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ͻ 1. Something inherited at birth, such as ͻ 1. The state of being vested with the rights,
personal characteristics, status, and privileges, and duties of a citizen.
possessions
ͻ 2. The character of an individual viewed as a
ͻ 2. Anything that has been transmitted from member of society; behavior in terms of the
the past or handed down by tradition duties, obligations, and functions of a citizen
ͻ 3. The evidence of the past, such as
historical sites, buildings, and the unspoiled
natural environment, considered collectively
as the inheritance of present-day society
ͻ 4. Something that is reserved for a particular
person or group or the outcome of an action,
way of life.
    
The u 
   
  American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978
º AFPA) and the u 
  and Executive Order o. 13007: Indian
 
  º ACPA), both state simply Sacred Sites of 1996 state the following: ͞For
that a person may be identified as ative purposes of this section--
American by:
1) the term 'Indian' means a member of an
º1) Self-identification; Indian tribe;
º2) Cultural Association;
2) the term 'Indian tribe' means any tribe,
band, nation, pueblo, or other organized
º3) by natural heritage.
group or community of Indians, including any
Alaska ative village ºas defined in, or
established pursuant to, the Alaska ative
Claims Settlement Act º43 U.S.C. l601 et
seq.)), which is recognized as eligible for the
special programs and services provide by the
United States to Indians because of their
status as Indians.͟
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ͻ Between 1675 and 1763 there was a nearly continuous series of wars in ͞ ew England͟ between
the British and the French/ ative Americans. Both groups wanted the area͛s land and resources.
The wars were related to conflicts in Europe at the same time.
ͻ English treatment of the Indians aggravated the situation. They forced tribal leaders to sign land
deeds that were misunderstood. The French encouraged the Indians to attack English settlers.
English retaliation against the atives included bounties on scalps.
ͻ The British issued a proclamation promising Indian tribes the right to keep all the lands they held at
the end of the war. Bad feelings between the English and the Indians still existed, however, because
the English continued to encroach on Indian lands for farming and hunting.
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ͻ For the American rebels the American Revolutionary War was essentially two parallel wars: while

the war in the East was a struggle against British rule, the war in the West was an "Indian War".

ͻ Most ative Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, hoping to use the war to

reduce settlement & expansion onto their land.

ͻ For the Iroquois Confederacy, the American Revolution resulted in civil war; the Six ations split,
with the Oneidas and Tuscarora͛s siding with the rebels, and the other four nations fighting for the
British.

ͻ Cherokees split into a neutral ºor pro-rebel) faction and a pro-British faction that the rebels referred
to as the Chickamauga͛s, led by Dragging Canoe. Many other tribes were similarly divided.

ͻ When the British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris º1783), they ceded a vast
amount of ative American territory ºwithout the consent of the indigenous peoples) to the United
States. The United States treated the ative Americans who had fought with the British as a

conquered people who had lost their land.


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ͻ ative Americans also felt the pressure of change in the post-Revolutionary War time period. Since
the Proclamation Line was no longer, white settlers began to flood what had previously been
considered ative American territory. This caused conflict and strife with groups such as the

Cherokees of the Appalachian Mountains and the Shawnees of Ohio.

ͻ To the south, diverse Creek leaders united to challenge white encroachment. Although some Creeks
advocated accommodation, their voices went unheard as whites from Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky,
and Tennessee, the last under the leadership of Andrew Jackson, sought land and retribution for
alleged Creek atrocities.

ͻ The resulting Creek War º1811ʹ14) ended with the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in Alabama, in which
800 Indians died, the greatest Indian battle loss in U.S. history.

ͻ The Cherokees were driven west in the Trail of Tears º1838ʹ39).


