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Chapter 1

Safety- the only choice
that we have which is a

SAFETY at glance….

PM Dr Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen 2

Space utilization….
Do I look as a ZORO
“burga”….chinese style
Boss is always right….
Safety helmet….
Lucky Young Man
Tremendous disaster…Bhopal Tragedy

Tremendous disaster…

On March 23, 2005, at 1:20 p.m., the BP Texas City Refinery suffered one of the worst industrial
disasters in recent U.S. history. Explosions and fires killed 15 people and injured another 180,
alarmed the community, and resulted in financial losses exceeding $1.5 billion. The incident
occurred during the startup of an isomerization1 (ISOM) unit when a raffinate splitter tower 2 was
overfilled; pressure relief devices opened, resulting in a flammable liquid geyser from a blowdown
stack that was not equipped with a flare. The release of flammables led to an explosion and fire. All
of the fatalities occurred in or near office trailers located close to the blowdown drum. A shelter-in-
place order was issued that required 43,000 people to remain indoors. Houses were damaged as
far away as three-quarters of a mile from the refinery. The BP Texas City facility is the third-largest
oil refinery in the United States. Prior to 1999, Amoco owned the refinery. BP merged with Amoco
in 1999 and BP subsequently took over operation of the plant.
Flixborough , UK— In June 2009 it will be 35 Years since the tragedy…

Cold Embrittlement and Thermal Stress….Australia

Gasoline pipeline damaged by construction
causes fire

Ice ruptures unused pipe and

causes fire!

Laboratory Refrigerator Explosions

– Electrical Classification
Sugar refinery ….is sugar an explosion
YES !!!!....Georgia, USA
Static Electric Discharge Causes
Electrical fire

Electrical burn…internal
Electrical burn entrance injuries
•Human consequences
- Off-site
- On-site
•Environmental consequences
•Business consequences
Course Synopsis
• This course is primarily to expose students with the fundamental
concepts, practical aspects and applications of occupational
safety and health (OSH) in chemical industries.
• Among others, the students will be taught the fundamental
application and day-to-day aspects of OSH and at the same
time, the management aspects of it.
• Local and international regulations of SH&E such as OSHA and
FMA will also be covered.
• Case studies from several chemical industries globally will also
be included.
Course Outline [BKC3533 OSH In Chemical Industries]

Chapter 1 : Introduction

•Importance of SH&E( Health, Safety and

•Process Safety and hazards in process industries
•Inherent safety & layer of protection
•Responsible Care
•Case studies

Chapter 2 : Laws & Regulations

•OSHA 1994 & FMA 1967

•Codes of practice and guidelines
•ILO-OSH & MS1722
•Occupational Safety and Health Mgt. Sys.
Chapter 3 : Process Safety Management (PSM)

•Introduction to PSM
•The 14 Major Sections

Chapter 4 : Health

•Toxicological Studies
•Dose versus Response
•Threshold Limit Values
Chapter 5 : Hazards Identification
•Introduction of Hazard Identifications
•HAZOP guidewords
•Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP)
Chapter 6 : Risk Assessment

•Introduction to Risk Assessments

•Fault Tree Analysis
Chapter 7 : Source Models & Dispersion Models

•Introduction to Source Models

•Parameters Affecting Dispersion
•Pasquill-Gifford Models
Chapter 8 : Fires & Fire Preventions

•Fire Triangle
•Flammability characteristic of liquid and vapor
•Flammability Diagram

Mini Project

•Test 1 15 %
•Test 2 15 %
•Quizzes 10 %
•Assignments 05 %
•Mini Project 15 %
•Final Examination 40 %

Total 100 %
Learning References

• Crowl, D.A. and Louvar, J.F., Chemical Process

Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Prentice Hall
, USA, 1990.

• Allen, DT and Shonnard, DR., Green Engineering:

Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical
Processes, Prentice Hall, USA, 2002.

• Perry, RH and Green, DW, Perry’s Chemical

Engineer’s Handbook, 7th Ed., McGraw Hill, USA,
Topic Outline

Importance of safety & health in Chemical


Discuss the differences between process safety &

occupational safety & hazard in process industries

Accidents & loss statistics, FAR, incident rate &

fatality rate

Inherent safety & Responsible Care

Case Studies
At the end of this topic, it is expected that students will be
able to:
• Identify the importance of safety & health programs

• Discuss the differences between process safety & occupational

safety & hazard in process industries

• Explain the importance of accident and loss statistics and

calculate the number of accidents and/or fatalities using OSHA
incidence rate, FAR and fatality rate.

• Explain the definition and importance of inherent safety &

responsible care

• Describe the most cited disasters and identify its impact to the
standard in the practice of safety
• the prevention of accidents through the use of appropriate
Safety & loss prevention technologies to identify the hazards of a chemical plant and
eliminate them before an accident occurs.

• a chemical or physical condition that has the potential to cause

Hazard damage to people, property, or the environment

• An undesirable event which has a potential to cause a serious

Near misses accident.

• a measure of human injury, environmental damage, or economic

Risk loss in terms of both the incident likelihood and the magnitude of
the loss or injury.

