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The Muscular

System
WHAT DO OUR MUSCLES DO?
01 02 03
Movement Individual Shape Protect
Enable us to move our Give us our individual Protect and keep in
body parts. shape. place our abdominal
organs

04 05
Good Posture Body Heat
Enable us to maintain Generate body heat
good posture. when they contract.
There are over 640 muscles in the body.
The muscles make up about 40% of the body
mass.
3 TYPES OF MUSCLE
Skeletal/Striped Muscle
Smooth Muscles
Cardiac Muscle
SKELETAL OR VOLUNTARY MUSCLES

● Fibers are long cylindrical.


● They are under our
conscious control. It
instructs them to perform
everyday actions such as
walking, running, and
jumping.
The Major Skeletal Muscles
Deltoid Quadriceps
Straighten your leg at the
Raises your arm sideways
knee and keep it straight
at the shoulder.
when you stand.

Biceps Pectorals
Bends your arm Raises your arm at the
at the elbow. shoulder. Draws it across
your chest.

Abdominals Latissimus Dorsi


Pull in your abdomen. Flex Pulls your arm down at
your trunk so you can the shoulder. Draws it
bend forward. behind your back.
The Major Skeletal Muscles
Trapezius Gluteal
Holds and rotates your Pull your leg back at the hip.
shoulders. Moves your Raise it sideways at the hip.
head back and sideways. Gluteus Maximus is the biggest.

Triceps Hamstrings
Straightens your Bend your leg at the
arm at the elbow. knee

Gastrocnemius
Straightens the ankle
joint so you can stand
on tiptoes.
SMOOTH OR
INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES
• Fibers are thin and spindle
shaped.
• Contracts slowly.
• These muscles work
automatically- they are not
under our conscious control.
• e.g. muscles of the digestive
system
CARDIAC MUSCLE

● Cells are branched and appear fused with


one another.
● Cardiac is a special type of involuntary
muscle.
● It is only found in the heart.
● It contracts regularly, continuously and
without tiring.
● It works automatically bit is under constant
nervous and chemical control.
HOW DO OUR MUSCLE WORK?
There are 3 main types of muscular contraction: 2. Isotonic and Eccentric
• Muscle lengthen as they
contract under tension.
• The ends of the muscle move
further apart.
• Plyometric exercise uses
eccentric contractions.

1. Isotonic and Concentric


• Muscle shorten as they contract.
• The ends of the muscle move closer together.
• e.g. the biceps during a pull-up.
• Most sporting movements are of this type.
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3. Isometric
• Muscles stay the same length as they contract.
• There is no movement, so the ends of the muscles stay the same distance
apart.
• e.g. our shoulder muscles during a tug of war.
• In many sporting movements the stabilizing muscles hold parts of the body
steady as other parts move.
MUSCLES CAN WORK AS:
Synergists
Antagonists any movement is
Extensors muscles and generally
contracting to accomplished by
muscle groups
straighten more than one
usually work in
joints. muscle.
pairs.
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Flexors Prime movers Fixators


contracting to
bend our joints. (agonists) contracting to give
the working
- contracting to
muscles a firm
start a movement.
base.
- most responsible
for the movement.
HOW ARE MUSCLES ATTACHED
TO BONES?

The muscle fibers end in a strong,


white flexible cord, called a TENDON. At
the bone, the fibers of the tendon are
embedded in the PERIOSTIUM of the
bone. This anchors the tendon strongly
and spreads the force of the contraction.
MUSCLE SPEED
AND TONE
• MUSCLE FIBERS. These
tiny threadlike fibers are
packed together in bundles.
01 MUSCLE FIBER TYPES 02
Slow-Twitch Fast-Twitch
Muscle Fibers Muscle Fibers
• Do not have a good oxygen supply.
• Have a very good oxygen • Tire very quickly.
supply. • Are stronger than slow-twitch
• Work for a long time without fibers.
tiring. • Contract very quickly.
• Are not as strong as fast-twitch • Are used when we need fast,
fibers powerful movements.
• Take longer to contract. • Are used only in high intensity
• Are used in all types of exercise. exercise.
• Are used especially in aerobic • Are used in anaerobic activities.
activities.
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!
There are about 60 muscles in the face.
Smiling is easier than frowning.
It takes 20 muscles to smile and over
40 to frown.

SMILE AND MAKE SOMEONE HAPPY