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15

51°C
5°C
14 min./max. Inlet Air
Out-put Power (MW)

Temperature
13
12
11
10
9
ISO Condition

8
7
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Inlet Air Temperature (Deg. C)


Gas Turbine
Overview
Gas Turbine Purpose:

The purpose of a gas turbine engine is to create

energy to turn a shaft that drives other rotating

equipment such as compressors and


generators.
Gas turbines commonly used to
drive:

· compressors for transporting gas through


pipelines

· generators that produce electrical power


Basic Categories for Gas Turbines

Single Shaft
Single Shaft Gas Turbine

The axial flow gas turbine is


one of the most common gas
turbine engine designs.

The figure shows the


simplified airflow through an
axial flow gas turbine.

As you can see from the red


flow lines, the air flows in a
straight or axial path from one
end of the gas turbine to the
other.
Basic Categories for Gas Turbines

Split [Two] Shaft


Two-Shaft Axial Flow Gas
Turbine
A separate turbine section
drives the compressor.

Except for the airflow, the two


rotor systems (compressor and
turbine) operate
independently.

Each compressor is driven at


its own speed by its own set of
turbine wheels, as shown in
the figure.
The Thermodynamic Laws
The Thermodynamic Laws

The laws of thermodynamics explain the


effects of heat in an engine.

The first law states that energy can be


changed but it cannot be destroyed.

In a gas turbine engine, heat energy is


changed to mechanical energy.

The second law of thermodynamics


states that heat cannot be transferred
from a cooler body to a hotter body.

In a gas turbine engine, heat is


transferred from the hotter engine to
the cooler lube oil.
The Thermodynamic Laws

Newton's First Law of


Motion
Newton's first law explains why a
force is needed to make the gas
turbine work.

In the figure, a ball on a level table


will not move until it is made to move
by some force such as the wind or
pushing it by hand.

Similarly, until the fuel and air


mixture is burned in the gas turbine,
there is no force for the turbine to use
to turn the rotor shaft.
The Thermodynamic Laws

Newton's Second Law of


Motion
Newton's Second Law explains why the air must be
compressed and accelerated to create a force.

In the figure, a hammer is used to drive a nail. The


force of hitting the nail is proportional to the mass
(weight) of the hammer multiplied by the velocity
of the hammer when it hits the nail.

If you also use a heavier hammer, it is even easier


to drive the nail into the wood.

Mass and acceleration directly affect the amount


of force created. The more compressed air (mass)
that enters the gas turbine, the more force created
from the combustion process.
The Thermodynamic Laws

Newton's Third Law of


Motion
Newton's Third Law explains how the
action of creating a thrust force results in
the reaction of the turbine rotating.

In the figure, a boat is near the bank of a


river. The person steps from the boat
toward the land. As his body pushes
forward, the boat is pushed backward with
the same amount of force.

In the gas turbine, the thrust force is the


action. This force is directed into the rear
of the case and on to the turbine blades.
The blades of the turbine react to the force
and turn the rotor.
Brayton Cycle

The Brayton Cycle defines


what takes place in the gas
turbine engine. These events
are controlled by the physical
laws described on the previous
pages.

The events in the Brayton


Cycle take place in specific
sections of the gas turbine. The Brayton Cycle is unique among
These events are: engine cycles because all the
· Compression events in the cycle take place at the
same time without interruption.
· Combustion The exhaust event is the only part
· Expansion of the cycle that does not take
· Exhaust place in the engine.
Gas Turbine Components

A gas turbine engine


is divided into five
sections:

 · air inlet section


 · compressor section
. Diffuser
 · combustion section
 · turbine section
 · exhaust section
Air Inlet System

 The air inlet system controls the air quality


and directs a steady flow of air to the
compressor air inlet.

The amount and quality of air affects


engine performance and reliability.
Air Inlet System

The air inlet system has two


main assemblies:

· filter assembly

· inlet ducting assembly


Filter Assembly

The filter assembly


consists of the
following parts:

· weather louvers

· inlet screens

· filters
Inlet Ducting Assembly

The second main assembly in the air


inlet system is the inlet ducting
assembly which consists of the
following parts:

· bypass door (s)

· inlet silencer

· trash screens

· air plenum
Compressor Section

The purpose of the


compressor section is to
compress air for cooling
and combustion. The
compressor draws in
atmospheric air through
the air inlet and increases
its pressure while
reducing its volume.
Axial Flow Compressor

In an axial flow
compressor the air
flows axially. This
means that the air
flows in a relatively
straight path in line
with the axis of the
gas turbine.
Axial Flow Compressor

The Main Components :

· case

· rotor

· stator
Axial Flow Compressor

The Compressor Case:

The compressor case contains


the rotor and the stator. The
case is divided into halves. The
upper half may be removed for
inspection or maintenance of
the rotor and stator blades
while the bottom half remains
in place.
Axial Flow Compressor
The Compressor Rotor:

The rotor is the rotating element


of the compressor. The rotor
contains blades fixed on a
spindle, drum, or wheel.

These blades push air to the rear


in the same way a propeller
does. The movement of air is
caused by the angle and the
shape of the blades.
Axial Flow Compressor

Compressor Stator

Stator vanes are the non-moving


elements of the compressor. They
are located between each rotor
stage. Stator blades are attached
to the inner wall of the case.

Stator vanes receive high velocity


air from each preceding rotor
stage of the compressor.
Stator vanes direct airflow to the
next stage of compression at the
desired angle. This controlled
direction provides increased blade
efficiency.
Axial Flow Compressor

Operation

When air enters the compressor


through the air inlet, incoming air
passes through the first row of vanes,
called inlet guide vanes.

As the air enters the first set of


rotating blades, it is deflected in the
direction of blade rotation.
The air is then caught and turned as it
passes through a set of stator vanes.
From there, the air is picked up by
another set of rotating blades.
Axial Flow Compressor

Operation:
As pressure is increased by
successive rotor/stator blade
sets, air volume is decreased.

At the compressor exit, the


diffusion section finishes the
compression process by
decreasing air velocity and
increasing pressure just before
the air enters the combustion
section.

A major effect of an unstable


compression process is surging,
which is discussed next.
Axial Flow Compressor

Compressor Surge:
Compressor surge is a characteristic common to all types of gas
turbines.

In general, surge is the result of unstable airflow in the compressor.

This unstable condition is often caused by air building up in the rear


stages of the compressor.

When a compressor is not operating at its optimum speed, the forward


compressor blades may provide more air than the downstream stages
can compress. The air then tends to reverse flow. The compressor
surges.
Axial Flow Compressor

Compressor Surge Protection:

Compressor is protected against surge by:

• Inlet Guide Vanes

•Air Bleed Valve


Axial Flow Compressor

Compressor Surge

Surging causes the machine to vibrate excessively.

Several methods are used to control surging. For example, the two-
shaft gas turbine design reduces the possibility of surging.

Compressors with higher compression ratios have a greater tendency


to surge. Compression ratios are discussed next.
Axial Flow Compressor

Compression Ratio:

Large, high-powered gas turbines


require greater efficiency and higher
compression than can be obtained with
a single axial flow compressor.

Single axial compressors usually have a


compression ratio of approximately 8:1.
Compression ratio is determined by the
discharge pressure (psia) divided by the
suction pressure (psia).
Diffuser

Purpose

The diffuser is located between the


compressor section and the main
components of the combustion
section.

The purpose of the diffuser is to


prepare the air for entry into the
combustion section.

The front end of the diffuser is


bolted to the compressor case, and
the back end is attached to the
combustion section.
Combustion Section

The combustion section is located


between the compressor and turbine
sections.
The purpose of the combustion
section is to add heat energy to the
flowing gases.

This addition of heat causes the


gases to expand and accelerate into
the turbine section.
The hot gases that are generated by
burning fuel in the combustion
chambers are used to power the
turbine and the load.
The Combustion Chamber

The main component of the


combustion section is the
combustion chamber (burner).

A basic combustion chamber


consists of the following:

· outer case
· perforated inner liner
· fuel injectors
· source of ignition
The Combustion Chamber

The fuel system supplies clean,


pressure-regulated fuel to the
combustion chamber where it is mixed
with the incoming compressed air from
the diffuser.

During start-up, the fuel and air mixture


is ignited by a spark plug (source of
ignition).

After combustion occurs, the spark plug


stops firing.

The burning gases supply the heat


energy required to operate the turbine
and load.
The Combustion Chamber
Coaxial Arrangement
Combustion chambers are arranged
coaxially (common axis) with the
compressor and turbine to allow
efficient flow-through operation.

The figure shows a typical combustion


chamber arrangement.

Note the location of the spark plugs.


Not all combustion chambers have
spark plugs. Some are equipped with
only crossfire tubes.
Combustion Process

Compressed air enters the


combustion chamber, fuel is
injected, and the fuel/air mixture
is ignited and burned.

The burning or combustion


gases expand and travel toward
a point of lower pressure at the
rear of the chambers. Because
high pressure compressed air
surrounds the burner on all
sides except the rear, the hot,
expanding gases are directed
toward the turbine section.
Airflow

To operate efficiently, a
combustion chamber must
provide:

· a means for proper mixing of


air and fuel
· a way to cool the hot
combustion products to a
temperature the turbine
section components can
tolerate.
Airflow

To accomplish these actions, airflow


through the combustor is divided into
two air paths:

· primary

· secondary

The primary air is approximately 25%


of the total air that enters the
chamber. Primary air is sent to the fuel
nozzle area for combustion.
Air Flow
Primary & Secondary
Air

About half of the primary air flows


axially through the front of the
combustion liner in the area of the
fuel nozzles.

The rest of the primary air enters


radially through small holes in the
front third of the combustion liner.

All primary airflow supports


combustion.
Air Flow

Primary & Secondary


Air:
Some of this airflow also centers the
flame and keeps it from contacting
the combustion liner.

The other half of the secondary air


enters the combustion liner toward
the rear.

This part of the airflow dilutes the


combustion gases to an acceptable
temperature to improve the turbine
components service life.
Turbine Section

The turbine section is located


between the combustion and
the exhaust sections of the
engine.