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The United States sought to protect the overland trails leading to the West Coast from possible Indian
attacks. While these attacks were minimal in the 1840s, Indians felt the presence of the migrants
early as they brought disease and depleted game along the routes. Such repercussions escalated
tensions. The Treaty of Fort Laramie, sponsored by the United States in 1851, sought to preserve
peace on the plains by restricting tribes to designated lands. Yet fighting erupted as the parties
largely ignored the treaty's terms and American migration continued to have detrimental effects on
the buffalo herds on which Plains Indians relied for subsistence.
The discovery of gold in the Black Hills in the 1870s led to new white pressures for Sioux land, as the
United States failed to live up to the terms of the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty. Crow and Shoshone
warriors assisted American soldiers in their effort to conquer and pacify Sioux country. Determined
to avenge the annihilation of George Armstrong Custer and much of the Seventh Cavalry in the
Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876, the army persisted until the last of the northern Plains Indians
surrendered. By 1877, Sioux armed resistance came to a virtual end when Chief Sitting Bull fled to
Canada and Crazy Horse surrendered.
Warfare lasted until 1875, by which time nearly all southern Plains Indians had submitted to life on
reservations. The final denouement came in the tragedy known as the Battle of Wounded Knee
º1890).
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In the twentieth century, Indians, who participated in all the major U.S. military conflicts, would serve as
individuals, not in ative American units. In World War I, perhaps as many of one-half of the ative
American population were not U.S. citizens and were not eligible for the draft. Volunteer service
was rewarded with U.S. citizenship. Including draftees and volunteers, some 10,000 Indians served
in World War I. The service of these Indians contributed to the decision of Congress in 1924 to grant
U.S. citizenship to all ative Americans.
In World War II, some 25,000 Indians served in the military, up from the 4,000 who had been in the
military in 1940 before wartime mobilization. Their participation marked a turning point in the
relations of Indians with the larger American society. It produced the largest single exodus of Indian
males from the reservations and allowed them to compete in an arena where the fighting ability of
those from tribes with strong warrior traditions inspired respect among the whites with whom they
served.
Military service during World War II did more than provide an arena where Indians could perform as
equals. For the first time, thousands of young Indian men and women earned a decent wage. The
average Indian's income increased two and a half times, to $2,500, between 1940 and 1944.
Thousands married non-Indians, converted to Christianity, and relocated off the reservations after
the war.
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In the immediate postwar years, many of the Indian veterans benefitted from the G.I. Bill. Some took a
lead in battling for full civil rights and a better life. In 1947, they led a successful campaign for the
vote in Arizona and ew Mexico. Joseph Garry, an ex-Marine, chair of the Coeur d͛Alene Tribal
Council in Idaho and of the ational Congress of American Indians, headed a fight in the early 1950s
against assimilationist federal efforts to liquidate reservations and divide tribal assets.
Although no firm figures exist, estimates are that between 10,000 and 15,000 ative Americans served
in the Korean War and more than 42,000 served in the Vietnam War. The conflict in Southeast Asia
led many Indian Vietnam veterans to begin to reexamine their situation in American society.
Consequently, many joined with the most traditional tribal elders in attempts to revitalize
indigenous warrior societies. Moreover, a number of disillusioned veterans became leaders of
militant Indian rights organizations, such as the American Indian Movement ºAIM) in the mid-1970s.
In the 1990s, about 10,000 Indians were serving in the All-Volunteer Army, which revised many of its
policies to accommodate Indian traditions and religious customs. Estimates from the Veterans
Administration and the Census Bureau suggest that in the 1990s there were 160,000 living Indian
veterans. This represented nearly 10 percent of all living IndiansͶproportions triple that of the
non-Indian populationͶand confirm once again that ative Americans play an important role in the
U.S. military.
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'  The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by
the United States. The lead up to the war began with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990
which was met with immediate economic sanctions by the United ations against Iraq. The
coalition commenced hostilities in January 1991, resulting in a decisive victory for the U.S. led
coalition forces, which drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait with minimal coalition deaths. Despite the
low death toll, over 180,000 US veterans would later be classified as "permanently disabled"
according to the US Department of Veterans Affairs
d  US troops participated in a U peacekeeping mission in Somalia beginning in 1992. By 1993
the US troops were augmented with Rangers and special forces with the aim of capturing warlord
Mohamed Farrah Aidid, whose forces had massacred peacekeepers from Pakistan. During a raid in
downtown Mogadishu, US troops became trapped overnight by a general uprising in the Battle of
Mogadishu. 18 American soldiers were killed, and a US television crew filmed graphic images of the
body of one soldier being dragged through the streets by an angry mob. Somali guerrillas paid a
staggering toll at an estimated 1,000-5,000 total casualties during the conflict. After much public
disapproval, American forces were quickly withdrawn by President Bill Clinton. The incident
profoundly affected US thinking about peacekeeping and intervention.
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`
    The invasion of Afghanistan ºOperation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan) to depose that
country's Taliban government and destroy training camps associated with al-Qaida is understood to
have been the opening, and in many ways defining, campaign of the broader War on Terrorism. The
emphasis on Special Operations Forces ºSOF), political negotiation with autonomous military units,
and the use of proxy militaries marked a significant change from prior U.S. military approaches.
0 After the lengthy Iraq disarmament crisis culminated with an American demand that Iraqi
President Saddam Hussein leave Iraq, which was refused, a coalition led by the United States and
the United Kingdom fought the Iraqi army in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Approximately 250,000
United States troops, with support from 45,000 British, 2,000 Australian and 200 Polish combat
forces, entered Iraq primarily through their staging area in Kuwait. ºTurkey had refused to permit its
territory to be used for an invasion from the north.) Coalition forces also supported Iraqi Kurdish
militia, estimated to number upwards of 50,000. After approximately three weeks of fighting,
Hussein and the Ba'ath Party were forcibly removed, followed by an extended period of military
occupation.
Today͛s ative American Veterans

