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Speakers

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INTRODUCTION

An electro-acoustic transducer that converts An electro-acoustic


transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to
electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance.
Non-electrical heard at a distance. Non-electrical loudspeakers were
developed as loudspeakers were developed as to telephone systems,
but accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by
vacuum electronic amplification by vacuum tube made loudspeakers
more generally tube made loudspeakers more generally useful. The
most common form of useful. The most common form of
loudspeaker uses a paper cone supporting loudspeaker uses a paper
cone supporting a voice coil electromagnet acting on a a voice coil
electromagnet acting on a permanent magnet.
 A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electro acoustic
ransducer ; a device which converts an electrical audio signal into a
corresponding sound.[2] The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s
is the dynamic speaker, invented in 1924 by Edward W.
Kellogg and Chester W. Rice. The dynamic speaker operates on the same
basic principle as a dynamic microphone, but in reverse, to produce sound
from an electrical signal. When an alternating current electrical audio
signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap
between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move
rapidly back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes
a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back
and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves. Besides this most
common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be
used to convert an electrical signal into sound. The sound source (e.g., a
sound recording or a microphone) must be amplified or strengthened with
an audio power amplifier before the signal is sent to the speaker.
History

Johann Philipp Reis installed an electric


loudspeaker in his telephone in 1861; it
was capable of reproducing clear tones,
but also could reproduce
muffled speech after a few
revisions. Alexander Graham
Bell patented his first electric loudspeaker
(capable of reproducing intelligible
speech) as part of his telephone in 1876,
which was followed in 1877 by an
improved version from Ernst Siemens.
TYPES

• Horns
• Electrodynamic Loudspeaker
• Flat Panel Speakers
• Diaphragm Speakers
• Plasma Arc Speakers
• Piezoelectric Speakers
In the 1930s, loudspeaker manufacturers began to combine two
and three bandpasses' worth of drivers in order to
increase frequency response and sound pressure level.[11] In
1937, the first film industry-standard loudspeaker system,
"The Shearer Horn System for Theatres"[12] (a two-way system),
was introduced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. It used four 15″ low-
frequency drivers, a crossover network set for 375 Hz, and a
single multi-cellular horn with two compression drivers
providing the high frequencies. John Kenneth Hilliard, James
Bullough Lansing, and Douglas Shearer all played roles in
creating the system. At the 1939 New York World's Fair, a very
large two-way public addresssystem was mounted on a tower
at Flushing Meadows. The eight 27″ low-frequency drivers were
designed by Rudy Bozak in his role as chief engineer for
Cinaudagraph. High-frequency drivers were likely made
by Western Electric.
Horn Loudspeakers
• Horn loudspeakers are the oldest form of loudspeaker system.
The use of hornsas voice-amplifying megaphones dates at least
to the 17th century,[38] and horns were used in
mechanical gramophones as early as 1857. Horn loudspeakers
use a shaped waveguide in front of or behind the driver to
increase the directivity of the loudspeaker and to transform a
small diameter, high pressure condition at the driver cone
surface to a large diameter, low pressure condition at the mouth
of the horn. This improves the acoustic—electro/mechanical
impedance match between the driver and ambient air, increasing
efficiency, and focusing the sound over a narrower area.
Wireless Speakers
• Wireless speakers are very similar to traditional (wired)
loudspeakers, but they receive audio signals using radio
frequency (RF) waves rather than over audio cables.
There is normally an amplifier integrated in the speaker's
cabinet because the RF waves alone are not enough to
drive the speaker. This integration of amplifier and
loudspeaker is known as an active loudspeaker.
Manufacturers of these loudspeakers design them to be
as lightweight as possible while producing the maximum
amount of audio output efficiency.
Advantages

 The versatility of size and deployment.


 They can be placed anywhere near the computer.
 Wireless speakers are also available.
 They come in pairs.
 They are very easy to separate.
 They are very easy to use.
Disadvantages

 They need extra space.


 Wireless speakers are expensive.
 some wireless systems have a shorter range.
 Possible interference from other radio equipment or
other radio microphones.
 Working time depends on battery life.
1. Retail
2. Airport
3. Museum
4. Education
5. Dance floor
6. Banking
7. Video confering