The purpose of the turbine


section is to convert the
energy of the expanding gases
into mechanical energy to
drive the compressor, the
accessories, and the load.
Turbine Section

Turbine Section
Components

Like the compressor


section, the turbine section
consists of two major
components:

· The stator or turbine


nozzles

· The rotor or turbine wheel


Turbine Section

Stators & Rotors


The stators and the rotors of the
turbine and compressor sections
are similar in their construction.

The primary difference is the


angle at which the vanes,
nozzles, and blades are
positioned.

Their positioning is critical to


efficient engine operation.

Contd.
Turbine Section

Turbine Nozzle
The turbine nozzle vanes have two
purposes:

· prepare the combustion gases for


driving the turbine rotor

· deflect the combustion gases in the


direction of the turbine rotation

To accomplish this, the shape and


position of the turbine nozzle vanes
form passages for expanding gas flow.
Contd.
Turbine Section

Turbine Rotor
The energy of the gases leaving the first
row of turbine nozzle vanes encounters
the next major component of the turbine
section, the rotor or turbine wheel.

The purpose of the turbine rotor is to


extract mechanical energy to operate
the compressor, accessories, and load.

The turbine rotor consists of the


following:

· shaft · blades or buckets


· disk
Turbine Section

Turbine Rotor Blades


The blades of the turbine wheel are
mounted to the disk in the same
manner as compressor blades are
mounted to the rotor, by either fir-tree,
bulb, or dove-tail type roots.

This rotor and disk assembly is


attached to the shaft.
Turbine Section
Nozzle Vane
Assembly
Each set of stator vanes forms a
nozzle vane assembly for the
following turbine wheel.

Exit guide vanes straighten the


gas flow as it enters the exhaust
section.
We have looked at the purpose,
function, and design features of
the two main components of the
turbine section, the stator and the
rotor.
Our next focus is on the operation
or flow of gases through the
turbine section.
Turbine Section
Operation:
Hot, expanding gases from each
burner (or combustion chamber)
flow through a transition duct to
turbine nozzle vanes.

The nozzle vanes direct the


expanding gases into the turbine
section.

As you recall, the components of


the compressor section convert
energy by increasing the airflow
pressure.
Turbine Section

Operation

In contrast, the components of the


turbine section convert energy by
reducing the pressure of the flowing
gases.

Pressure is changed to velocity by


the shape and position of both the
turbine stator vanes and the rotor
blades.
Turbine Section
Gas Flow
The shape of the vanes causes
an increase in velocity as the
gases pass between the vanes.

As the gases flow into the first


set of vanes, the gases
accelerate because the space
between the vanes is
converging (a funnel effect
similar to the first half of the
venturi tube).

As Bernoulli's principle
states:
· an increase in velocity causes
a decrease in pressure
Turbine Section

Gas Flow

The gases leaving the nozzle vanes


reach their maximum velocity just
before they hit the first-stage turbine,
causing it to rotate.

The shape of the rotor blades also


accelerates the gases.

At this point, the gases still have


enough energy to do work.

The turbine blades redirect the hot


gases into the second row of nozzle
vanes.
Turbine Section
Gas Flow

The process continues through each


stage of the turbine section.

Exit vanes reduce turbulence before


the gases enter the exhaust section.
This reduces backpressure on the
turbine section.

Approximately two-thirds of the


total energy available for work in a
gas turbine is used to turn the
compressor.
Multiple Stage Compressors

Gas turbine manufacturers may place


more than one set of compressor and
turbine stages in an engine as shown
in the figure.

The additional stages in the


compressor section provide more
compression of the air before
combustion.

More than one stage is used in the


turbine section to extract as much
power as possible from the hot,
expanding gases.

The gas turbine in the figure is a two-


stage turbine driving a three-stage
Exhaust Section

Purpose
When the gases exit the turbine
section they enter the last
section of the gas turbine, the
exhaust section.

The exhaust section is located


directly behind the turbine
section of the engine.

The purpose of the exhaust


section is to discharge the spent
gases to the atmosphere.
Exhaust Section

Components :

The exhaust section usually


consists of the following
components:

· outer housing · inner


housing
· struts · plenum

These components act as a


diffuser, to reduce the
turbulence and velocity of
exhaust gases.
Exhaust Section

Components:

The inner housing may contain the


gas turbine rear bearing assembly
and over speed trip device.

The outer housing flange is used to


connect the exhaust collector or
plenum to the gas turbine exhaust
section.

The diffusion process occurs in the


exhaust section as the volume is
increased.
Exhaust Section

Operation:

As the exhaust gases pass through the


exhaust section components:

· the velocity is decreased


· the pressure remains relatively
constant
· the turbulence is reduced

The exhaust gases enter the


atmosphere from the exhaust plenum.
Silencers

Silencers are usually installed in


both the air inlet system and the
exhaust section of the gas turbine
to reduce operating noise.

Silencing is accomplished by baffles


covered with sound-absorbing
material.

In some air inlet ducts, the interior


walls of the ducting and air plenum
chambers are also lined with this
sound-absorbing material.
Accessory Drives
Purpose:

Some of these accessories are


the oil pumps, hydraulic pump,
fuel pump, and starting means
interface.

The primary purpose of the


accessory drive is to provide a
means to drive each accessory at
the proper speed and to connect
and disconnect the engine from
its starting device.

The figure shows a typical G.E.


accessory drive assembly.
Accessory Drives
G.E. Accessory Drive
The accessory drive gear is driven
by a shaft that meshes with a
helical gear driven by the main
rotor shaft.

The gearbox is usually located at


the front (forward) or the rear
(aft) of the gas turbine engine,
depending on the engine inlet or
exhaust arrangements.

G.E. describes its typical


accessory drive system as the
main link between the gas turbine
and the drive components of the
starting system.
Accessory Drives
G.E. Accessory Drive:
Function

The gear drives several accessory


devices that support gas turbine
operation.

Each drive pad is a point of potential


oil leakage because of the shaft seal
arrangement.

Engine oil from the lube oil pump or


the hydraulic pump may leak into, or
from, the accessory drive assembly
through the drive shaft seal.
Accessory Drives
G.E. Accessory Drive:
Function
The G.E. accessory gear also provides
a mount for the turbine overspeed trip
bolt mechanism.

The trip bolt mechanism is mounted


on the exterior case of the accessory
gear.

The actual overspeed trip bolt is


mounted in the main or number one
gear shaft. This is covered in more
detail in a later lesson.

The Solar accessory drive is discussed


next.
Accessory Drives
Solar Accessory Drive:
Function
(Contd.)
On Solar gas turbines, the
accessory drive is attached to the
air inlet assembly.

The accessory housing contains the


accessory drive gears, pinion gears,
and the necessary shafts and
bearings.

Mounting pads and gear drives are


provided for the starter, lube oil
pump, hydraulic oil pump, speed
governor, seal oil pump, and other
Accessory Drives
Solar Accessory Drive: Function

If a particular accessory is not used, a


cover plate is installed on the
mounting pad.

During the starting cycle, the Solar


accessory gear is driven by the starter
assembly.
Accessory Drives

Solar Accessory Drive:


Function

A starter disengaging jaw clutch and


accessory drive adapter connect the
starter to a spur gear and shaft.

During the start cycle, the gas


turbine compressor is driven by the
gear.

After the starter jaw clutch


disconnects, the compressor shaft
drives the gear.
Bearings

The main bearings of a


gas turbine engine are
mounted in a bearing
housing.

Most bearing housings


contain seals to prevent
oil leakage into the gas
path.
Bearings

Purpose
Bearings have several purposes.
They:

· support engine parts

· minimize friction

· minimize wear

· allow freedom of movement

· carry loads
Bearings

The primary loads that act on


main bearings are:

· weight of the rotating mass


(compressor, turbine, etc.)

· axial forces of power or load


change

· compression and tension loads


between stationary parts and
rotating parts caused by thermal
expansion and misalignment

· vibration
Bearings

Plain Bearings:

There are several types of


bearings used in gas turbines:

· plain or sleeve

· ball and roller

Plain bearings are the simplest


type of bearing.

Plain bearings are used in minor


load locations, such as engine
accessories.
Bearings

Plain Bearing
Assembly
A plain bearing assembly
consists of the:

· bearing support or bracket

· bearing housing or container

· plain or sleeve bearing

During engine operation,


pressurized lube oil is injected
into the bearing through oil
passages.
Bearings

This oil forms a film between the


bearing and the surface that is
being supported to prevent
metal-to-metal contact.

The rotating part moves on a film


of lube oil instead of on the
surface of the bearing.
Bearings

Ball & Roller Bearings


Ball bearings and roller bearings are
called antifriction bearings because the
balls and rollers minimize friction. Ball
and roller bearings are commonly used
because they:

· offer little resistance to rotation


· provide precise alignment of rotating
parts
· are relatively inexpensive
· can withstand momentary overloads
· are easy to lubricate
· work with both radial and axial loads
· can endure elevated temperatures
Bearings

Ball Bearings

The main disadvantages of


ball and roller bearings are
that they:

· are easily damaged by foreign


matter
· fail with very little warning

A ball bearing consists of the


following components:

· an inner and an outer race


· a set of polished steel balls
· a ball retainer
Bearings
Roller Bearings
Roller bearings also have an
inner and an outer race, but use
rollers rather than balls.

Roller bearings are made in


different shapes and sizes for
both radial and thrust loads.

Straight roller bearings primarily


support radial loads. Tapered
roller bearings support both
radial and thrust loads.
Bearings

In roller bearings, the roller is


located between an inner and
an outer race.

When a roller is tapered, it rolls


on an angled outer race.

The inner races of ball and


roller bearings are closely fitted
to the rotor shafts to prevent
movement of the shaft.
Bearings designed to resist
thrust in one direction have a
heavier race on the side that
supports the thrust.
Bearings

Types:
Hydrodynamic
Bearings

Hydrodynamic bearings use an


oil wedge for support and to
reduce friction.

There are two types of


hydrodynamic bearings:

· radial oil-wedge

· thrust oil-wedge
Bearings

Hydrodynamic
Bearings: Radial Oil-
Wedge

A radial oil-wedge bearing


resembles a plain bearing
except the bearing or bushing is
divided into several sections, or
pads. Each pad is able to tilt or
lean.

When the shaft rotates in the


bearing, the pads tilt to allow
wedges of oil to form between
the pad and the shaft.
Bearings

Oil wedges support the shaft as it


rotates and cannot be squeezed out
of the bearing housing when a
heavy load is imposed.