ë  & 
ͻ In 2008, the US Census Bureau projected the 2010 census͙͙ 310,232,863
ͻ Indigenous peoples of the Americas, such as American Indians and Inuit, made up 0.8% of the
population in 2008, numbering 2.4 million. 
 
 
  



  u 
 ;.
ͻ ational estimated Veterans͛ population: 23,816,018 º7.68%)
ͻ ative American estimated Veterans͛ population: 205,000 to 300,000 º8.54% - 12.5%)
ͻ ;These 2.3 million self-identified ative Americans are not recognized by the military or
government as a result of the government-to-government relationship created by the over 3,000
treaties with ative Americans.
ͻ The recently conducted 2010 Census allowed individuals to self-identify with their ethnicity by
showing one or more races. The above figures then could result in a near doubling of those persons
who are or have ative American Ancestry.
Today͛s ative American Veterans

¦ ' ( )  *+    , &   ¦  


For many ative American Veterans there is a De Ja Vu Paradox or cultural association between the
period of the Indian Wars, the Indian Removal Act and the present Global War on Terrorism. Some
of the parallels include:
J Being forced to choose an alliance with one side or the other, based upon which will be the lesser
evil for the People as a whole.
J The indigenous People living a tribal, nomadic lifestyle without the artificial ͞lines in the sand͟
marking land ownership.
J Often facing a technologically and numerically superior organized military force.
J o other ethnic or racial group in the United States besides ative Americans has been placed in a
position that they must fight to survive and defend their cultural way of life.
J Wounded Knee and Sand Creek are but two of a number of massacre͛s that were perpetrated on
ative American People out of fear and a lack of understanding.
J The Iraqi, Afghani, and Pakistani Peoples are also of dark or darker complexion with facial features
and skin tones similar to many of our ative American Veterans and members of the Armed
Services.
Today͛s ative American Veterans


   ¦
ͻ During World War I and World War II the ͞enemy͟ was readily identified by a different uniform.
ͻ To a lesser extent, the Korean War, and a larger extent, the Vietnam War saw a return to the
guerilla-style warfare of the American Revolution without the readily identifiable uniforms.
ͻ It is often argued by some Veterans that the rise of the Civil Liberties Movement and being
politically correct has watered-down the intensity of learning to live under stress that pre-1980͛s
basic military training provided to members of the Armed Services.
ͻ Military leadership as well as our civilian leadership try to stress that the Global War on Terrorism is
nothing like or similar to our involvement in Vietnam. The mission may well be different, but the
enemies ͞Order of Battle͟ is much the same using guerilla tactics and also using women and
children as combatants.
ͻ How do you ͞train͟ for a situation where the ͞enemy͟ is a thirteen-year old boy who looks much
like your nephew pointing an AK-47 at you?
ͻ How do you ͞train͟ both mentally and spiritually to witness first-hand at close proximity members
of your patrol blown into unrecognizable pieces of flesh by an IED?
Today͛s ative American Veterans

