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O R G A N IS A T IO N A L

C O M M U N IC A T IO N &
B A R R IE R S O F
C O M M U N IC A T IO N

Presented By-
Prerna Jain
Deepti Sharma
Ritvik Vikas Mishra
Disha Khurma
Introduction
 Communication is a process of transmitting
and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages.
 The term ‘communication’ is derived from the
Latin word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’.

 Thus, communication stands for sharing of ideas


in common.
MEANING
 According to Theo Haimann, “
Communication is the process
of passing information and
understanding from one
person to another . It is the
process of imparting ideas and
making oneself understood by
others.”

 Communication in business
context means the exchange
of messages between
organizational people for
bringing about desirable and
target-oriented results.
Process of
Communication

Components in
process-
Sender
Encoding
Message
Decoding
Receiver
Feedback
Role of Communication
in an Organization

Facilitates Planning
Brings Co-ordination
Helps in Decision- making
Facilitates Management
Rapport with employees


 COMMUNICATION
MEDIA
Communication Media

A medium or media is the means of transmitting or
conveying a message.

 Some media carry written words and/or
 pictures/graphics (like the mail) and
 other media carry the voice (like the
 telephone). Electronic media can
 carry both voice and written material.

 Many messages in an organization have an emotional


content, which influences the choice considerably;
emotional content is not carried equally by all media. In
order to understand the importance of choosing the medium
carefully, consider an occasion when you have to convey a
tough message.

 For example messages with high intensity and complexity.


 The selection of the medium can make the difference


between effective and ineffective Communication.


The first decision is between oral and written


and non-verbal. Written communication

are transmitted by -

Mail : postal services, speed post, registered post etc.


Courier : door-to-door, private services.
Fax : quick exchange of documents between offices.
E-mail : makes information more accessible.
Notice-board : public communication within organization.
Newspapers and Magazines: for advertising, inviting tenders,
recruitment.



 Oral massages are carried by-


 Telephone : conference, cordless, caller


 identity, intercom, STD, ISD etc.

 Cellular phone : good for marketing persons


 Voice mail : help to prevent interruptions in


 office work.

 Radio: media of mass oral communication.



 The cinema, TV, internet and teleconferencing are the most powerful media as they
 can transmit all types of messages, written, oral, visual, and auditory.
 .
Several aspects in choosing a medium for a
particular message are:

Type of audience you want to reach.


Speed.
Need for confidentiality.
Need for accuracy.
Cost of medium.
Intensity and complexity.


INFORMAL
COMMUNICATION
In management literature informal
communication is also called Grapevine.
Informal communication represents
communication among the people through
informal contacts. It co-exists with formal
communication in the organization.
This is more visible in the lower rung of the
organization. Its source lies in man’s
compulsive instinct to talk-out whatever
he feels and thinks, with his fellow beings.

Workers resort to informal communication when
there are barriers in the formal channels.
Managers also use informal communication when
they find it difficult to collect information from the
workers.
Although the information spread through grapevine
is less credible, but it cannot be altogether
ignored because it contains some useful
information.
In the absence of informal communication, the
ability of a manager to build teamwork, motivate
people and create identification with the
organization would be severely restricted.

MERITS OF INFORMAL
COMMUNICATION:
1.) Speedy transmission:
 Rumors spread within minute. As soon as a person
comes to know very important, confidential or
interesting news, he passes it immediately to every
person who comes in his contact.
 Therefore managers deliberately pass information
through grapevine by showing it confidential or
important.

2.) Taking feedback:
 People avoid giving real feedback about decisions,
policies etc. through formal channel because of
fear of punishment. But they easily pass it through
grapevine.
3.) Support to formal channels:

 Some information are unsuitable for formal


channels. Such information can be passed through
grapevine, helping thereby the formal channels.
4.) Unity in organization:

 It brings workers together, making the


organization a social entity.