The axial movement of a gas


turbine rotor shaft is controlled by
thrust bearings.
Bearings
A typical thrust oil-
wedge bearing
consists of:

· a bearing housing
· thrust shoes
· a thrust collar attached to the
rotating shaft
The shaft is held in position by oil
pressure acting against the thrust
collar.

If the shaft moves, the thrust collar


loading increases to prevent further
movement.
Hydrodynamic Bearings: Radial Oil-
Wedge
Bearings
The thrust oil-wedge bearing
operates on the same principle
as a radial oil-wedge bearing.

In a thrust oil-wedge bearing,


the thrust shoes are positioned
against leveling plates.

As the thrust shoes pivot during


gas turbine operation, oil
wedges form between the
thrust collar and the shoes.

The oil wedges limit axial thrust


of the rotor shaft.
Bearings

Bearing assemblies must be well


supported and strong enough to
support the loads imposed by the
rotating rotor.

Lube oil is delivered to the bearings


to provide support.

Information about seals is presented


next.
Hydrodynamic Bearings: Radial Oil-
Wedge
Gas Turbine Performance
Gas Turbine Performance

Atmospheric factors affect


the performance of gas
turbines. Some of these
factors are:

· air density
· contaminants

Temperature and water content


affect the density of the air.
Because cold air is more dense
than hot air, it has more mass.
The more air in the gas turbine,
the more force created.
Pneumatic Starting System

Purpose:
The purpose of a gas turbine
engine starting system is to
provide power to:

· rotate the turbine shaft to starting speed

· assist the turbine to self-sustaining speed


after combustion occurs

Most gas turbine engines are started by


starter power input to the main accessory
gearbox. The gearbox is connected to the
turbine rotor and compressor.

Any gas under pressure may be used as a


power source for a pneumatic starting
system.
Pneumatic Starting System

Starting System:
Components
Natural gas must meet the
manufacturer's specifications. A typical
pneumatic starting system requires
approximately 2600 scfm.

The main components of a Solar


Centaur starting system are as
follows:
· gas inlet strainer
· pilot gas filter
· solenoid-operated pilot valve
· starter motor shutoff valve
· lubricator
· starter motors
Pneumatic Starting System

Gas Inlet Strainer


The gas inlet strainer is located at the gas
turbine skid upstream of the shutoff
valve.

A shutoff valve is located downstream of


the strainer to shut off the gas supply to
the starter motor.

The strainer is a Y-shaped fitting that


houses a removable cylindrical "strainer"
screen.

A pilot supply line branches off from the


main gas supply to the starting system.
This line provides pneumatic pressure to
the solenoid-activated pilot valve.
Pneumatic Starting System

Pilot Gas Filter

A pilot gas filter assembly, consisting


of a 10-micron filter and a pressure-
reducing orifice, is installed in the
pilot supply line upstream of the
pilot valve.

The filter prevents foreign matter


from entering the solenoid-operated
pilot valve.

The pressure-reducing orifice


creates a pressure drop in the pilot
supply line. This pressure drop
ensures that the pilot valve will
operate properly in the event of
excessive gas pressure.
Pneumatic Starting System

Starting System: Pilot


Valve
The pilot valve is a three-way, solenoid-
operated valve that is powered by 24-volt DC
from the electrical system and actuated by
the control system.

The pilot valve opens and closes the starter


motor shutoff valve.

When the solenoid is de-energized, pilot gas


pressure closes the starter motor shutoff
valve.

When the solenoid is energized, pilot gas


pressure is vented, allowing the shutoff
valve to open.

A pilot relief valve protects the filter and


pilot valve from excessive pressure.
Pneumatic Starting System

Starter Shutoff Valve:

The pilot-actuated starter motor


shutoff valve controls gas flow
from the supply line to the two
starter motors.

The starter motor shutoff valve is


installed upstream of the
lubricator.
Pneumatic Starting System

Lubricator

A lubricator, located
downstream of the starter
motor shutoff valve, injects
lubricating oil into the gas flow.

The purpose of the lubricator is


to provide atomized lubricating
oil to the starter motor vanes.

A sight dome is used to check


oil flow. In addition, the
lubricator bowl has an oil level
sight glass.

(Contd.)
Pneumatic Starting System

Starter Motor
The figure shows a starter motor and
the clutch, called a sprag or sprag
clutch assembly. The clutch in this
installation is in the housing that is
mounted on the engine gearbox drive.

The pawls , driving or holding links of


a ratchet that permit motion in one
direction only, are forced inward by
small springs to engage the sprag
clutch ratchet. At a preset engine
speed, the pawls are thrown
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems

Purpose
The purpose of a fuel system is to supply
an exact amount of clean fuel to the
engine under all operating conditions.

The amount of fuel is based on turbine


speed and load requirements.

The fuel pressure required for a gas


turbine is primarily a function of the
compression ratio of the compressor
section.

For example, the lower the compression


ratio, the lower the fuel pressure
requirement; the higher the compression
ratio, the higher the fuel pressure
requirement.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems

Gas Turbine Fuel


Systems: Purpose
Almost any combustible fluid, either
gaseous or liquid, can be used for
turbine fuel.

Some gas turbines operate on both


liquid fuel and fuel gas.

Both fuel gas and liquid fuel must be


clean for efficient turbine operations.
However, fuel requirement
specifications differ among
manufacturers.

The following information on fuel gas


and liquid fuel requirements is provided
to illustrate the differences in
specifications.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems

Fuel Gas
Requirements
The figure lists typical
fuel gas requirements for
gas turbine engines.
These requirements are:

· lower heating value


· supply pressure
· gas temperature
· fuel quality
The following page
shows specifications for
liquid fuel.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems

Liquid Fuel
Requirements

The figure lists typical liquid


fuel requirements for gas
turbine engines. These
requirements are:

· fuel temperature
· fuel viscosity
· pour point
· fuel quality
NOTE: Always check the turbine manufacturer's fuel specifications to ensure
that the fuel meets the specifications for the gas turbine you are operating.

The main components of a fuel gas system and liquid fuel system are given
next. We will begin with the fuel gas system.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems

Fuel Gas System:


Components
The main components of a
typical gas turbine fuel gas
system are as follows:

· fuel shutoff valve (SOV)


· vent valve
· pressure control valve (PCV)
· pressure indicator controller (PIC)
· pressure safety valve(s) (PSV)
· instruments and alarms
· filter separators
· control system
· fuel gas heater (optional
depending on gas dew point)
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems

Liquid Fuel
System:
Components

The main components of


a typical liquid fuel
system are:
· manifold
· nozzles
· pumps
· filters
· pressure switches
· fuel control valves Contd
· solenoid-operating valves.
· control system
Lubrication & Lube Oil

The purpose of a gas turbine lubricating


oil

system is to provide clean and cool oil


to

engine parts that are subject to friction.


Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube oil:

· reduces friction

· cushions

· cools

· cleans

· seals
Lubrication & Lube Oil

The primary purpose of any


lubricant is to reduce friction
between moving parts.

A lubricating oil system


provides oil films as surface
coatings on moving parts.

The oil films slide against each


other to prevent metal-to-
metal contact.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Reducing Friction
When the oil film is unbroken,
friction in the engine is fluid
friction instead of metal-to
metal friction.
For example, oil pressure will
actually lift the journal of a
shaft off the bearing on which
it is resting.

As the shaft rotates, a layer of


oil prevents the journal from
physically touching the
bearing.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube oil acts as a cushion between moving


parts. The oil:

· prevents metal-to-metal contact

· absorbs shock, for example shock imposed on gear teeth as they


mesh
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Cooling & Cleaning
One of the laws of
thermodynamics states that heat
is transferred from a hot
substance to a cooler substance.

Lube oil cools the internal parts


of an engine by absorbing heat.
The oil carries this heat away
from the engine.

The heat is removed from the oil


when the oil goes through the oil
cooler. Oil also cleans internal
engine parts.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Seal Formation
Lube oil is also used to form
seals.

Mechanical seals are installed


in an engine between the
moving and nonmoving parts.

A very small space exists


between the two parts of a seal.
This space is sometimes filled
with lube oil.
A thin film of oil between sealing surfaces makes a
mechanical seal more leak resistant.
To perform these functions lube oil must meet certain
requirements.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Service Procedures:

· Wear proper protective clothing


and gloves because all
lubricating oils contain additives
that are irritating to the skin,
toxic, or both.

The last part of this lesson


focuses on the operation of a
lube oil system as a complete
system.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Service Procedures:

When servicing the lube oil


system, the following procedures
should be followed:

· Maintain cleanliness.

· Do not allow foreign matter to


enter the system.

· Use a 10-micron or smaller


filter when servicing with bulk
oil.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Service Procedures:

.If a hand pump is used to service lube oil, use that pump for one
specific lube oil only.

· Do not mix incompatible lubricants. This can result in improper


lubrication of the engine.

· Record the amount of oil serviced.


Lubrication & Lube Oil

Operation:

The lube oil supply is stored in the lube


oil reservoir.

Main, auxiliary, and pre/post lube oil


pumps draw oil from the lube oil
reservoir under pressure, to the lube oil
system.

The temperature control valve regulates


the
Theoil
oiltemperature.
then flows from the pump to the lube oil filter.

The oil filter removes contaminant particles that are


suspended in the oil.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Operation:

After passing through the filter, the oil


flows to the oil feed manifold.

An oil pressure gauge, temperature


indicator, alarm switch, and shutdown
switch monitor oil temperature and
pressure in the oil supply manifold.

From the oil supply manifold, lube oil


is distributed to the turbine rotor
bearings, the hydraulic pump, the
reduction gear bearings, and the
generator bearings.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Operation:

After lubricating the bearings and gears, the lube oil is returned to the
lube oil reservoir.

Lube oil system operation will vary from manufacturer to


manufacturer, but the components are basically the same.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Components:
A typical gas turbine lube oil
system consists of the following
components:

· lube oil reservoir


· oil pumps
· oil filters
· oil coolers
· control devices
· instruments and alarms

End Show Contents


Lubrication & Lube Oil

Oil Reservoir:

The purpose of the lube oil


reservoir is to contain an
ample supply of lubricant
for the gas turbine,
accessory drive systems,
gearbox, and driven
equipment.

