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Drainage

System Design
and Layout
Design Process Flowchart
Background
Determine Drain
Information Select DC,
Sizes
(Soils, Topo, Crops) Spacing
& Depth

Drainage
Needed Installation
Develop System
NO
Layout

Confirm
Outlet Determine Grades
NO & Depth
Design Process Flowchart
Background
Determine Drain
Information Select DC,
Sizes
(Soils, Topo, Crops) Spacing
& Depth

Drainage
Needed Installation
Develop System
NO
Layout

Confirm
Outlet Determine Grades
NO & Depth
Drainage
Outlets
Design
Curves
Outlet channels designed
according to Curve B will
provide excellent agricultural
drainage in Illinois. Use this
curve for drainage of truck
crops, nursery crops, and
other specialty crops. Designs
based on curve B will provide
the best drainage that can
normally be justified in
agricultural areas.
Design
Curves

Channels that are


designed according to
curve C will provide
good agricultural
drainage in Illinois. This
curve is the one most
often recommended for
drainage of Illinois
cropland
Drainage Outlets
Designs based on curve D
provide satisfactory agricultural
drainage as long as frequent
overflow does not cause
excessive damage. This curve is
generally recommended for
pasture or woodland. It may also
be adequate for drainage of
general cropland in northern
Illinois, provided that the
landowner carries out an
excellent maintenance program.
Designs based on curve D
provide the minimum amount of
drainage recommended in
Illinois.
Design
Curves
Drainage CFS/ Acre In/Day
Curve 100 Acres
(Drainage Coefficient)
B 20 4.8
C 8 2.0
D 5 1.2
For comparison: For a 100 acre watershed, RCN = 75, Avg. Slope = 1% in Central Illinois
A 2 Yr., 24 Hr. Rainfall yields 1” of Runoff and would result in a Peak
Flow of 30 CFS.
A 10 Yr., 24 Hr. Rainfall yields 2” of Runoff and would result in a Peak
Flow of 70 CFS.
Ditch Configuration

Once you know what the capacity of the outlet channel must be, you
need to determine the size that will enable it to convey the desired
amount of flow without letting the water surface rise above a
predetermined elevation. The following sections describe some basic
.
hydraulic concepts that will help you design a channel of the proper size
Outlet
Ditches
Maximum Velocity
Velocity Soil Texture
(ft/sec)
Sand or sandy loam 2.5
The velocity of water flow must be
Silt loam 3.0
high enough to prevent siltation in the
Sandy clay loam 3.5
channel but low enough to avoid
Clay loam 4.0
erosion. Listed on the next page are
Clay or silty clay 5.0
the maximum velocities for drainage
Fine gravel, cobbles, or
areas of 640 acres or less. The 5.0
graded loam to cobbles
velocity should be no lower than 1.5 Graded mixture silt to cobbles 5.5
feet per second. A lower velocity will Coarse gravel, shales,
cause siltation, which encourages or hardpans
6.0

moss and weed growth and reduces


the cross section of the channel.
Hydraulic
Gradeline
Channel
Velocity
The most widely used equation for designing outlet channels was
developed by Robert Manning in 1890 and is known as Manning's
equation:
2 1
1.49
v R s 3 2
n
where
V = average velocity of flow (ft/sec),
n = coefficient of roughness,
R = hydraulic radius (ft),
s = slope of hydraulic gradient (ft/ft).
Routine
Design Process Flowchart
Background
Determine Drain
Information Select DC,
Sizes
(Soils, Topo, Crops) Spacing
& Depth

Drainage
Needed Installation
Develop System
NO
Layout

Confirm
Outlet Determine Grades
NO & Depth
Drainage
Coefficient
Design Process Flowchart
Background
Determine Drain
Information Select DC,
Sizes
(Soils, Topo, Crops) Spacing
& Depth

Drainage
Needed Installation
Develop System
NO
Layout

Confirm
Outlet Determine Grades
NO & Depth
Drain Spacing & Depth

•Design for uniform depth throughout system


(depends on layout)

•Depth will of course vary on flat and rolling


topography
System
Layout
System
Layout
System
Layout
Contour
Map
System Layout
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Cost Differential: $50/acre


Design Process Flowchart
Background
Determine Drain
Information Select DC,
Sizes
(Soils, Topo, Crops) Spacing
& Depth

Drainage
Needed Installation
Develop System
NO
Layout

Confirm
Outlet Determine Grades
NO & Depth
Drain Sizing Tool
Result
Display
Materials
Drainage Materials
Drainage Materials
Drainage
Coeff.
Drainage Coefficient
Design
Criteria
Tile Mathematics

10 = 3 x 6
12/2 = 8
Sedimentation
Options
Design
Chart
Can be
Saved
Lateral Specification
Lateral Specification
Inlets
Questions?