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IGTR

Welcome to Basic
Hydraulics Training

IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics


May 2, 2020 1
Training contents – IGTR
• Introduction
• Basic principles
• Hydraulic system structure
• Hydraulic Pumps
• Pressure control valves
• Direction control valves
• Check valves
• Flow control valves
• Actuators
• Exercises

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IGTR

Introduction:
• During the few decades various automation
techniques has been introduced in the field of
manufacturing in order to enhance the overall
industrial productivity.
• Among the various technologies that are playing
important role in rapid growth of Indian industries, fluid
power is unique.
• During past decade number of applications have been
developed based on Hydraulics.

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• Hydraulics plays an important role in industry because


they have wide application used in various industries
such as
• Automobile
• Marine
• Aircraft
• Machine Tools
• Mining
• Textile
• Water treatment
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• Oil & Petrochemical
• Food & Processing industry
• Control system
• Power transmission industries.
In tool engineering such as
• Tool Design
• Jigs & Fixtures
• Press Tools
• Moulds
• Die Casting Dies

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Choice of working media

• Compressed air (Pneumatics)


• Fluids (Hydraulics)
• Electrical & Electronics
• Combination of above

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Introduction to Hydraulics

“Hydraulics” this word has been derived from Greek word


‘Hydra’ which means water or fluid.

It is the branch of physics which studies about properties,


motion & behaviour of fluid
Hydraulics is of two types
- water hydraulics
- oil hydraulics

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Introduction to Hydraulics

Water hydraulics is used for


- aircraft arrestors during landing & takeoff
- on the ships to stop the aircrafts
- turbines

What we are going to discuss is oil hydraulics

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Reasons for rapid growth

Reliability
Minimal servicing
Flexibility in speed
Low Power consumption (if properly designed)
Choice of control
Smooth operations
Fast response time (compared to mechanical)
Low noise level
Minimal operating cost
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Difference between hydraulics & pneumatics
Hydraulics Pneumatics
It is used for larger forces 4000 to 5000 It is used for smaller forces 4 to 5 tons
tons

Slow speed 0.5 m/s High speed 1.5 to 3 m/s


Cannot be used above 100°C Can be used up to 200°C

More positioning accuracy (0.25 mm) Less positioning accuracy (1 – 2 mm)

Pressures can be more than 500 bar Pressures are 10 – 12 bars

Stroke is proportional to amount of oil Force is proportional to amount air entering


entering the cylinder to the cylinder
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Difference between hydraulics & pneumatics

Pneumatics video Hydraulics video

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Selection criteria for working media :

Force
Stroke
Type of motion (linear, swiveling, rotary)
Speed
Service life
Safety & reliability
Energy cost
Controllability
Storage

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Applications
Machine-tool construction is a
Lathe typical area of application
of hydraulics
.
With modern CNC machine tools,
the
. tools and work pieces are clamped
by hydraulic means.
Feed motion & the spindle drive can
Also be hydraulically powered.

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Press with elevated reservoir This is an application in which


extremely high forces are required.

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On this hydraulic excavator, not only


all working movements but also the
Propulsion of the vehicle are
.

Hydraulically powered.

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Military vehicles

Lifts

Elevating platforms

Aircraft applications

Ship building

Agricultural machineries
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Hydraulics:
Hydraulics is the term used when fluid (oil) is used as working medium
to transmit energy at different required pressures. Generation of
forces or motions by using the hydraulic fluids is possible in this
case.

Types of Hydraulics:
There are two basic types of hydraulics,

- Stationary Hydraulics
- Mobile Hydraulics
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Stationary Hydraulics:

• Stationary hydraulics is fixed at one station where all the activities


are carried out at the same station.
• Stationary hydraulics is used in machine tool applications.
• In modern CNC machines the tool holding & work holding devices
are operated by means of hydraulic systems. Feed and spindle
drives are also operated by hydraulics system.
• In surface grinding machines the reciprocating motion of table is
obtained by the hydraulic system.
• In case of opening & closing of the doors of lifts & elevators.

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Application areas of Stationary Hydraulics:

Production and assembly machines of all types


Transfer lines
Lifting and conveying devices
Power presses
Injection machines
Rolling lines
Lifts & elevators

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Mobile Hydraulics:

• Mobile hydraulics is movable, can be moved from one


place to other by means of wheels or chains.
• Mobile hydraulics is used in the automobiles,
mechanical and construction machinery.
• In different types of automobiles - two & four wheelers.
• In construction machinery – hot mixers, cranes, etc.

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Application areas of Mobile Hydraulics:

Automobiles
Construction Machinery
Mechanical Machinery (Fork Lifts, Cranes)
Tippers
Agriculture Machineries
Aircrafts
Ships

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Basic Principles

Classification of hydraulics

Hydraulics

Hydrostatics Hydrodynamics
F=PxA F=mxa
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Hydrostatics uses pressure energy of fluid (oil)
It is science of liquids under pressure
AT REST – equal pressure acts throughout

IN MOTION – flows from high pressure to low pressure


Point

Pressure only builds up when there is a resistance to flow

No resistance = No pressure

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Hydrodynamics uses kinetic energy of fluid
it is science of moving liquids

F=PxA F=MxA

F = force in Kg or N
P = Pressure
A = area
M = mass
A = acceleration
Our study is about hydrostatics
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Hydrostatic pressure Hydrostatic pressure is the


Pressure created above a
Certain level within a liquid
?As a result of weight of the liquid

Mass. Hydrostatic pressure).


is not
Dependent on the shape of vessel
Concerned but only on the density
& height of the column of liquid.