The lube oil reservoir also


provides the oil for starting,
control, positioning inlet
guide vanes, and trip oil
circuits.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Reservoir
Component
Functions
Lube oil temperature is usually
measured in the reservoir.
Proper lube oil temperature is
necessary for most gas turbines.

Low oil pressure, low oil level,


and high oil temperature will
initiate shutdowns of most gas
Reservoirs may have both a level sight glass and a level indicator to
turbine engines.
indicate oil level.
A sealed float device operates level transmitters (LT), indicators (LI),
and switches.
The switches activate high (LSH) and low (LSL) level alarms and
shutdowns.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Reservoir
Component
Functions
The lube oil reservoir is vented
to the atmosphere to maintain
an even pressure in the tank.

A flame arrestor is often


installed in the vent to prevent
a source of ignition from
entering the reservoir.

The purpose of the pressure System protection is provided


regulator (PCV) is to control the by a pressure relief valve (PSV)
lube oil system pressure by located at the discharge of each
returning excess lube oil to the pump.
reservoir.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Pumps:

The purpose of lube oil pumps


is to provide lube oil under
pressure for lubrication of the
engine and associated
equipment.

The lube oil pumps take suction


from the oil reservoir and
discharge into a common
header.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube oil system pumps are classified as:

· main

· auxiliary

· emergency

All three types use oil from the lube oil reservoir.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Pumps


Types:
The three most common types of
lube oil system main pumps are
the following:

· vane
· gerotor
· gear

These pumps are positive


displacement pumps because
they send a fixed quantity or
constant volume of oil to the
pump outlet during each
revolution.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Sliding Vane Pump
Pumping action in the sliding
vane lube oil pump takes place
as the rotor drive shaft and the
eccentric rotor drive the sliding
vanes.

The space between each pair of


sliding vanes fills with oil as the
oil passes the oil inlet port.

This oil is carried to the outlet


port asthe
When the spaces
rotors turn.
between the vanes, the eccentric rotor, and
the inner walls of the pump case reduce to minimum
clearance, the oil is forced out of the pump.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Gerotor Pump
Components

The figure shows the pumping


element of a gerotor pump.

The gerotor pump operates on a


principle similar to that of the vane
pump.

The gerotor pump uses a lobe shaped


drive gear inside an elliptically
The right
shaped side
idler ofto
gear the figure
move shows
oil from an a complete pumping
element.
intake to a discharge port.
Several elements can be mounted on a single shaft inside the
pump case.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Gerotor Pump
Operation

Gerotor pump operation is shown


in the lower portion of the figure.

· From 0° to 180° of pump rotation,


the space between the lobes and
the openings increases from a
minimum to a maximum volume.

· As the space reaches maximum


volume, it is closed to the intake
port and is in position to open to
the discharge port.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Gerotor Pump Operation:

At the 270° point of rotation, the


space decreases in volume,
forcing oil out the discharge port.
· At 360° again, the space
reaches minimum volume. The
space is closed to discharge and
begins to open to the intake port,
repeating the cycle as rotation
continues.
This action takes place in each of
the seven interlobal spaces
between the inner six-lobe
gerotor and the outer seven-lobe
gerotor.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Gerotor Pump Operation

The inner drive gear in the figure has


six lobes (teeth).

The outer idler gear has seven


openings.

This extra lobe allows oil to fill the one


open space as it passes the intake
port.

The oil moves through the pump as The most commonly used
the pump rotates, until a minimum lube oil pump is the gear
clearance forces the oil out through pump shown in the figure on
the discharge port. the following page.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Gear Pump
Components &
Operation
A gear pump usually consists of
two close-fitting gears, the drive
and idler gears, that rotate in a
pump case.

The pump case provides minimum


space between the gear teeth and
the inner walls of the case.

The gear lube oil pump is usually


engine driven by the accessory
gears.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

When the pump is rotating, the


gears take in oil.

The gears rotate in a direction


that forces the oil to move
between the gear teeth and the
pump inner case until the oil is
delivered to the pump outlet
port.

The idler gear seals the pump


inlet from the outlet and
prevents the oil from reversing
flow.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Gear Pump
Components &
Operation
A gear pump usually consists of two
close-fitting gears, the drive and
idler gears, that rotate in a pump
case.

The pump case provides minimum


space between the gear teeth and
the inner walls of the case.

The gear lube oil pump is usually


engine driven by the accessory
gears.

When the pump is rotating, the


Lubrication & Lube Oil

The gears rotate in a direction that


forces the oil to move between the
gear teeth and the pump inner case
until the oil is delivered to the pump
outlet port.

The idler gear seals the pump inlet


from the outlet and prevents the oil
from reversing flow.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Auxiliary Pump:
Purpose & Function

The purpose of an auxiliary lube


oil pump is to supply lube oil:

· during gas turbine startup

· during gas turbine shutdown or


cool down

· anytime the main lube oil pump


cannot supply lubricating oil
Lubrication & Lube Oil

When gas turbine engine start-up


begins, oil is delivered to the lube
oil system by the AC-powered
auxiliary lube oil pump.

The auxiliary oil pump operates for


a preset time before the starter
engages.

The auxiliary lube oil pump operates


until the gas turbine engine
accelerates to approximately 90%
of its normal operating speed.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Auxiliary Pump:
Purpose & Function
During gas turbine engine
shutdown, the auxiliary lube oil
pump is again started by the
control system when engine
speed slows to approximately
80% speed.

The auxiliary oil pump continues


to operate throughout the
shutdown and cool-down cycles.

The figure shows a typical


vertical, centrifugal pump.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Unlike the pumps discussed up to this


point, centrifugal pumps are not
positive displacement pumps.

This type of pump uses an impeller to


move the oil through the system.

A vertical, centrifugal pump is


sometimes used as an auxiliary and
an emergency lube oil pump.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Emergency Pump:
Purpose & Function
The purpose of an emergency
lube oil pump is to supply lube
oil during an emergency
shutdown if the auxiliary lube oil
pump is inoperative or is unable
to maintain sufficient lube oil
pressure.

The emergency lube oil pump is


similar to the auxiliary oil pump. The next topic discusses how
The main difference is that the these pumps function within
auxiliary lube oil pump is the operation of a typical lube
operated by an AC motor and oil system.
the emergency lube oil pump is
operated by a DC motor.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Pumps:


Operation
The figure shows a basic gas
turbine lube oil system.

The main lubricating oil pump


takes suction from the lube oil
tank and supplies oil under
pressure to the temperature
control valve, filter and supply
manifold.

After lubricating engine parts,


the lube oil is returned to the oil
Contd.
reservoir.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

An auxiliary oil pump, or


pre/postlube oil pump, supplies
lube oil under pressure during
the engine start and shutdown
cycles.

After lube oil pressure has been


established, the engine begins
to rotate.

When the engine reaches


sufficient speed for the main
(engine driven) oil pump to
provide adequate lube oil
pressure, the pre/postlube oil
pump is automatically shut
down.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Pumps:


Operation
This pump draws oil from the
reservoir and sends it to the lube oil
filter and oil supply manifold for
distribution to the lubrication points.

Oil pressure is regulated by the relief


valve (PSV) during pre/postlube
auxiliary oil pump operation.

At engine shutdown, the postlube oil


The postlube
pump oil by
is activated pump operates for a preset time after
the control
shutdown to provide postlubrication and to cool the engine.
system.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Filters:


Purpose

The purpose of lube oil


filters is to remove particles
that collect in the oil.

These particles can lodge in


the close spaces between
bearings and seals.

Contaminants in lube oil will


increase the friction
between moving parts,
resulting in excessive wear
and bearing failure.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil System:


Contaminant Sources
Contaminants in lube oil systems
are primarily from the following
sources:

· small particles of carbon from


the breakdown of oil
· metallic particles from engine
wear and corrosion
· airborne contaminants entering
through bearing seals
· dirt and other foreign matter
introduced into the reservoir
during servicing
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Filters: Types


The most common types of lube oil
system oil filters are the disposable
filter and the cleanable screen filter
(wire mesh).

Disposable filters are smaller than


cleanable screen (wire mesh) filters.

Disposable filters are capable of


filtering particles as small as 5
microns.

Disposable filters are heavily


pleated.

( Contd.)
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Filters:


Types of Assemblies
Two types of lube oil filter
assemblies are used in gas
turbine lube oil systems:
· simplex
· duplex

The simplex has only one filter


case. The duplex has two filter
cases.

When a simplex oil filter is used,


the engine must be shut down to
replace the filter elements.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Filters:


Simplex Assembly

A simplex lube oil filter


assembly usually consists of the
following:

· filter case
· plumbing
· differential pressure gauge
· differential pressure alarm
switch
Each filter element is a pleated
paper cartridge designed to filter
The filter case is shaped like a
particles that are larger than 5
cylinder and contains microns.
replaceable filter elements.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Lube Oil Filters:
Duplex Filter
Assembly
Many gas turbine engines have a
duplex lube oil filter assembly
instead of a simplex oil filter.

The operation of the lube oil


system is the same except that
the engine does not need to be
shut down to replace a dirty filter
element. The oil flow can be
diverted to the clean filter case.

The duplex oil filter has two filter


cases. Each case contains
replaceable filter elements.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Lube Oil Coolers:
Purpose & Types
The purpose of the lube oil system
oil coolers is to maintain a specified
lube oil temperature.

The specified temperature must be


maintained under differing oil heat
loads that take place with differing
operating conditions.

One of the laws of thermodynamics


states that heat can only be
transferred from a hot surface to a
colder surface.
Oil coolers are heat exchangers. The two most common types of oil coolers
are:

· oil-to-water
· oil-to-air
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Coolers:


Oil-to-Water Cooler
The oil-to-water cooler uses water
to cool the oil. The oil-to-air cooler
uses air to cool the oil. The oil-to-
water cooler is discussed first.

The figure shows an oil-to-water


cooler.

The heat exchanger transfers heat


from the lube oil to the water and
keeps the oil at the proper
Lube oil coolers require minimal operating checks and maintenance.
temperature.
They should be inspected for oil and water leaks during each routine and off-line
maintenance inspection.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Coolers: Flow


High bearing header lube oil
temperature may indicate that the oil
cooler tubes are fouled and in need of
cleaning.

Lube oil coolers can be damaged by


thermal shock, overpressure, and
hydraulic hammer.

Thermal shock is prevented by starting


the flow
If the of oil
lube cooling water
system has through
been down the for
oil maintenance, the system
cooler
must be before the hot
gradually lube
filled oil fluids
with flow isas air is vented from the system.
started.
Pulsations of fluids through oil coolers can cause vibrations that may
damage the cooler and shorten its operating life.
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Lube Oil Coolers: Oil-


to-Air Cooler

The oil-to-air cooler and


thermostatic valve arrangement is
similar to the oil-to-water cooler.
The primary difference is that the
actual heat exchanger resembles
the radiator cooler used for water
cooled reciprocating engines.

An oil-to-air lube oil cooler keeps


lube oil temperature within
operating limits by using an oil-to-
air heat exchanger with an
electrically operated fan.
Lubrication & Lube Oil
Lube Oil Coolers:
Operation
The figure shows a diagram of
an oil-to-air cooler subsystem.

Lube oil under pressure from


the oil pump either bypasses
the oil coolers or enters one of
the coolers through the
transfer valve.

If the oil temperature is less


than approximately 60°F, the
temperature control valve will
open port B to port A and theContd
oil will bypass the oil coolers..
Lubrication & Lube Oil

Solar
Instruments &
Alarms

The figure shows a


typical Solar lube oil
schematic.

Information about
Solar lube oil system
instruments and
alarms begins on
the next page with
the level indicator.
Seals

To prevent leakage of oil from a


narrow flow path, bearing
assemblies usually contain oil
seals.

The purpose of oil seals is to


prevent oil from leaking from the
bearing housing.

There are two types of oil seals,


they are labyrinth or carbon. Both
types are often used in the same
seal assembly.
Seals
Types: Labyrinth Seal
The labyrinth seal is a controlled-
leakage device that allows minimal
leakage across the seal.

It also controls compressed air


from the compressor section and
hot gases from the turbine section
that leak along the shaft.
Air from the gas path outside the
bearing housing bleeds inward
through the grooves in the
labyrinth
A seal.
labyrinth seal assembly consists of grooves in the seal and, in some
cases, teeth in the shaft. Also provided is a vent and a drain for
removal of gas and liquids.
Seals
Types: Labyrinth Seal
in Bearing Housing

Seal dams formed by the teeth and


grooves in the labyrinth seal allow
a metered amount of air from the
engine gas path to flow inward.

The figure shows a typical


compressor rear bearing housing
arrangement.

Lube oil enters at the top of the


bearing housing and drains out the
bottom.

( Contd.)
Seals

Labyrinth Seal in
Bearing Housing:
Labyrinth seals are installed in both
ends of the bearing housing with
bleed air pressure against the outer
surfaces of the seals.

The air flows between the teeth and


grooves of the seals into the
bearing housing. This prevents lube
oil from leaking through the seals.
Seals
Types: Labyrinth Air-
oil Seal
This figure shows a labyrinth air-oil
seal arrangement with a dual
labyrinth seal located on each side
of the bearings.

The bearing housing is contained in


a cavity. The space between the
bearing housing and the walls of
the cavity is pressurized with bleed
air
Thisfrom theofengine
type compression
arrangement takes advantage of controlled
section.
bleed air across the seals.
The bearing housing is vented to the atmosphere.
Seals
Types: Labyrinth Air-Oil
Seal

The controlled leakage of air into


the bearing housing prevents oil
leakage.

Pressurized air that leaks outward


along the shaft prevents gases
from leaking into the bearing
housing.

This type of air-oil seal prevents


the introduction of oil into the gas
path.

Oil leaking into high velocity


combustion gases will damage
Seals
Types: Carbon Seals
Carbon seals are a blend of
carbon and graphite.

Carbon seals perform the same


function as labyrinth seals.

The carbon seal rides on a


surface while the labyrinth seal
has an air space.

Carbon seals are usually spring


loaded and sometimes
pressurized
This causeswith air.
a preload pressure on the carbon segment and
provides a tighter seal.
Seals
Types: Carbon Seals
Carbon seals are used for greater
control of the airflow entering the
bearing housing.

Carbon surfaces are usually


stationary.

A highly polished mating surface,


called the seal land, is attached to
the main rotor shaft.

In some engines, a full contact seal


is required to hold back oil that
tends to puddle before it drains
from the bearing housing.
Hydraulic Oil System

Purpose:

The purpose of a hydraulic system


is to distribute fluid forces to
various moving parts.

This fluid is required for the


operation of gas turbine
electrohydraulic control system
components, the fuel system,
variable inlet guide vane
mechanisms, and the hydraulic
components of some starting
systems.
Hydraulic Oil System

Solar: Subsystem of
Lube Oil System
Solar gas turbines have two
separate hydraulic oil systems:

· subsystem of the lube oil system


· separate servo oil system

In the subsystem of the lube oil


system, oil is taken from the oil supply
manifold by lube oil pump pressure. It
is then routed to the variable vane
control valve and to the actuator to
move the vanes to the maximum open
position.
The Solar gas turbine servo oil system is an electrohydraulic system that
operates as a separate, closed-circuit hydraulic oil system.

Information about this system is presented next.


Hydraulic Oil System

Solar Servo Oil


System

The servo oil system shares the


lube oil reservoir with the lube
oil system.

The purpose of the servo oil


system is to operate the main
fuel valve electrohydraulic servo
actuator.

The actuator is operated by


servo oil pressure and is
Contd
controlled by the engine control
.
system. This system is closely
related to the lube oil system
Hydraulic Oil System

The servo oil system consists of the


following:

· pump element

· servo oil filter

· servo relief valve

During engine operation, servo oil pressure is provided


by the servo pump element that works with the two-
element, engine-driven lube oil pump.
Hydraulic Oil System

Solar Servo Oil


System
Oil is drawn from the lube oil
reservoir through the oil line
common to all three pump
elements.

High-pressure servo oil flows from


the servo pump outlet port
through the servo oil filter to the
inlet port of the servo actuator. A
servo relief valve is located
downstream of the servo oil pump.

The servo oil filter is between the


servo oil pump and the servo
actuator.
Hydraulic Oil System

The oil filter removes particles from the servo oil that are 25
microns or larger.

The purpose of the relief valve is to protect the pump and other
components in the servo oil system against excessive oil pressure.

Information about a G.E. hydraulic oil system is presented next.


Ignition System
Purpose & Components
The purpose of the ignition system
is to supply a spark to ignite the
fuel/air mixture in the combustion
chambers.

A typical ignition system consists of


the following components:

· igniter plugs or spark plugs


· transformers or ignition exciter
· ignition leads
Ignition System
Solar Ignition System
Components
(Contd.)
Solar gas turbines use a torch ignition
system consisting of:

· ignition exciter
· shielded cable spark plug lead
· spark plug

The ignition exciter is mounted in a


box on the gas turbine base.

The exciter is connected to the spark


plug by a cable or lead.
Ignition System
Solar Ignition System Components

The exciter is operated by 24 volt DC


power. This power is changed to AC and
then is stepped up, which charges a
storage capacitor.

When the capacitor charge reaches its


discharge value, the capacitor discharges
through the spark plug cable to the spark
plug.

Exciter output is approximately 18,000


volts. Up to fifteen sparks per second are
produced as long as the exciter is
energized.
Ignition System
Components: Igniter
Torch
The spark plug is installed in the igniter
torch.

The igniter torch extends through the


combustor outer liner.
A small, controlled amount of gas is
sent to the tip of the spark plug
electrode.
The spark jumps across the spark plug
electrode's air gap and ignites the gas,
creating a torch flame.
This torch flame flares into the
combustion liner to provide positive
lightoff of the fuel/air mixture in the
combustor.
Ignition System
Ignition System
Maintenance
Procedures
(Contd.)

In ignition systems, the term


high intensity means that the
electrical charge can be lethal.

Because the electrical charge


can be lethal, ignition systems
require special maintenance and
handling according to the
manufacturer's instructions.
Ignition System
Typical maintenance procedures
include the following:

· Ensure that system power is locked out


before performing any maintenance on
the system.

· To remove the igniter plug, disconnect


the transformer input lead, wait the time
specified by the manufacturer (usually 1
to 5 minutes), then disconnect the igniter
lead and ground the center electrode to
the engine to discharge the capacitor.
Ignition System
Ignition System
Maintenance
Procedures
(Contd.)
· Use caution when handling
damaged transformer units
that are hermetically sealed.
Some transformers contain
radioactive material.

· Before performing a firing


test of igniters, ensure that
the combustor is free of fuel.
A fire or explosion could
result.
Ignition System
Ignition System Maintenance
Procedures

· Do not energize the system for


troubleshooting when the igniter
plugs are removed. Transformer
damage may occur.

· Discard all igniter plugs that have


been dropped. Internal damage can
occur that is not detectable by
inspection or testing.

· Use a new gasket when the plug is


reinstalled. The gasket provides a
good current path to ground.
Vibration Monitoring System
Purpose (Contd.)

The purpose of the vibration


monitoring system is to help in
preventing abnormal operating
conditions.

The rotating shafts of any machine or


gearbox have a tendency to move
axially or radially as a result of speed,
loads, worn internal parts, unbalance,
or other reasons.
Vibration Monitoring System

Purpose

Axial and radial shaft movement is called


vibration. Vibration is a continuing periodic
change in a displacement from a fixed
reference.

Excessive vibration is an abnormal


operating condition that can result in
equipment damage. Excessive vibration is a
symptom of other abnormal conditions.

A bent shaft or improper shaft alignment


could be the source of vibration.
Vibration Monitoring System
Vibration Monitoring
Several protective systems are used to
alert operators to abnormal operating
conditions that could result in damage
to the turbine or other equipment.

Vibration is one of the critical operating


parameters that is monitored by a
protection system.

A vibration monitoring system is usually a part of the gas turbine's


programmable logic control and operator terminal.

The figure shows typical vibration detector locations in relation to the


rotor.
Vibration Monitoring System

Shaft Movement

Vibration monitoring systems are


installed on gas turbines and
driven equipment to monitor and
sometimes record axial and radial
shaft movement.