• unexpected and unplanned incident or sequential incident that

Accident causes injury and illness, material damage or process loss.

• is arisen when one is exposed with the hazard.

• In 1987, Robert M. Solow, an economist at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, received the Nobel Prize in economics
for his work in determining the sources of economic growth.

Professor Solow concluded that the bulk of an economy's growth is

the result of technological advances.

• It is reasonable to conclude that the growth of an industry is also

dependent on technological advances.

• This is especially true in the chemical industry, which is

entering an era of more complex processes: higher pressure,
more reactive chemicals, and exotic chemistry.

• More complex processes require more complex safety


• Many industrialists even believe that the development and

application of safety technology is actually a constraint on the
growth of the chemical industry.

• As chemical process technology becomes more complex, chemical

engineers will need a more detailed and fundamental understanding
of safety. H. H. Fawcett said, "To know is to survive and to ignore
fundamentals is to court disaster."

• The interest is to set out the fundamentals of chemical process


• Since 1950, significant technological advances have been made in

chemical process safety.

• Today, safety is equal in importance to production and has

developed into a scientific discipline that includes many highly
technical and complex theories and practices.
Historical mileage * Chemical factory-fire, 2004

disaster/accident in Malaysia
Non-exhaustive technological
* Chemical warehouse-explosion,2004
* Gas processing-fire, 2002
* Refinery plant-fire,
West Malaysia, 1997
* Petroleum complex-fire,
East Malaysia, 1997
* Chlorine release, KWSB 1997
* Fire & explosion, Beranang 1991
* Choon Hong III ship, Tiram kimia
(explosion), 1992
* Bright Sparkle factory explosion, 1991
* Occupational Safety & health Act, 1994
Some of Malaysia's

* Factory & Machineries Act, 1967

(come into force in 1970)

* Machinery Enactment, 1914


* Regulations with regards to boiler in Pahang * Electrical Supply Act, 1990

& Negeri Sembilan, 1908 * Fire Service Act, 1988
* The Perak Boiler Enactment, 1903 * Machinery Ordinance, 1953 * Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 1984
* Petroleum Act, 1984
* Selangor Boiler Enactment, 1892 * New Machinery Enactment, 1932
* Environmental Quality Act, 1974
* Uniform Building by-Laws, 1984
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 ???? Year

The inspection era The noise era & The behaviour-based era & human era
The era(s) of

safety management era


The accountability era

The industrial hygience era

The unsafe act & condition era The occupational safety & health era


Human error

Safety Management

Multi-plant safety
Individual plant safety

Cluster-safety culture
Safety management




Source : Azizan et al. (2014)
OSH Structure function and organization in Malaysia

Services Sosial partners Educations, research &

- Government agencies - Employer training
(JKKP, NIOSH, associations
- NGO's - Employee - Academic Institutions
- Ministries associations - Private Institutions
- Academic Institutions (MTUC, - NGO's
- SIRIM CUEPACS) - Consultants
- Consultants - NGO's - International organisations
- Certification & audit - International - ASEAN partners
(system) organisations
- ASEAN partners
Administration & - FMA
- JKKP Safety Protection &

Emergency - PERKESO,
- Government KWSP,insurance
- Medical scheme,
- NGO's KWSP, pension,
Policy advisory & promotion ex-gratia
- Ministries
- MKN (National - MNKKP (National Council
Security Council) for OSH)
Accident statistic in Malaysia
Industrial Accident (including occupational diseases), Industrial accident (not inclusive of occupational
2004-2013 diseases), 2004-2012
70000 120 40000 100
34577 33427 34388 33551 90
60000 35000 33187 33268
50000 30000
80 70
25000 60
60 20000 50
15000 40
20000 30
20 20








5000 10
0 0
0 0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Reported cases accident rate (per 10, 000 employee)
Reported cases accident rate (per 10, 000 employee)

public services 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

private & others
household & 11.77% NPD PD D NPD PD D NPD PD D NPD PD D NPD PD D
salaried 126 133
160 178 196
employees Manufacturing
30.28% 2000
real estate, 4000
3396 3397
leasing & No. of victims 4164
businesses 6000
Finance & Mining &
insurance quarrying
1.65% 0.65%

Hotel & 12000

8.00% 14000
3.17% Wholesale &
retail Agriculture,
transportation forestry & 16000 15370 15409
& storage Utility fishing 16414 16311 16506
6.56% 1.11% 4.17% 18000
Process Safety vs. Occupational Safety

• Occupational safety primarily covers management of personnel

safety and incidents affecting individual workers such as slips
and falls.

• Process safety addresses major hazards that are more likely to

result in major accident such as gas explosion or fire.

