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m 

The organization of the


mardiovascular System
Blood vessels are subdivided into a
pulmonary circuit (gas exchange) and
systemic circuit (rest of the body)
rteries (efferent) carry blood away from the
heart and veins (afferent) return blood to the
heart, capillaries (exchange)interconnect the
smallest arteries and veins
natomy of the heart
Four muscular chambers: right and left
atrium and right and left ventricle
   
 

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³The Heart
t is located near the anterior chest wall,posterior to
the sternum.
Base and apex.
Measures: 12.5cm (fifth intercostal cartilage) and
7.5 cm(to the left of the midline)
The heart is surrounded by pericardial sac
Mediastinum; between the two pleural cavities.
montains great vessels, thymus, esophagus and
trachea
The Pericardium
The pericardial cavity is lined by the
pericardium
man be subdivided into the visceral ( outer
surface of the heart) and parietal pericardium
( lines the inner surface of pericardial sac)
Between parietal and visceral surfaces is the
pericardial cavity (15-50ml of pericardial
fluid)
Superficial natomy of the heart
Two atria have thin muscular walls and are
highly expandable portion called auricle
moronary sulcus, a deep grove marks the
border between atria and ventricles
The anterior and posterior interventricular
sulcus mark the boundary between the left
and right ventricles
The Heart Wall
Epicardium: (outer) Serus membrane, is the visceral
pericardium. t consists of an exposed
mesothelium and an underlying layer of loose
areolar connective tissue
Myocardium: (middle) muscular wall, forms both
atria and ventricles, contains cardiac muscle tissue,
blood vessels, and nerves
Endocardium: (inner) simple squamous epithelium,
heart valves
mardiac Muscle
mardiocytes contain organized myofibrils,
many sarcomeras gives the cells a striated
appearance. mells are small, has a single
central nucleus, the T tubules are short and
terminal cisternae and its tubules contact the
cell membrane as well as the T tubules
broad, there are not triads, the S lacks, the
cells are almost totally dependent on aerobic
metabolism and the reserves in form of
glycogen and lipid inclusions
mardiac muscle
ntercalated discs: are found where cell membranes
connect, this connections helps stabilize the
relative position of adjacent cells and maintain the
three-dimensional structure,it creates a direct
electrical connections between the cells,an action
potential can travel across an intercalated disc
quickly
They are mechanically,chemically and electrically
connected to one another
Functional mharacteristics of
mardiac tissue
mardiac cells contract without neural
stimulation.Pacemaker cells (automaticity)
mardiac muscle twitches do not exhibit wave
summation, cardiac muscle tissue cannot
produce tetanic contractions
nternal natomy and organization
The atria are separated by the interatrial
septum
The ventricles are separated by
interventricular septum. Each septum is a
muscular partition.
trioventriular valves, folds of fibrous tissue
extend into the opening between the atria
and ventricles, and permit the flow in one
direction
ight atrium
eceives blood from the systemic circuit
(SVm and Vm) and coronary sinus
Foramen ovale connects the two atria of the
fetal heart at birth it closes and persist as
fossa ovalis
montain pectinate muscle in the anterior and
inner wall. The posterior wall and interatrial
septum have smooth surface
ight ventricle
V valve or tricuspid. The free edge of each
cup is attached to chordae tendinae
Papillary muscle are conical muscular
projections that arise from the inner surface
of the right ventricle. The internal surface
contain the trabecula carneae
Pulmonary valve
eft atrium
eceive blood from two left and two right
pulmonary veins. t has an auricle
V valve or bicuspid call mitral, permit flow
of blood from the left atrium to the left
ventricle
eft ventricle
t has thicker walls
Blood leaves the left ventricle by passing
through the aortic valve into ascending aorta
ifferences between ventricles reflect the
functional demands placed on them. The wall
of the right is relative thin whereas the left
ventricle has a massive muscular wall
Valves
trioventricular valves
Semilunar valves: aortic and pulmonary
mardiac cycle
t is the period between the start of one
heartbeat and the beginning of the
next,includes periods of contraction and
relaxation
Systole or contraction the chambers contract
and pushes blood into an adjacent chamber
or into an arterial trunk. mhambers fills with
blood and prepares for the next cycle
iastole or relaxation is followed by diastole
Pressure changes
n the curse of the cardiac cycle , the
pressure within each chamber rises during
systole and fall during diastole
Blood will flow one chamber to another only
if the pressure in the first chamber exceeds
that in the second
Phases of cardiac cycle
The monducting System
The sinoatrial node: in the wall of the right atrium
The atrioventricular node: located at the junction
between the atria and ventricles
monducting cells: interconnect the two nodes and
distribute the contractile stimulus throughout the
myocardium
Pacemaker cells in the S node normally establish
the rate of contraction. From the S node, the
stimulus travel to the V node, and ten to the V
bundle, which divides into bundle branches. From
there, purkinje fibers convey the impulses to the
ventricular myocardium
Heart sounds
There are four heart sound:
1. Know as a ³lubb´ S1 marks the start of
ventricular contraction is produced as the V
valves close
2. ³dupp´ S2 occurs at the beginning of
ventricular filling, when the semilunar valves
close
Third and fourth heart sounds are usually
very faint and seldom are audible in healthy
adults, are associated with blood flowing into
the ventricles S3 and atrial contraction S4
rather than with valve action
moronary vessels
The coronary circulation meets the high 2
and nutrient demands of cardiac muscle cells.
The coronary arteries originate at the base of
the ascending aorta. nterconnections
between arteries, called arterial anastomoses,
ensure a constant blood supply.
Veins: great, posterior, small anterior and
middle cardiac veins carry blood from the
coronary capillaries to the coronary sinus