Shaft movement is monitored in


either displacement (mils),
velocity (length/unit-time), or
acceleration (g's).

(Contd.)
Vibration Monitoring System

One mil equals 0.001 of an inch. A shaft movement of 5 mils


could generate an electrical impulse of one volt. Either of these
measurements may be used as set points to initiate an alarm or
shutdown.
Vibration Monitoring System

Vibration Monitoring
Probes
(Contd.)
In the gas turbine, vibration
probes are installed in the bearing
housings near the shaft.

The probe tips operate on 24-volt


DC power to establish a magnetic
field between the probe tip and a
burnished area on the shaft.

As the distance between the


probe tip and the shaft changes,
the strength of the magnetic field
changes.
Vibration Monitoring System
The probe senses
fluctuations in the magnetic
field, and the monitoring
systems uses this
information.

The figure illustrates a


typical single and double
radial probe installation in a
bearing.
Vibration Monitoring System
Vibration Monitoring
Probes: Function
In the figure, four probes monitor
the radial movement of a gas
turbine shaft and two probes
monitor the shaft axial location.

Axial position probes 1 and 2


monitor shaft axial movement in
two places at the thrust collar.

Probes 3Y and 4X measure radial


movement at the low pressure
end of the compressor.
(Contd.)
Vibration Monitoring System
Probes 5Y and 6X measure radial
movement at the high pressure end
of the compressor.

The probes are placed 90 degrees


apart to monitor relatively both
horizontal and vertical radial
movement.

One probe monitors the X axis, and


the other monitors the Y axis.
Vibration Monitoring System
Vibration Monitoring
Probes:
Function

Axial movement is usually


monitored by two probes, as
shown in the figure.

One probe is mounted at the


end of the shaft, and the other
is mounted at the thrust collar.

During operation, any of the


vibration monitors can usually
be read on the PLC display.
(Contd.)
Vibration Monitoring System
At some preset vibration limit
(3 mils, for example), the
vibration monitoring system
will initiate an alarm.

If vibration increases to the


high limit (5 mils, for
example), another alarm is
initiated and the vibration
monitoring system will initiate
a TRIP signal to shut the unit
down before damage occurs.
Enclosure

Purpose:

The purpose of an enclosure is


to protect the gas
turbine/generator set from
environmental elements, to
improve appearances, and to
reduce noise, to meet local
area classifications, and to
provide an easier means for
fire protection
The enclosure and
discussed in this lesson is designed for outdoor installation and
containment.
high wind loads.
The enclosure is divided into compartments by bulkheads (walls).
Each compartment contains lighting, access doors, and, when needed,
removable panels for inspection and maintenance.
Ventilation System
Purpose:
A ventilation system is provided
when a gas turbine/generator set is
enclosed.
The purpose of an enclosure
ventilation system is to minimize
temperatures in the turbine and
generator compartments.

Enclosure ventilation
systems include:
· air inlet
· airflow
· exhaust

Information about the air inlet


system is presented first.
Ventilation System

Air Inlet
The purpose of an enclosure
air inlet system is to:
· take in air for ventilation of
the enclosure
· treat the quality of inlet air
to make it suitable for
turbine use

The main components of


an enclosure air inlet
system are:
· inlet screens
· weather louvers
· filters
· ducting
Ventilation System
Airflow Components

The purpose of an enclosure


airflow system is to:

· minimize temperature in the


enclosure compartments
· minimize hazards in the event
of a fuel system failure

The main components of an


enclosure airflow system
are as follows:
The purpose of dampers is to control the
airflow in the enclosure. Air inlet and outlet
· dampers
dampers are normally open. They are
· fans
closed by gravity to provide an airtight
enclosure when the fire protection system
is activated.
Ventilation System

Exhaust Components

The purpose of an enclosure exhaust


system is to return the heated air to
the atmosphere.

The main components of an


enclosure exhaust subsystem
are as follows:

· fans
· dampers Some enclosures have a cooling air fan
· screens installed in the exhaust or outlet duct.
The outlet dampers are the fire
· louvers dampers. One or more screens is
installed in the outlet ducting to
prevent entry of foreign matter.
Fire Detection System

Purpose:
The purpose of a fire/rate-of-rise
detection system is to detect a fire or
serious heat conditions in the gas
turbine/generator set enclosure.

An enclosure fire/rate-of-rise
detection system must have the
following characteristics:

· reliable detectors in the correct


locations
· means to test the system
· effective maintenance and testing
procedures
Fire Detection System

Requirements:
Fire/rate-of-rise detection
systems should meet the
following requirements:

· initiate an immediate alarm on


fire or excessive conditions

· provide an indication that a fire


has been extinguished and
another indication if the fire re-
ignites
( Contd.
)
Fire Detection System

Requirements:

· be durable and able to resist environmental damage

· incorporate an accurate and effective testing system to ensure


system integrity

· operate without special electrical equipment and require a


minimum of power
Fire Detection System

Fire Detection
System: Types

The following types of


fire/rate-of-rise detection
systems are discussed in this
lesson:

· thermal switches
· thermocouples
· pneumatic circuits
· optical detectors
· gas detectors
Fire Detection System

Thermal Switches

Thermal switches are either:

· single wire
· two wire

The single-wire thermal switch


fire/rate-of-rise detection system
The switches contain a pair of contact
has heat-sensitive thermal points that are normally open. The contact
switches located at points in the points close at a preset temperature.
enclosure where temperatures
When the switch heats up, the heat-
are likely to be highest. sensitive arms with the contact points
expand. The expansion is in the direction
opposite the electrical terminal.
Fire Detection System

Thermal Switches

The sliding piston moves to


the end of the switch, the
points close, and the
thermal switch completes
an electric circuit for the
alarm switch.

When the circuit is


complete, the alarm switch
initiates an alarm signal.
The switch automatically
resets when it has cooled.
Fire Detection System
Thermal Switch:
Single Wire Circuit

The figure shows a single-wire


circuit in which 24V DC is applied
to both paths of the circuit. If an
overheat temperature or a fire
occurs which closes one of the five
thermal switches, a path to ground
is completed through the circuit.

With this type of loop


arrangement, an open circuit can
occur and the system will still The test circuit tests the entire loop and
provide protection at each of the will indicate an open circuit in the power
five surveillance points. input lead of the loop. A short circuit in the
loop will cause a false fire warning
indication.
Fire Detection System

Two-Wire Thermal
Switch

The two-wire thermal switch


fire/rate-of-rise detection system
remains functional with either an
open or a short circuit.

The two-wire bi-metallic thermal


switch operates the same way
that the single-wire thermal
switch does. The only difference
is that an electrical lead is
connected to both arms of the
thermal switch.
Fire Detection System
Thermocouple
s

Thermocouples are
temperature sensing
devices, primarily
used in temperature
indicating systems,
such as exhaust gas
temperature or
turbine outlet
temperature.

(Contd.)
Fire Detection System

A thermocouple is the junction of two dissimilar metals that


generate a small electrical current that varies with the difference
between the temperature of the hot junction and the cold junction.

The dissimilar metals can be any combination of metals or alloys


that will produce the required results such as iron-constantan (Type
J) or Chromel-Alumel (Type K).

The complete thermocouple circuit consists of a "cold" junction, a


"hot" junction, electrical leads made from the same material as the
thermocouple, and a galvanometer-type indicating instrument
Fire Detection System

Pneumatic Fire
Detection System
The pneumatic fire detection system
uses a gas-filled tube as a detector.
The detector is produced in various
sensor tube lengths and alarm
temperatures.

The gas expands when heated. When


setpoint temperature is reached, the
The gas returns to a low pressure after the heat
gas pressure is sufficient to overcome
source is removed.
the check valve and gas flows from the
detector tube to the right side of the
The check valve arrangement and diaphragm
diaphragm.
force the gas back into the tube, ready for
another operation.
This flow forces the diaphragm
contacts to the left onto the alarm
contacts, which energizes the alarm
circuit.
Fire Detection System

Optical Fire
Detection System
The detection systems
discussed so far detect
temperature increases. The
optical system detects
changes in the light
spectrum inside of the
enclosure.

Optical flame detectors use


infrared and ultraviolet
detectors to receive direct
or reflected rays from a
source of flame or heat.
( Contd.)
Fire Detection System

When a fire or hot object is detected in a compartment, the detector


signals the controller, which powers the fire alarm. A fire signal is
generated only when a fire is detected by both sensors.

Three optical fire detectors are shown in the figure, two in the
turbine compartment and one in the generator compartment.
Fire Detection System

Optical Fire
Detection System

When two optical detectors


are installed in one
compartment, they are
usually cross-zoned or use a
voting system.

Both detectors must agree


that a fire condition exists
before the fire monitoring
system will initiate action
Fire Detection System
Operation:

When fire is detected by any


of the sensors, the fire control
system performs the following
functions:

· The alarmed zone is


indicated.

· All ventilation is shut down.

· An audible alarm is initiated,


specifying the zone.

(Contd.)
Fire Detection System

· External audible and visual alarms are initiated.

· An emergency shutdown signal is relayed to the gas


turbine/generator control system.

· Generally, but not always, after a time delay to allow personnel to


evacuate the enclosure (usually 10 seconds), the fire extinguisher
agent is discharged.
Fire Detection System

Fire Detection
System:
Operation

The alarms will continue


until they are manually
switched off.

The fire extinguishing agent


must be recharged and the
detection/protection system
reset before the gas turbine
can be restarted.
Gas Detection System
Purpose & Components:

The purpose of a gas


detection system is to detect
the presence of combustible
gas in a gas turbine/generator
set enclosure.

The main components of a


gas detection system are as
follows:

· sensors
· detection circuit
· protection system
Sensors are discussed first.
Gas Detection System

Sensors
Two or more sensors are installed in
the gas turbine compartment and one
or more in the generator compartment
near the divider wall where the drive
shaft or coupling penetrates the wall.

Two sensing elements are used in a


sensor.

One element is calibrated to detect a


low combustible gas concentration of
15% or 20% L.E.L. L.E.L. is the lower
explosive limit.

The other element is calibrated to


detect a high combustible gas
concentration of 60% L.E.L.
Gas Detection System

Sensors

The sensors detect the combustible gas concentration


with air at the lower explosive limits (L.E.L.).