• Process safety focuses on three key aspects:- plant (hardware),

process (systems), & people
Process Safety vs. Occupational Safety

• All behavior influenced by context in which it occurs

• Both physical and social context
• Occupational safety focuses on changing individual behavior
• Process safety focuses on design of system in which behavior occurs

• To understand why process accidents occur and to prevent

them, need to:
• Understand current context (system design)
• Create a design that effectively ensures safety
Fundamental principles

Using knowledge & skill for enhancement of human


Honest and impartial and serving with fidelity the

public, their employers and clients

Striving to increase the competence and prestige of the

engineering profession
The aspects to consider while developing a safety & health

Consideration of loss of life, human pain

HUMANITARIAN and suffering, family suffering and
hardship and etc
Employer is legally responsible to
LEGAL maintain employees safety and health at
the workplace and pay for any cost of

ECONOMIC Prevention cost less that accident

Theories of Accident Causation
• There are several major theories concerning accident causation,
each of which has some explanatory and predictive value.

1.The domino theory developed by H. W. Heinrich, a safety engineer and pioneer

in the field of industrial accident safety.
2. Human Factors Theory
3. Accident/Incident Theory
4.Epidemiological Theory
5.Systems Theory
6.The energy release theory
7.Normal Accident Theory
8.Swiss-cheese theory
9.Behaviour Theory

• Accident theories guide safety investigations. They describe the scope of an

Heinrich's Domino Theory
According to Heinrich, an "accident" is one factor in a sequence
that may lead to an injury.

The factors can be visualized as a series of dominoes standing on


When one falls, the linkage required for a chain reaction is


Each of the factors is dependent on the preceding factor.

Heinrich’s Dominos – The Process

1. A personal injury (the final domino) occurs only as a result of an


2. An accident occurs only as a result of a personal or mechanical hazard.

3. Personal and mechanical hazards exist only through the fault of

careless persons or poorly designed or improperly maintained equipment.

4. Faults of persons are inherited or acquired as a result of their social

environment or acquired by ancestry.

5. The environment is where and how a person was raised and educated.
10 Heinrich’s Axioms of Industrial Safety

Injuries result from a completed series of factors, one of which is the accident itself

An accident can occur only as the result of an unsafe act by a person and/or a physical or
mechanical hazard
Most accident are the result of unsafe behaviour by people

An unsafe act by a person or an unsafe condition does not always immediately result in an
The reasons why people commit unsafe acts can serve as helpful guides in selecting corrective
The severity of an accident is largely fortuitous, an the accident that caused it is largely preventable

The best accident prevention techniques are analogous with the best quality and productivity
Management should assume responsibility for safety because it is in the best position to get result

The supervisor is the key person in the prevention of industrial accident

In addition to the direct costs of an accident, there are also hidden or indirect cost
Heinrich’s Domino Theory – Corrective Action Sequence
(The three “E”s)

1. Engineering
Control hazards through product design or process

2. Education
• – Train workers regarding all aspects of safety
• – Impose on management that attention to safety pays off

3. Enforcement
• – Insure that internal and external rules, regulations, and
standard operating procedures are followed by workers as well
as management.
Hazards in Process Industry
Process Industries
•Mineral processing
•Oil and gas (upstream and
•Food processing
•Utility etc.
Major Hazards

•There are common 3 Major Hazards:

• Impacts on plant, people and environment
• May also followed by toxic release
• Same as fire but more severe
•Toxic Release
• Impacts of people and environment
 Jet Fire

Types of Fire

 Pool Fire
•Flash Fire
Types of Explosion  Boiling Liquid Expanding
Vapor Explosion (BLEVE)

• Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE)

 Dust Explosion
Toxic release
Direct Vs. Indirect Incident Cost Iceberg

It is estimated that for

Direct every $1 in direct incident
Costs costs, there are anywhere
from $4 to $11 in indirect
or “hidden” costs.


Insured Costs -- covering injury, ill health, damage.

Hidden Uninsured – 8-36 times as much as insured costs
Accident costs

• Toulouse in 2001 (ammonium nitrate explosion). Killed 30
people and injured 10,000 others : 1.5 – 2 billion pound

• Buncefield in 2005 (explosion at petrol storage depot).

Injured 43 people: 1.0 billion pound sterling

• Texas City in 2005 (Oil refinery explosion). 15 killed and

180 injured: estimated US$2 billion in civil claim & US$1
billion spent on reviewing and upgrading site.
Direct cost @ immediate cost

•Replacing damaged stock / material
•Lost production
•Temporary production / relocation to other
•Additional transport costs
•Injured people
•Staff cost (e.i sick pay, replacement
staff/overtime, training / redeployment of staff
Source: IChemE
Investigation @ legal cost

•Site investigation costs

•Regulator investigation costs
•Prosecution and court costs/preparing defence
•Environmental clean up/ongoing monitoring
•Restocking rivers/woodlands etc
•Civil claims

Source: IChemE
Indirect @ long term cost

• Company image / reputation

• Public relations / media
• Community
• Neighbouring businesses
• Staff morale
• Health costs / long term health monitoring
• Loss of customers due to inability to supply
• Customer may go to dual sourcing or stay with other
supplier so sales might not come back to same level
• Review / upgrade of sites facilities
Source: IChemE
…take this upcoming opportunity
to gain more knowledge about
Occupational SAFETY &

54 PM Dr Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen