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• Why do we need Performance Based approach

• What is Performance Based Approach

– Performance Based Design (PBD)
– Performance Based Evaluation (PBE)
• When do we need to use PBA
• What is needed to carryout PBA
• How do we carryout PBA
• What is the outcome of PBA
• What are the advantages of PBA
• What are the disadvantages of PBA

• Why do we need to carryout Performance Based Design
Evaluation when we have the building and design codes
Client/Owner General Building Codes

Architect Structural Design Codes

Structural Designer Law Makers

Geotech Consultants Building Officials

Peer Reviewer Legal and Justice System


Public/ Users/ Occupants

• Public
– Will the building be safe?
• Owner
– Will the building collapse/ will it be damaged ?
– Can I use the building after a given earthquake? (blast, hurricane..)
– How much will repair cost?
– How long will it take to repair?
– Can I make building that will not be damaged and will not collapse
• Public Officials
– Who is responsible if loss of life occurs?

Who should have all the answers?

• Can not answer most of the these questions explicitly
• Answers are always qualified
• There is no warranty for the structure

• There are too many unknowns

• Public understanding and engineers understanding of safety is different

• Has to hide behind the design codes

• Main concerns
– Safety, Serviceability, Durability >> Collectively called “Performance”
• For effects of
– Loads from self weight, occupants
– Wind
– Earthquake
– Special loads (blast, flooding, tsunami, hurricane, fire, ..)
• Some effects to be handled without damage, for some effects some damage
may be allowed

• High gravity stresses in the vertical elements
• High base overturning moment and foundation design (wind, seismic)
• High shear capacity needed near base (seismic)
• Development of ductility in elements at the base of structure under high compressive gravity
stress (seismic)
• Controlling lateral accelerations (wind)
• Controlling story drift (wind and seismic)
• Controlling damage so as to permit repair (seismic)
• Ductile energy dissipation mechanisms and preventing brittle failures (seismic)
• Traditional codes govern design of general, normal buildings
– Over 95% buildings are covered, which are less than about 50 m
• Not specifically developed for tall buildings > 50 m tall
• Prescriptive in nature, no explicit check on outcome
• Permit a limited number of structural systems
• Do not include framing systems appropriate for high rise
• Based on elastic methods of analysis
• Enforce uniform detailing rules on all members
• Enforce unreasonable demand distribution rules
• Do not take advantage of recent computing tools

• Implicit Performance Objective
– Resist minor earthquake without damage, which is anticipated to occur several times
during the life of a building, without damage to structural and non-structural components

– Resist the design level of earthquake with damage without causing loss of life

– Resist strongest earthquake with substantial damage but a very low probability of collapse.

• Explicit verification not specified or required

• Lack of explicit performance in design codes is primary motivation for
performance based design
• Performance based methods require the designer to assess how a building is
likely perform under earthquake shaking and other extreme events and their
correct application will help to identify unsafe designs.
• At the same time this approach enables arbitrary restrictions to be lifted and
provides scope for the development of safer and more cost-effective structural
• Applied Technology Council (ATC-72)
• Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER)
• Building Seismic Safety Council Research Center (BSSCR)
• Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA 356)
• Basic ASCE Documents (ASCE 7, ASCE 3, ASCC 4)
• Structural Engineering Association of California (Blue Book and SEAOC PBD

• Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council (LATBSDC)

Performance based design
can be applied to any type
of loads, but is typically
suitable and targeted for
earthquake loads

Mass-Acceleration Stiffness-Displacement External Force

Mu  Cu  Ku  FNL  F


  Cu  Ku
Acceleration Records
Mu  Cu  Ku  Mug Time History Analysis

  Cu  Ku  FNL  F
Free Vibration Equivalent
Ku  FEQ Static Analysis
  Ku  0
Ku  FNL  FEQ Analysis

Ku  FEQ Response Spectrum

Response Spectrums
S MS  Fa S S
V  CsW

CS  Fa = Site coefficient short period (
 R Ss = Spectral accelerations for short periods, Maps
  R = The response modification factor
Cs need not be  IE  IE = The occupancy importance factor
greater than
2 S M 1  FV S1
S DI S D1  SM1
CS  3
 T
 IE  FV = Site coefficient, 1 sec period
T = Fundamental period (in seconds) of the structure
Cs must be greater than
S1 = Spectral accelerations for a 1-second period, Maps
0 .5 S 1
CS  CS  0.01
 
IE 
• R is dependent on structural system and ranges from 3 to 8 (bad to good)
• Fa is site modification for short period spectrum and ranges from 0.8 to 2.5
(good to bad)
• Fv is a site modification for 1 sec period spectrum and ranges from 0.8 to 3.5
(good to bad)
• IE Ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 (Normal to important)

• Total variation can be up to 16 times for buildings in the same Seismic Zone