DEMERITS OF INFORMAL
COMMUNICATION:
1.)Can’t believe:
 Grapevine spreads through word of mouth i.e.; orally.
Any person can deny later on because it is not written or
signed by him. Therefore receiver is not sure that
whether the sender will stand by his words later on or
not.
2.) Incomplete picture:

 The person passes on the limited information he has


obtained, which may not give the real picture.
3.) Wrong picture:

 The origin of grapevine lies in the rumors. One person


can make any kind of story about responsible person.
This can spoil image of the organization.

TYPES OF GRAPEVINE:
 There are four types of grapevine:-
1.) Single strand chain:

 In this chain, one person passes the


information to second person, second to third,
third to fourth and so on. This type of chain is
least accurate in passing on the information or
message.
2.) Gossip chain:

 Here, a person obtains some information and


tells it to everyone. This chain is often used
when information or a message regarding an
‘off-the-job’ nature is being conveyed.

3.) Probability chain:
 Here, individuals are indifferent to the persons to
whom they pass on the information. This chain is
found when the information obtained is somewhat
interesting, but not really significant.
4.) Cluster chain:

 Here, one person tells to selected individuals and


then they tell to few other selected. This is the
dominant grapevine pattern in an organization. A
few individuals called “Liaison individuals” pass on
the information they have obtained and then they
are likely to share it with the people they trust.

BARRIERS OF
COMMUNICATION
W h a t a re
B a rrie rs?

Anything that prevents successful communication


from
occurring is a barrier to effective communication.
Technical Barriers
Timing
-Transfer of message which occur not on time creates a
 Confusion between employer and employee in an

 Organization.

Information overload
 - It refers to the excessive transmission of information.

Loss of transmission
- When message passes from person to person in a series of
 transmission they are likely to become less and less accurate.



Ο Cultural difference
-The same category of words ,phrases symbols, actions, colors

, mean different things to different countries/ cultural


background.


οFaulty planning
 -The message to be sent across may not be carefully planned
properly organized or composed, or may be transmitted
through a wrongly chosen medium.


οPhysical barriers
 -Physical barriers like nature of environment , poor and
outdated equipment, staff shortage , distraction like
background noise , poor lighting or long distance between
the sender and receiver also obstruct effective
communication.


Language Barriers
Semantics
-Semantics is the study of words and their meaning.
-There are many word which mean different things to different

people.

Poor message
 -Poorly explained or misunderstood message result in
confusion.

Inconsistency in verbal and non-Verbal


communication
 -Sometimes verbal message does not go with non-verbal or
gestural
communication which leads to different meaning or difficult to

understand to the receiver.


Psychological Barriers
Filtering
 -Filtering means manipulating information in a way that
only favorable information is sent to the receiver.

Assumption
 -Communication based on assumption is bad
communication.

Closeness of mind
 -Some people are not open to new ideas and suggestions.
 -Closeness of mind may reject useful and lucrative
suggestions.

Poor listening
 -Communication will not be effective unless it is listened
Ο Attitudinal barriers
-This includes poor management, personality conflicts,
personal attitude of an employee or resistance to change.

ο Emotions and Perception


-Emotions like feeling of love, threat, jealousy , embarrassment etc
largely
affect sender’s and receiver’s encoding and decoding.
-Perception is individual’s feeling, knowledge and understanding
of the subject matter being conveyed.
How to
Overcome
Barriers ?
Overcoming barriers
 1.Principal of clarity of message-As we know
that message is the body of communication .
There fore, it can be conveyed properly when
it is expressed clearly.

 2.Principal of completeness of message-


Message which is conveyed must be complete
and adequate.

 3.Understanding the receiver-When a sender


sends a message ,he must have full knowledge
about the level of receiver ,what is his climate,
custom, etc.
Overcoming barriers
 4.Principal of feedback-Feedback enables the
sender to know whether the message passed
by him was properly understood by the
receiver.

 5.Principal of attention-Receiver must pay full


attention to the message in order to
understand it. He should listen carefully and
does not keep his mind somewhere else.


Overcoming barriers
 6.Principal of integrity-The message must be
consistent with objectives, policies and
programs of the enterprise.

 7.Use of informal organization- Informal


organization can be used to correct
misinformation .

THANK YOU


OVER TO YOU
FOR
DISCUSSION …