       ¦   '      


&    
ͻ Since the first Gulf War, Desert Shield and Desert Storm, various published reports have indicated a
rise to the number of active duty personnel who have been diagnosed with PTSD prior to being
discharged.
ͻ Recently in the major media networks there has been a renewed interest in the reported numbers
of active duty personnel and recently discharged Veterans who have taken their own lives by
suicide.
ͻ Has the effect of combat on Veterans changed since World War II?
ͻ Or has our present politically correct society changed our ability or inability to cope with our
experiences of modern and urban guerilla warfare?
Is there a Solution?

 -    .&     


ͻ In Alabama, the ative American Population is between 0.8% and 1.0% of the State͛s population.
ͻ Alabama has one Federally-recognized tribe and eight state-recognized tribes. Within the CAVHCS
area of operations there are three state-recognized tribes, two are Creek and one is a mix of Creek
and Cherokee.
ͻ How many in this room are familiar with or aware of Creek or Cherokee Cultural Traditions and
Beliefs?
ͻ Did you know most Indian communities have protocols for preparing their warriors for combat and
reintegrating them when they return? Sweat Lodge ceremonies, purification rituals, the telling of
one͛s war storiesͶare just a few of the ways ative communities͛ help their warriors transition
from war to peace.
ͻ American Indian communities remember their veterans͛ sacrifices forever. Veterans are always
respected and honored. Sometimes they are remembered in special songs that are sung in their
honor. ative people often go to veterans for advice because they have strong mental abilities as a
result of their many experiences.
Is there a Solution?

 -    .&      " #$


ͻ umerous barriers have kept American Indian and Alaska ative veterans from seeking the VA or
IHS medical care to which they are entitled. Sometimes hospitals and clinics have been too far away
to reach. Sometimes veterans have lacked trust in the VA and IHS or have considered the quality of
care to be poor. Both the VA and IHS health care systems are working to make medical care more
accessible, more dependable, and of high quality. Professional staff and patient advocates are
aware that every patient is entitled to respectful, quality care.
ͻ Only American Indian and Alaska ative veterans who are members, citizens, of a federally
recognized tribe are eligible for health services through the Indian Healthcare System.
ͻ Three quarters of American Indian and Alaska ative Vietnam veterans have significant mental
health problems ºincluding PTSD, alcohol and substance abuse, depression, and panic disorder). The
great majority have not received any mental health services.
Is there a Solution?

¦      


ͻ I am not a medical doctor, nor a psychiatrist, nor psychologist.
ͻ Those of you here who are medical doctors know what your roles and responsibilities are and do
not need me to speak towards Western-style Medicine and its practice.
ͻ I am an ordained minister, a non-combat service-connected disabled veteran and a
recovering/recovered alcoholic with approaching nine years sobriety in this coming January.
ͻ And as a ͞recovering/recovered͟ alcoholic, I will say that the spiritual principles within the Twelve-
Step Program of Alcoholics Anonymous complemented the medical treatment for alcoholism.
Is there a Solution?

¦   | 


J American Indian and Alaska ative communities enjoy a rich history of traditional forms of healing.
For hundreds of years, tribal healers have provided a range of herbal and ritual treatments for
physical and spiritual problems.
J Tribal leaders and elders serve as spiritual guides and conduct elaborate healing ceremonies that
include the entire community in ritual activities such as dance, chanting, meals, fasts, physical
challenges, or sweats. In traditional healing encounters, prayer and ceremony tap the strength
housed within family, community, and Creator.
J Recently more American Indian and Alaska ative veterans are drawing on these resources for help
with both physical and mental health problems. Traditional healing options can go hand in hand
with conventional western medicine and counseling.
J The Inipi Ceremony ºSweat Lodge) ʹ The rites of the Inipi are very spiritual. They are used both
before and after any great undertaking for which we wish to make ourselves pure or for which we
wish to gain strength.
J Among ͞traditionalists͟ the Inipi Ceremony began a three to four day long preparation before going
into battle or on and extended hunting party. During that period they separated from their village
and families.
J
Is there a Solution?

