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# WORKING

EQUATIONS/FORMULAS
o Have you ever stood next to or near a
waterfall??

there??

## o How do we calculate those??

GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
𝑷𝑬 = 𝒎𝒈𝒉 or 𝑷𝑬 = 𝝆𝑽𝒈𝒉
Where:
PE = Potential Energy ( J )
m = mass ( Kg )
g = Gravitational Constant ( 9.8 m/s^2)
h = height aka head ( m )
ρ = density ( kg/m^3) ~ (1000 kg/m^3)
V = volume ( m^3 )

• 1 kWh = 3.6 MJ
GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
Ex 1.
How much potential energy ( in kWh) is there in 1000 kg of water that is
1 km in the air?
Given:
m = 1000 kg; h = 1km = 1000 m
Solution:
𝑷𝑬 = 𝒎𝒈𝒉
= (1000 kg)(9.8 m/s^2)(1000m)
1 𝑘𝑊ℎ
= 9.8 MJ ( )
3.6 𝑀𝐽

𝑷𝑬 = 2.72 kWh
GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY
Ex 2.
A 10 m^3 volume of water is elevated 10 m above the turbine, how
much potential energy is there?
Given:
V = 10 m^3; h = 10 m
Solution:
𝑷𝑬 = 𝝆𝑽𝒈𝒉
= (1000 kg/m^3)(10 m^3)(9.8 m/s^2)(10 m)
𝑷𝑬 = 0.98 MJ
THEORETICAL POWER CALCULATION
𝑷𝑻𝑯 = 𝝆𝑸𝒈𝒉
Where:
PTH = power theoretically available ( W )
ρ = density ( kg/m^3) ~ (1000 kg/m^3)
Q = water flow aka discharge ( m^3/s )
g = Gravitational Constant ( 9.8 m/s^2)
h = height aka head ( m )
THEORETICAL POWER CALCULATION
Ex.
What is the theoretically power available from a flow of 1 m^3/s
water with a fall of 100 m ?

Given:
Q = 1 m^3/s; h = 100 m

Solution:
𝑷𝑻𝑯 = 𝝆𝑸𝒈𝒉
= (1000 kg/m^3)(1 m^3/s)(9.8m/s^2)(100 m)
𝑷𝑻𝑯 = 980 kW
PRACTICAL AVAILABLE POWER
𝑷𝑨 = 𝜼𝝆𝑸𝒈𝒉
Where:
PA = power available ( W )
ρ = density ( kg/m^3) ~ (1000 kg/m^3)
Q = water flow aka discharge ( m^3/s )
g = Gravitational Constant ( 9.8 m/s^2)
h = height aka head ( m )
η = efficiency of the system (unitless)
* includes turbine efficiency and head loss
** head loss is the reduction in flows due to friction in the penstock

• Due to energy loss, practically available power will be less than the theoretical
power.
PRACTICAL AVAILABLE POWER
Ex.
If the stream has a discharge of 50 gpm, the head is 100 m, and the
turbine is 80 % efficient, head loss is 10 %. What is the power output?

Given:
Q = 50 gpm; h = 100 m; 𝜂(turbine) = 80 %; head loss = 10 %

Solution:
1 𝑚3 /𝑠
Q = 50 gpm ( 15,850.32 𝑔𝑝𝑚
) = 3.1545e-3 m^3/s
η = 0.8 (turbine efficiency) * 0.9(head efficiency) = 0.72

𝑷𝑨 = 𝜼𝝆𝑸𝒈𝒉
= (0.72)(1000 kg/m^3)(3.1545e-3 m^3/s)(9.8 m/s^2)(100 m)
𝑷𝑨 = 2. 226 kW
AVAILABLE POWER IN RUN-OF-RIVER
𝟏
𝑷𝑴𝑨𝑿 = 𝜼𝝆𝑨𝒗𝟑
𝟐
Where:
PMAX = maximum power available ( W )
ρ = density ( kg/m^3) ~ (1000 kg/m^3)
A = cross-sectional area of turbine blades ( m^2 )
v = velocity of water flow ( m/s )
η = efficiency of the system (unitless)
AVAILABLE POWER IN RUN-OF-RIVER
Ex.
If water is flowing at a speed of 25 mph across a 50% efficient 50
m^2 turbine, how much power is it generating?

Given:
v = 25 mph; η = 50 %; A = 50 m^2

Solution:
0.447 m/s
v = 25 mph ( ) = 11.175 m/s
1 𝑚𝑝ℎ
𝟏
𝑷𝑴𝑨𝑿 = 𝜼𝝆𝑨𝒗𝟑
𝟐
𝟏
= (0.50)(1000 kg/m^3)(50 m^2)(11.175)^3
𝟐
𝑷𝑴𝑨𝑿 = 17.4 MW