A 5% methane concentration with air is the lowest


concentration that can be ignited. A 15% methane
concentration is the highest concentration that can
be ignited. Lower or higher concentrations cannot be
ignited.
Gas Detection System

Detection Circuit
Most gas detection systems are calibrated
to initiate an alarm when the gas
concentration in the enclosure reaches
15% to 20% L.E.L.

This is the low L.E.L. alarm.

For a low L.E.L. alarm, the combustible gas


detection system usually initiates both an
audible and a visual alarm.

Enclosure ventilation fans that are not


already running are started.

The fans continue to operate until the gas


detection/protection system is reset and
the alarm indication is cleared by the
operator.
Gas Detection System

Protection System:
A high L.E.L. alarm is initiated at
60% L.E.L. A 60% L.E.L. is a 3%
combustible gas concentration.
On some gas turbine/generator
sets, a 60% L.E.L. alarm initiates
the following actions:

· immediate gas turbine/generator


shutdown, if operating

· immediate shutdown of all


operating enclosure ventilation
fans
Gas Detection System

Protection System:

· immediate closing of all ventilation/isolation dampers

· immediate activation of the audible warning device inside and


outside the enclosure

After a short time delay, usually 10 seconds to allow personnel to


exit the enclosure, fire extinguishing agent discharges in both the
gas turbine and generator compartments.
Extinguisher Systems

Purpose:
The purpose of a fire extinguishing
system is to discharge concentrations
of fire extinguishing agents into the
enclosure compartments.

The two systems discussed in this


lesson use either Halon or CO2 as the
extinguishing agent.

A Halon fire extinguisher system is


discussed first.

NOTE: Halon is being phased out


worldwide. New systems will use
CO2.
Extinguisher Systems

Halon Extinguisher
System

Halon is a colorless, odorless, non-


corrosive, and electrically non-
conductive gas. After discharge, it
leaves no residue and does not
require clean-up.

Halon is a chemical compound that


inhibits combustion by reacting with
oxygen in the air, so that oxygen is
suppressed and no longer able to
support combustion.

The figure represents a typical halon


extinguisher system.
Extinguisher Systems

Halon Extinguisher
System: Components
The main components of a
Halon fire extinguisher
system are as follows:

· cylinders
· valve assembly
· pressure switches
· discharge pipes and nozzles
· heat (thermal) and fire (optical)
detectors
· audible alarm (horn)
· monitor controller
Extinguisher Systems

Cylinders
Halon is stored in cylinders, on
or near the gas
turbine/generator package.
The number of Halon cylinders
in a system depends on the
volume of the protected area.

A minimum of two cylinders is


required. One cylinder supplies
the initial discharge, and the
other provides the extended
discharge. Any signal which
initiates Halon discharge also
trips the turbine.
(Contd.
)
Extinguisher Systems

When Halon is discharged into a compartment, the initial


discharge is at a rapid rate The reason for a rapid rate during
initial discharge is to build an extinguishing concentration as
quickly as possible.

This is followed by an extended discharge at a slower rate to


maintain the extinguishing concentration and minimize the
possibility of re-ignition of combustibles exposed to hot metal
surfaces.
Extinguisher Systems

Cylinders
Halon cylinders are manufactured
in different sizes from 18 to 600
pounds. The cylinders are purged
with nitrogen and then filled with
Halon.

Halon cylinders are held in the


upright position by mounting
brackets.

The cylinders should be located in


an area that does not receive
direct sunlight because Halon is
extremely temperature sensitive.
Halon cylinders should not be
exposed to temperatures above
130°F.
Extinguisher Systems

Cylinder Valve
Assembly

A valve assembly is an integral


part of each Halon cylinder.
The valve is made of brass,
which makes it corrosion
resistant.

The valve usually contains a


differential piston. Differential
piston operation allows the
valve to discharge Halon when
actuated manually, electrically,
or pneumatically.
Extinguisher Systems

Cylinder Valve
Assembly
Operation
Halon pressure from the
cylinder enters the valve
assembly and rises through
a bleed port that contains a
ball check valve.

Halon pressure acts on both


sides of the piston with
equal pressure in areas A
and B in the figure. This
pressure keeps the Halon in
the cylinder because the
piston seals off the
Extinguisher Systems

When the vent valve is actuated, there is a large pressure


difference between the top (B) and bottom (A) areas of the
valve. When the ball check valve closes the bleed port, Halon
cannot flow to the top of the piston and the pressure in areas
A and B are no longer equal
Extinguisher Systems

Cylinder Valve
Assembly
Operation
The valve is actuated by venting
pressure from the top of the
piston through the vent valve.

When the pressure is vented,


there is no downward force
acting on the piston. The piston
moves upward, the discharge
port is opened, and Halon is
released into the system.

The release of Halon is initiated


by valve actuators. The valve
actuators are described next.
Extinguisher Systems

Discharge Pipes &


Nozzles

Discharge pipes and nozzles are


used to discharge extinguishing
agents.

Discharge pipes carry the fire


extinguishing agent from the
storage cylinders to the discharge
nozzles.

The nozzles discharge the agent


into the protected zones. The
nozzles are placed to ensure a
concentrated discharge in all
parts of the protected zone.
Fire Monitor Controller

The last component discussed in the Halon


fire extinguishing system is the fire monitor
controller. This controller works in
conjunction with other gas turbine control
systems. The controller uses a
microprocessor system to monitor signals
from sensors installed in the enclosure.

An example of a monitor controller is shown


in the figure. The controller illustrated is
typical of a monitor controller for an optical
fire detection system with two independent
types of detectors. A signal is sent to the
controller only when both detectors sense a
fire simultaneously.
Fire Monitor Controller

Monitor Controller
The controller monitors up to eight zones.
One LED (light emitting diode) is provided
for each zone. An LED blinks when a fire is
present in the corresponding zone.

One LED is also provided for each voting


zone. A lit LED signals that the voting zone
is actuated.

The Test/Accept push-button disables an


energized alarm or initiates a manual test of
a selected detector.

The inhibit LED is illuminated in the Test or


Reset mode to indicate that the controller
outputs are inhibited.
Fire Monitor Controller

Monitor Controller
When the lamp test switch is depressed, all
LEDs and digital displays illuminate. In the
reset mode, the lamp test switch indicates a
complete system reset.

The mode switch is used to select Normal,


Reset, or Test mode. The power LED
illuminates when power is applied to the fire
detection system.

The fault LED illuminates on fire detection


system malfunction or when the controller is
in the Reset or Test mode.

The system status display provides a


numerical code to report the system status.
CO2 Extinguisher System

Description:
A CO2 fire extinguisher system has
the same basic components as the
Halon system. The CO2
components are shown in the
figure. A CO2 system also operates
in the same manner as a Halon
system.

CO2 (carbon dioxide) fire


protection systems extinguish fires
by reducing the oxygen content of
the air in the compartment.

( Contd.
)
CO2 Extinguisher System

The oxygen content is reduced from an atmospheric normal of


21% to less than 15%, an amount that will not support
combustion.

To reduce the oxygen content, a quantity of CO2 equal to or


greater than 34% of the compartment volume is discharged into
the compartment in 1 minute.
CO2 Extinguisher System
CO2 Extinguisher System:
Description
A CO2 fire protection system
supplies CO2 from either low
pressure storage tanks or high
pressure cylinders to a distribution
system.

This system transfers the CO2 to


discharge nozzles located in the
various compartments of the gas
turbine package.

Low pressure storage tanks


maintain saturated liquid CO2 at
300 psig and 0°F with a
refrigeration system.

( Contd.)
CO2 Extinguisher System

Actuator
Arrangement
A CO2 system may be actuated by
several different methods.

Pilot-operated selector valves in the


CO2 discharge valve are opened when
solenoid valves are energized, when
the pull lever is actuated, or when
another cylinder is discharged.

The solenoid valves are actuated by an


electric signal from the fire detectors.
The system may also be manually
Actuation of the system, either
actuated by switches located on the
automatically or manually, will trip the
electrical control cabinet or by manual turbine.
valves located in the control cabinet.
CO2 Extinguisher System
Discharge Systems:
Initial
Two separate discharge
systems are used in a CO2
system:

· initial discharge
· extended discharge

Within a few seconds of


actuation, sufficient CO2 flows
from the initial discharge
system into the compartment to
rapidly build up the CO2
concentration.
( Contd.)
CO2 Extinguisher System

This concentration is maintained by the gradual addition of


more CO2 from the extended discharge system, compensating
for compartment leakage.

CO2 flow rate is controlled by the orifices in the discharge


nozzles.
CO2 Extinguisher System
Discharge Systems:
Extended
The orifices for the initial
discharge system permit a
rapid discharge of CO2 to
quickly build up an
extinguishing concentration.

Orifices for the extended


discharge system are smaller
for a relatively slow discharge
rate.

By maintaining the
extinguishing concentration,
the likelihood of a fire
reigniting is minimized.
CO2 Extinguisher System

In addition to their use of similar components, both the Halon


and CO2 extinguisher systems operate the same.

The discussion about extinguisher systems continues with a


description of the operation of a typical fire extinguisher system.
CO2 Extinguisher System
Extinguisher
Systems:
Operation

The figure shows the


components found in a
typical fire extinguisher
system. In this system the
first line of defense against
fire is provided by the
optical detectors.

Optical detectors usually


have a response time of less
than 5 seconds and an 80
degree field of vision.
( Contd.)
CO2 Extinguisher System

When more than one optical flame detector is installed in an


enclosure, a voting system is usually programmed into the fire
monitor controller.

With a voting system, an alarm signal from one optical detector


will initiate an alarm but no other action.

An alarm signal from one optical detector and a thermal detector


or from two optical detectors is needed to initiate turbine
shutdown and extinguisher release.
CO2 Extinguisher System

Extinguisher
Systems: Operation

Thermal detectors are installed


in a gas turbine enclosure as a
redundant detection system to
the optical detectors. Thermal
detectors initiate an alarm
when the temperature in a gas
turbine enclosure reaches 450
degrees F.

The sequence of events that


occurs when a fire is detected is
described next.
CO2 Extinguisher System

Extinguisher Systems:
Operation
When a fire is detected, an alarm signal is sent
to the fire monitor/controller and other gas
turbine control systems.