¦   |  " #$


ͻ Also upon their return and prior to re-entering the village and their families, they underwent
another three to four days of separation and purification ceremonies, which often recounted the
history of their journey, hunting party or battle. The Inipi Ceremony is predominantly a Plains Indian
ceremony, however many eastern tribes also conducted similar ceremonies.
ͻ The Cherokee have many traditions. In olden times, they did not eat before a battle. In preparation
for battle, they took a long bath. They drank special tea. And they danced at the Booger Ceremony.
ͻ The Booger Ceremony was held on the day before a battle. All the warriors wore the booger masks
they had carved. They danced around and made fun of each other. The masks represented their
enemy. If you are familiar with the stories of Harry Potter, this is similar to what you do with a
Bogart - if you laugh at him, his power is gone.
ͻ Wisconsin Public Television in 2007 produced a documentary, ͞  ͟ Many of the
veterans interviewed described their tribes' purification rituals for returning soldiers, including
sweat lodge ceremonies, talking circles, and the Hopi practice of giving their returning soldiers new
names. Those who had undergone the rituals said these ceremonies helped minimize the effects of
PTSD. Many expressed concern about the re-adjustment of the thousands of native and non-native
soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.
Is there a Solution?

) !  /0  1 


 

ͻ CAMP CHAPARRAL, Yakama ation - For some veterans, the wounds of war have never healed. And
those who come to their aid carry that same pain in their eyes and hearts. For a week at this remote
camp, the hurting and their helpers will learn from tribal elders about the power of American Indian
culture to ease post-traumatic stress related to military combat. Since 1992, about 800 care
providers from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs have gathered here in the middle of the
Yakama ation's traditional homeland. Another 400 independent veterans and staff from other
medical facilities have also attended.

ͻ Each July, nurses, counselors and psychiatrists sit next to native veterans during the weeklong
retreats at Camp Chaparral. They spend hours in talking circles and sweat lodges, releasing their
trauma and frustration. Camp organizers want to help the VA and others learn how to better treat
Indian clients. That process starts by teaching the campers how to heal themselves from within.
ͻ Tribal members known as interpreters and other elders lead each group. They start with
introductions and gradually progress toward trying to help their "family" resolve problems, whether
those might involve war, relationships or the job. The groups start out by greeting each other in the
crafts room or while standing around the campfire. Following a week of emotional discussions and
lighter activities - such as a talent show - they seem bonded. Friday, the last full day, ends with a
special veterans dance and powwow that runs well into the night.
Potential Issues

 -   .   )        


ͻ One of the first steps is persuading VA health-care providers to abandon an assembly-line approach
to medicine, turn away from their computer screens and listen to their patients. "The individual has
to feel safe in order to share the deepest, darkest part of their struggle - before they can begin
dealing with the PTSD," explains Steve Tice, one of Camp Chaparral's founders, who dealt with PTSD
both as a combat veteran and a VA counselor. "To take that first step and find safety, for a combat
veteran, is very difficult. Making a person feel safe is, in part, about culture. You need to
understand what they bring into treatment."
ͻ "We decided the best way to train the counselors, doctors, nurses and other VA people was to
sensitize them to our culture," Dave Mann, Vietnam Veteran and Yakama Veteran Service Officer
explains. "And we are trying to expose them to how veterans really feel. It doesn't make them
instant experts, but it does make them more accepting."
ͻ Despite 15 years of unmatched success and the need to serve nearly 200,000 Indian veterans, VA
reduced its support for Camp Chaparral soon after the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq began. The
number of VA staff permitted to attend has been cut in half, to 40. Admission, once open to VA
health-care workers across the country, now is restricted to staff in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and
Alaska. Funding was slashed from $50,000 to $25,000 two years ago, forcing the camp to shrink
from seven days to four days.
Potential Issues

