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EUKARYOTIC ALGAE:

RED AND BROWN

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PIGMENTED TYPES

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KINGDOM
PROTISTA
 Eukaryotic – compartmentalized
 Endosymbiotic Theory

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 Garbagebin – high diversity of
organisms
 Plant-likeProtists – ALGAE
 No vascular tissue
 Aquatic habitat
ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY

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RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
Class Rhodophyceae

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General characteristics

 Pigments: Chlorophyll a & d


Phycobilins: Phycoerythrin
 Non-motile

 Reserve food= FLORIDEAN STARCH


RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
Cell wall – amorphous layer (gelans,
agar, carageenans)

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- protection for dessication
Habitat- mostly marine

Forms: unicellular, filamentous,

thalloid (colony forming sheets)


Pit connections
RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
Class Subclass Genera

Rhodophyceae Bangiophycidae Porphyridium

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Compsopogon

Porphyra

Florideophycidae Eucheuma

Gracilaria

Polysiphonia
RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Subclass Bangiophycidae

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 No pit connections

 Unicellular – uninucleated

 No sexual reproduction

 Porphyridium, Compsopogon, Porphyra


RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Porphyridium
 unicellular, has a stellate chloroplast

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RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Compsopogon
 Filamentous

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 Found in fresh water
 Has vegetative cells and corticating cells
RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Porphyra
 Thalloid
forming (blade, holdfast)
 Economic use as : Japanese Nori (sushi wrapper)

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LIFE CYCLE OF PORPHYRA

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RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Subclass Florideophycidae

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 With pit connections

 Exhibit sexual reproduction

 Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Polysiphonia


RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Eucheuma
 Observable part: stipe
 Cell wall is made up of sulfated galactans (CHO)

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 CW is utilized as the source of carrageenan (emulsifier
and stabilizer
RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Gracilaria
 cellwall is made up of polysaccharides

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 CW is utilized as source of Agar (culture medium for
micro)
RED ALGAE: DIVISION RHODOPHYTA
 Polysiphonia
 reproduce sexually

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 Has a triphasic life cycle, diplohapontic
Polysiphonia

 Polysiphonia

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BROWN ALGAE
Division Class Subclass Genera

Pyrrophyta Dinophyceae Pyrodinium

Bacillariophyta Bacillariophyceae Navicula

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Cyclotella

Phaeophyta Phaeophyceae Isogeneretae Ectocarpus

Heterogeneretae Laminaria

Cyclosporae Fucus

Sargassum
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PYRROPHYTA
 Known as Dinoflagellates
 Characteristics:

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 Unicellular
 Biflagellated (longitudinal, transverse)
 Bounded by protective cellulose plates
 Starch as reserved food
 “fire” plant – can cause BLOOMS which
eventually become a RED TIDE
 Very harmful because they release neurotoxins
that target the central nervous system
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PYRROPHYTA
 Class Dinophyceae
 Pyrodinium

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BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PYRROPHYTA

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BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION BACILLARIOPHYTA

 Known as Diatoms

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 Characteristics:

 Unicellular
 Chrysolaminarin as stored food
 Cell wall is composed of Silica (glass-like)
 Non-motile
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION BACILLARIOPHYTA
 Class Bacillariophyceae
 Navicula – pennate diatom

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Girdle view

striae

raphe
Valve view
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION BACILLARIOPHYTA
 Cyclotella – centric diatom

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Valve view
Girdle view
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION BACILLARIOPHYTA

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BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA

 The true brown algae


 Characteristics:

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 Multicellular (filamentous or giant thallus –
kelp)
 LAMINARIN as reserved food
 Cell wall made up of cellulose and alginic acid
 Motile reproductive structures
 3 Subclasses: Isogeneretae, Heterogeneretae,
and Cyclosporae
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA
 Subclass Isogeneretae
 Microscopic

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 Diplohaplontic
 Isomorphic generations- identical gametophyte and
sporophyte
 Ectocarpus
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA
 Subclass Heterogeneretae
 Diplohaplontic

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 Differentstructures for the different generations
 Laminaria
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA
 Subclass Cyclosporae
 Diplontic – sporophyte (2n)

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 Fucus

- with conceptacle which has the parasitic


gametophytes (oogonium, antheridium)
BROWN ALGAE: DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA
 Sargassum

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ECONOMIC USES OF
ALGAE
 utilized as food for people
 as resources for the manufacturing of industrial products
 Source of algin - stabilizer & moisture retainer in many products

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such as ice cream, cake frosting, paint, pharmaceutials, &
processing of natural & synthetic rubber.
 Source of agar – culture medium, stabilizer and filler for many
foods

 Fertilizer
 For reef formation (red algae- coralline algae- Corallina)
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THE END