This signal initiates the fire extinguisher agent


discharge, alarms, and shutdowns.

In a typical fire extinguishing system, the


following sequence occurs:

· Audible and visual alarms start.


· All electrical equipment is de-energized.
· All enclosure vent fans stop.
· Gas turbine/generator shuts down.
CO2 Extinguisher System

Extinguisher Systems:
Operation
After 5 to 10 seconds (time delay),
extinguishing agent is released by actuation
of the cylinder valves.

Extinguishing agent flows through the valve


into the piping.

The high pressure switch signals the control


systems that the extinguishing agent has
been discharged.

Extinguishing agent pressure unlatches the


ventilation dampers in the turbine and
generator.
CO2 Extinguisher System

Extinguisher Systems:
Operation
Extinguisher agent is discharged into the
turbine and generator compartments.

After the initial discharge, the extended


discharge starts and maintains compartment
flooding for approximately 10 minutes.

After emergency shutdown and the fire


is extinguished, the following should
occur before inspecting the space for
fire damage:

· Allow the machine to cool down.


· Thoroughly ventilate the enclosure.
CO2 Extinguisher System

Extinguisher
Systems: Operation

The fire and heat detectors must


be cleaned and tested.

The fire extinguisher system


must be serviced, refilled and
reset.

The ventilation dampers must


be latched to restore the fire
protection system to service.
Control Loops

The Speedtronic control


system consists of three
major control loops:

· start-up and shutdown


· speed
· temperature

The output of these control


loops is connected to a
minimum value select logic
circuit.
Cont
d.
Control Loops

The minimum value select logic circuit interfaces the speed,


temperature, and start-up control output signals to FSR for fuel
control.

Only the control segment (e.g., start-up, speed, or temperature)


calling for the lowest voltage output is allowed to pass the gate to
the fuel control system as controlling FSR voltage. FSR control is
the command signal for fuel.
Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops

Proper speed sensing is an


important part of the start-up
and shutdown sequence
control of the turbine.

The graphic shows the


speed sensors used on G.E.
gas turbines:
· zero-speed detector
· minimum-speed relay
detector
· accelerating relay speed
detector Contd.
· high-speed relay detector
Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops

The following is a basic description of how these sensors function.

If speed is zero, permissive logic allows clutch engagement and the


cranking sequence for turbine start-up is initiated.

The zero-speed detector provides a signal when the turbine shaft


starts rotating.
Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops

Start-Up & Shutdown


Control Loops
During the shutdown cycle, the zero-
speed detector provides a signal to
permit the ratchet gear, or turning
device, to be placed in service in the
cool-down sequence.

A minimum speed detector indicates


that the turbine has reached the
minimum firing speed before ignition.
The acceleration speed relay indicates that the turbine has reached
approximately 40% to 50% speed in the acceleration cycle.

The high-speed sensor indicates that the turbine is at operating speed and
that the accelerating sequence is complete.
Temperature Control Loop

The next main component


discussed is the temperature
control loop.

The purpose of the


temperature control loop is to
limit the turbine firing
temperature by regulating fuel
flow.

The actual firing temperature


is most difficult to measure
and generally is not measured.
Contd.
Temperature Control Loop

Exhaust temperature is measurable and is proportional to the firing


temperature.

Thermocouples mounted in the exhaust provide temperature


feedback proportional to the firing temperature.

Air is more dense on cool days, causing the firing temperature to


increase for a given speed.
Protective System

The increased firing


temperature improves turbine
efficiency, but the control
system must prevent overfiring
the machine. This is
accomplished by the control
system lowering the
temperature control point.

Protection systems are also


provided to prevent abnormal
conditions that can damage the
Contd.
turbine.
Protective System

These control and protective systems are independent systems


that back up the primary control systems.

The protective systems will trip the machine when overspeed or


over-temperature trip conditions occur.

The over-temperature system protects the gas turbine against


possible damage caused by overfiring. It is a backup system that
operates only after failure of the temperature control loops.
System Operation
Start-up Sequence:
1) The start-up sequence of the fuel system
is initiated when the start switch is
pressed.

2) The load/speed sensing control unit


(governor) is energized.

3) A signal is transmitted to the


electrohydraulic servo actuator. The
actuator retracts and moves the fuel
control linkage toward the maximum fuel
position when servo oil pressure builds up.

This action moves the metering valve lever


from the minimum fuel stop position. This
also allows the acceleration limiter to
progressively enrich the fuel and air
mixture in accordance with the
acceleration schedule.
System Operation
Start-Up Sequence:
Engine temperature control is offset
during start-up. The impending high
temperature alarm and high turbine
temperature shutdown setpoints are
temporarily increased approximately
50°F.

During the start-up sequence when the


engine is operating between 0% and
15% speed, the liquid fuel purge
solenoid valve is energized and remains
open until 10 seconds after 15% engine
speed is reached.

The electric liquid fuel boost pumps are


energized, if used.
System Operation
Start-Up Sequence:

The air assist solenoid-operated


shutoff valve is energized (opened).
As the engine accelerates, the fuel
pressure, Pcd, and engine oil
pressure increases.

If 15% engine speed is not reached


in 30 seconds after starters begin to
crank, engine shutdown is initiated
and FAIL TO CRANK malfunction is
indicated.

The run sequence of fuel system


operation is discussed next.
System Operation
Run Sequence:

At 15% engine speed plus 10


seconds:

1) The Pcd bleed valve opens and


begins to act on the acceleration
limiter.
2) The purge valve closes.
3) The torch valve and the fuel valve
open.
4) The electric motor-driven main fuel
pump starts, if used.
5) The ignition relay and ignition
exciter are energized. Spark plug
starts firing.
6) Fuel flows through the torch valve
to the torch.
(Contd.)
System Operation
Run Sequence:

7) Torch fuel is atomized by air assist


pressure and is ignited in combustion air.

8) Metered fuel from the fuel control valve


flows through the fuel valve and the torch
bias relief valve to the fuel nozzles.

This fuel flow is then atomized by air assist


pressure.

The torch flame ignites the fuel and air


mixture from the fuel nozzles, beginning
combustion.

The engine continues to accelerate. When


engine temperature reaches setpoint,
approximately 350°F, the torch valve and
ignition are de-energized.
System Operation
Run Sequence:
If turbine temperature has not
reached the setpoint in 25 seconds
after attaining 15% engine speed,
engine shutdown is initiated and
IGNITION FAIL malfunction is
indicated.

If high pressure fuel pump suction


pressure is lower than the setpoint
of the low fuel pressure switch,
approximately 7 psig, 25 seconds
after attaining 15% engine speed,
engine shutdown is initiated and
LOW FUEL PRESS malfunction is
indicated. (Contd.)
System Operation
After light-off occurs, turbine temperature increases rapidly. If
temperature exceeds setpoint while accelerating to 90% engine
speed, engine temperature control warning IMPENDING HIGH
ENGINE TEMPERATURE is initiated.
System Operation
Run Sequence:
Fuel topping solenoid valve is
energized.

Fuel flow is reduced to topping flow


until turbine temperature decreases to
normal. The fuel topping solenoid is
then de-energized.

The fuel topping solenoid operates


with on-off action if the over-
temperature condition persists until
90% engine speed is attained.

If the temperature topping circuit


malfunctions, a further temperature
increase will activate a backup
shutdown circuit.
System Operation
Run Sequence:

When engine speed reaches


66%, the engine start system
and the atomizing air assist
shutoff valve are both de-
energized.

Fuel atomizing air is then


supplied by Pcd.
System Operation
System Operation:
Run Sequence
When engine speed reaches
90%:

1) The electronic load/speed


controller (governor) takes
control of the electrohydraulic
servo actuator and positions the
fuel control linkage to accelerate
to operating speed.

2) Offset setpoints are


transferred to normal operating
values for engine temperature
control. (Contd.)
System Operation
Run Sequence:

3) The topping control circuit is de-


energized.

4) The temperature shutdown timer


is armed.

5) Fuel is metered to the engine


according to the demand of the
electronic control system, basedon
load, speed, or temperature.

(Contd.)
System Operation

6) Engine speed increases to operating speed.

7) The following events take place if a turbine over-temperature


condition occurs when the engine is operating above 90% speed:

8) At approximately 1,155°F, the engine shutdown timer is de-


energized.

9) After a 5-second delay, allowing for transient over-temperatures,


HIGH ENG TEMP alarm is indicated.

10) At approximately 1200°F, engine shutdown is immediate and


HIGH ENG TEMP is indicated and engine shutdown is initiated.
System Operation
Shutdown Sequence:

Shutdown of the fuel system


operation occurs in sequence when
the stop switch or emergency stop
switch (Local Panel) is pressed.

When start/run relays are de-


energized:

1) The postlube timer relay begins to


time out.

(Contd.)
System Operation
2) The pre/postlube pump motor is energized.

3) The purge valve opens to purge the fuel system until engine
speed decreases below 15%.

4) The fuel bypass valve opens to the filter outlet line.

5) The Pcd bleed valve opens to cutoff Pcd air and vent the fuel
control valve.

6) Fuel valve closes to fuel injectors.

7) Control power to the electronic load/speed sensing control is


stopped, and the governor is deactivated.
(Contd.)
System Operation
8) Main electric fuel pump, if
used, and fuel boost pump are
both de-energized.

9) When the fuel supply to the


engine is cut off, combustion
stops and the engine begins to
decelerate.

10) When engine speed


decreasesbelow 15%, the
purge valve and the fuel
bypass valve close.

11) The engine coasts to a


stop.
System Operation
Shutdown Sequence:

55 minutes after the stop


switch is pressed:

1) The postlube timer relay times out.

2) The pre/postlube oil pump is de-


energized.

3) The postlube cycle is complete.

4) The master control switch can be


turned off and the engine is ready for
restart.
Maintenance Overview

The maintenance is essential for any


equipment to maintain it’s performance.
Maintenance Overview
Maintenance Types:

Corrective Maintenance [CM]:

Reactive Based Maintenance

 Preventive Maintenance [PM]:

A timely Based maintenance


Maintenance Overview
Maintenance Types:

Predictive Maintenance [PDM]:

Based on condition Mentoring Maintenance [Vibration

analysis-oil analysis-Boroscope inspection

 Proactive Maintenance [PAM]:

Root cause preventive maintenance