  
ͻ The original annual budget for the Camp Chaparral program was $50,000.00.
ͻ The 2008 Camp Chaparral budget was $25,750.00
{ Professional Services $16,495.00
{ Food $4,500.00
{ Operating Supplies $3,775.00
{ Gasoline $980.00
ͻ In Alabama with a State Population of approximately 2.4 million people and the ative American
population being approximately 0.8% - 1.0% we are looking at approximately 24,000 ative
Americans within the State. Using the previously mentioned ational Average of ative American
Veterans to the ative American Population of between 8 and 12 percent, Alabama͛s ative
American Veteran Population is between 1,920 and 2,880.
ͻ The CAVHS area of operation is home to roughly one-third of the State or Federally recognized
tribes in Alabama and an unknown quantity ºat least until the 2010 Census figures are publicized) of
self-identified ative Americans. Using the one-third figure, that means the CAVHS area of
operation is home to between ·  · `   .
Potential Issues

 &  2  


ͻ In the CAVHS area of operation the three state recognized tribes are:
o The Star Clan of the Muskogee Creeks, located in Troy, Alabama
o The Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama, in Kinston/ ew Brockton, Alabama
o The Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians, in Dothan, Alabama.
ͻ The Eagle͛s est of Alabama, Inc. an Alabama on-profit corporation and IRS recognized tax-
exempt public charity is also located in the CAVHS area of operation in the Flat Creek Community,
about seven miles south of Samson, Alabama.
ͻ To host the type of venue similar to the Camp Chaparral one needs:
o A private or secluded area of land to host up to 40 campers/participants;
o An area that is roughly 50-foot square to construct the Inipi Lodge, Sacred Fire and Sacred
Pathway; and
o An adjacent small stream, creek or pond to the Inipi Lodge area.
o Lastly, the location should be free from outside distractions including media coverage.
Potential Issues


 3 -  2  2   

ͻ Those that run this sacred rite should be able to communicate with Tun-ca-s'i-la ºour Sacred
Grandfathers) in their ative Plains tongue.

ͻ They should also have earned this rite by completing Han-ble-c'i-ya ºVision Quest); and
ͻ The four days and four years of the Wi-wanyang wa-c'i-pi ºSundance).
ͻ There should be no price tag allowed to participate in any of our Sacred Ceremonies. The only
protocol needed for a ceremony is to o-pa-g'i, meaning to offer your C'anupa or offer tobacco that
has been prayed with, in which the Medicine Person accepts or not accept if he is not able to assist.
Closing Summary

'
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J In February 2003 the Departments of Health and Human Services and Veterans Affairs signed a
memorandum of understanding ºMOU) to promote cooperation and sharing between the Veterans
Health Administration ºVHA) and the Indian Health Service ºIHS) to further each Department͛s
respective mission

J Objective 5 ʹ Ensure that appropriate organizational resources are available to support programs
for American Indian and Alaska ative veterans. This objective can be accomplished through such
activities as:
{ Establishing consistent performance goals across the VIS for outreach, including regular
information to AI/A veterans on services and eligibility;

{ Offering support for AI/A traditional spiritual practices analogous to services for veterans of
other faiths.
Closing Summary

Problem Statement

{ American Indians and Alaska atives ºAI/A ) have a distinguished history of exemplary military
service to the United States. A strong tradition of duty and service exists within many Tribes and
Indian families. Historically, a higher percentage of Indian people serve in the armed forces
compared to the general US population º24% compared to 19%). Surveys conducted among
Vietnam era veterans indicate that Indian people frequently served in forward combat areas,
largely in the infantry, and 42% were exposed to heavy combat. As a result, these veterans have a
high level of service related health care needs, including the highest rate of Post-Traumatic Stress
Disorder ºPTSD) among ethnic groups studied.

{ Studies and testimony from Indian veterans indicate that travel distance and a lack of coordination
between the two agencies are key factors that inhibit Indian veterans͛ access to health care at VHA.
Another barrier is the perception that VHA staff will not understand or accommodate the needs and
unique perspectives of Indian veterans or that VHA care is not culturally or linguistically sensitive.
Finally, Indian veterans indicate that the eligibility requirements and application process for
receiving care from VHA can be very confusing. Although this complaint may be voiced by many
veterans, Indian veterans can find the process particularly baffling as many of them may have been
receiving health care from the federal government, IHS, all their lives under a different system of
eligibility and rules for access.

 

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