems.
1. The length of a rectangular box is 1 inch less than
twice the width. If the height is 2 inches less than the
length and the volume of the box is 594 cubic inches,
find the dimensions of the box.
2. You are designing candle making kits. Each kit
contains25 cubic inches of candle wax and a mold for
making a pyramid-shaped candle. You want the height
of the candle to be 2 inches less than the length of each
side of the candle’s square base. What should be the
dimensions of your candle mold be?
REFERENCES
Required Text:
Mercado, Jesus P. et. al. Next Century Mathematics 10(2019). Phoenix
Publishing House: Quezon City.

Suggested Text:
Rosario,J., Eden,R., Eniego, A., Lundag, L. (2018) Our World of Math
10(2nd Edition).Quezon City : Vibal Group,Inc.

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Thank You!

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