Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

| 


  
|    
 
 

  
C. Michael Hall
Professor, Department of Management, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
Docent, Department of Geography, University of Oulu, Finland

michael.hall@canterbury.ac.nz
 | !" |"
‡ Sustainable consumption: ³the consumption
of goods and services that meet basic needs
and quality of life without jeopardizing the
needs of future generations.´ (OECD 2002)
‡ Implies a reduction in the throughput of
resources
‡ requires a shift from a linear economy to a
circular economy so that inputs of virgin raw
material and energy and outputs in the form
of waste requiring disposal decline
"!|  #|"$ "%
$!|"

Production Consumption

Tourism related Tourism Travel related


production experience consumption

Supply chains

‡ issues of scale of analysis in understanding tourism sustainability


(as well as definition, industry etc)
‡ policy scales in terms of µactions
‡ sustainable production and consumption rather than sustainable
tourism if your concerned about the µbig picture¶
&#||!|"|"|!
"'" |"
‡ Mainstream economics is deeply embedded in
modernity¶s vision of progress and growth in which
³time is money´ and people consume ever faster:
³timescales of consumption are steadily decreasing due
to shorter product life spans and an increasing speed of
product innovations which are in turn the outcome of
accelerating R&D processes´ (Reisch 2001: 371).
‡ human well-being derives in part from the attention
people give to their possessions and their involvement
with them, and this attention and involvement requires
time
"'#|!$|!|'$'
|!$ $!|$ "$!
‡ Innovation may not lead to sustainable
development as long as consumption continues to
increase.
‡ Need to slow the rate at which raw materials are
transformed into products and eventually
discarded, a process that has been described as
³slow consumption´
‡ Requires a cultural and economic shift
INITIATIVES AND ACTIONS
‡ POLICY INITIATIVES
- Greenhouse gas reduction schemes
- Recycling schemes
- Environmental standards, e.g. organic, food miles, brands
- Relocalisation schemes, e.g. 100 mile diet, buy local
‡ LIFESTYLE REINVENTIONS
- Voluntary simplicity
- Ethical consumption, e.g. Fair Trade, Tourism Concern
- Slow Food Movement
‡ NEW POLITICS OF CONSUMPTION
- Anti-consumerism, e.g Adbusters
- Anti-television activism
- Anti-advertising campaigns
INCREASING SIGNIFICANCE
FOR TOURISM
‡ Human rights considerations
‡ Environmental considerations, e.g.
Heathrow protests
‡ Payment of GHG taxes, offsets
‡ Environmental branding
‡ Alternative tourism
‡ Slow tourism
mhat is Slow ‡ µSlow Food is a non-profit,
eco-gastronomic member-
Food? supported organization that
was founded in 1989 to
counteract fast food and fast
life, the disappearance of
local food traditions and
people¶s dwindling interest in
the food they eat, where it
comes from, how it tastes and
how our food choices affect
the rest of the world. Today,
we have over ×  members
all over the world¶.
Philosophy
m     
         
  
   
        
            
                
 
              

   =     m      


               

             
           
       

m      
       

               

             
        
Philosophical origins
‡ SlowFood locates its
philosophical origins in
the 17th-century writings
of Francesco Angelita,
who considered slowness
a virtue and, believing that
all creatures bore
messages from God, wrote
a book about snails.
Mission
      
    

     

   
  
    
    
   
     
 
Influence
‡ Substantial profile in media
‡ Ark of Taste, promotion of biodiversity, µtraditional¶
landscapes, regional products and traditional methods
‡ Influencing hospitality & restaurants, - usually at high
end
‡ µSlow¶ label proving attractive for some markets, and
influencing marketing and promotion - lifestyle
positioning - now being applied to tourism, ie µSlow
Cities¶
Ethical Food
‡ How green do you want your bananas?
Co-op ballots members on ethical issues
(3 Sept 2007) - including environmental
impact
‡ Consideration of µFood Miles¶ or µAir
carried¶ stickers by other supermarket
chains in addition to country of origin
information
SLOm TOURISM?
‡ Travel to consumer lifestyle positioned eco-gastronomic
products, marked by heritage, tradition, authenticity and
µthe local¶
VS
‡ Actually traveling µslower¶ in terms of consuming less
over the whole period of the trip
- travelling locally, reducing distance travelled, travelling
slower, staying longer
- consuming less energy on a net basis
VS
‡ Another tourism marketing cliche
PRODUCT LIFE SPANS AND SUSTAINABLE
CONSUMPTION
( 
( ( 
Efficiency More productive use of +## ,
materials and energy

 ((

 | !

(

" |"
 



   $()*


Sufficiency
Reduced throughput of
products and services
SLOm TOURISM AND SLOm
CONSUMPTION
‡ Increased product life spans,whether through greater
intrinsic durability or better care and maintenance, may
enable both efficiency and sufficiency. They are a means
by which materials are used more productively (i.e., the
same quantity provides a longer service) and throughput
is slowed (i.e., products are replaced less frequently).
‡ In other sectors it has been argued that a shift to more
highly skilled, craft-based production methods and
increased repair and maintenance work would provide
employment opportunities to offset the effect of reduced
demand for new products.
New lifecycle thinking
‡ Central premise of industrial ecology
‡ Cradle to grave thinking
‡ Broadens the interest in consumption
beyond the point of purchase to all phases
in the life of a product, from its conception
to final disposal.
‡ Examination of consumption cycles
Lifecycle assessment
‡ Distinguishing different phases in the lifecycle of a
product and associated supply chains is necessary to
enable environmental impacts (i.e., energy and
materials, consumption, emissions to air and water, and
waste) to be estimated. (includes distance and speed of
travel)
‡ Implications in terms of designing for longevity and
production and product life.
‡ Implications for imagining new tourism futures - new
patterns of mobility under new sets of constraints,
rethinking local tourism around source areas.
Consumer attitudes
‡ Primarily focused on appliances
‡ Market conditions:
- Design (products [tangible/intangible
dimensions] and processes)
- Signs and scripts
- Sales & services
> Creating new forms of customer value
Research needs
‡ Need for lifespan data
‡ Environmental case before and against increased
product lifespan
‡ Relationship between market conditions and
product lifespans
‡ Better understanding of consumer values and
attitudes
‡ Cult of the new vs cult of the old?
‡ Acceptance
‡ Avoid the trap of another fad