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Hydrostatic pressure = pressure created by head of liquid

Pressure = weight / area

HEIGHT
WEIGHT
volume x density / area PRESSURE

area x g x height x density / area

Pressure = height x density x g AREA

For mineral oil ΔP = 0.1 bar / meter


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FORCE
FORCE = PRESSURE x AREA

AREA

PRESSURE = FORCE ÷ AREA


PRESSURE
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1 kg 1 kg

1 kg

LOW
PRESSURE HIGH HIGH
PRESSURE PRESSURE

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PASCAL's LAW
It states that “The intensity of pressure at any point in a
liquid at rest, is same in all directions”

Pz

Px

Py Px = Py = Pz
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W
Brahmas intensification principle

100 Kg
1000 Kg

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Brahma's principle
Application of Pascal's law Force transmission

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Force transmission
F1 = 100 Kg, A1 = 10 mm2
A2 = 50 mm2
P1 = F1 / A1 = 10 Kg / mm2
As per PASCAL's law same Pressure is applied at piston 2.
therefore force exerted on piston 2 is
F2 = P2 x A2 = 500 Kg
So the arrangement provides a ratio of 5:1 for any force
applied on piston 1. this increase in power is called as
“hydraulic leverage”.
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Mechanical advantage = load / effort

In above example

Load = F2 = 500 Kg
Effort = F1 = 100 kg

M.A. = 500 / 100

M.A. = 5

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Displacement transmission
As per previous
calculations the amount
of movement of piston 2
is 1/5 the movement of
piston 1. the speed of
piston 2 is also 1/5 the
speed of piston 1.

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Pressure development in a hydraulic system


The pressure in a hydraulic system is developed due to
resistance to flow

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No load
No resistance to
oil flow hence
no pressure
develops in the
system
P

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load is attached on the other


piston or output side now
W
If we apply a force on input side
the load connected on other will
create a resistance to oil flow

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W
Due to resistance offered by
the load we can see that
pressure has been increased

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10 Kg 40 Kg 90 Kg

Cylinder 2 Cylinder 3 Oil flows


through path
of least
Cylinder 1
resistance

20 cm² 30 cm²
10 cm²

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Oil flows through path of least resistance
weight (Kg) area (cm²) pressure (Kg/ cm²)
Cylinder 1 10 10 1
Cylinder 2 40 20 2
Cylinder 3 90 30 3

Cylinder 1 will move first as pressure required to move it is


minimum (least resistance)
Once the cylinder 1 has reached its extreme position then
pressure will start increasing, when it becomes 2 Kg/ cm²
cylinder 2 will start moving & when pressure reaches 3 Kg/ cm²
cylinder 3 moves.

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Viscosity

- Viscosity is tenacity of a hydraulic oil to offer resistance when


opposed to a displacement of adjacent layers.

- It depends on temperature & pressure

- If temp. increases viscosity decreases due to disintegration of


various additives & anti-oxidants.

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Types of flows
- Two types of fluid flows
- Laminar flow & turbulent flow

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Basic hydraulic system IGTR

Pump
Cylinder

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Basic hydraulic system IGTR

When the pump is


operated load is lifted

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Basic hydraulic system IGTR

When the pump is


released the load comes
back

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Basic hydraulic system IGTR

To avoid load
coming down non
return valve is used
& to supply more oil
reservoir is used

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Basic hydraulic system IGTR

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Basic hydraulic system
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Basic hydraulic system
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Basic hydraulic system IGTR

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Basic hydraulic system
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Basic hydraulic system
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Basic hydraulic system
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Basic hydraulic system
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Basic hydraulic system
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Shut off valve

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Basic hydraulic system
IGTR

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BRAMAH PRESS - 1795 IGTR

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To move the weight at a faster rate


pump must continuously work ,
so electrically driven pumps are used.

To complete the hydraulic system two more components are added


-Pressure relief valve
-Direction control valve
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BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

IGTR

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STRUCTURE OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

FLOW DIRECTION FLOW HYDRAULIC


CYLINDER CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL MOTOR
VALVE VALVE VALVE

PRESSURE RETURN
CONTROL FILTER
VALVE
ELECTRIC OIL COOLER
MOTOR COUPLER PUMP
TEMP. INDICATOR
INDICATOR
OILLEVEL

SUCTION
FILTER OIL TANK

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Pump

- It is the most important component in power supply unit

Hydraulic pump
overview

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Hydraulic valves

- Valve is a device which is used to control out put of the circuit.


- The main purpose of a valve in hydraulic circuit is to control Final
output.
- Valves are divided into number of groups according to what they
control.
Most commonly used valves are.
1. Direction control valve.
2. Pressure control valve.
3. Flow control valve.

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Fundamentals of valve

Sliding spool principle

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Fundamentals of valve

Poppet principle

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Fundamentals of valve
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Types of poppet valves

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SPOOL PRINCIPLE POPPET PRINCIPLE

Does not provide positive sealing Provides positive sealing

Sensitive to dirt Sensitive to dirt

Pressure compensated Non pressure compensated

Long actuation stroke Short actuation stroke

Simple construction in case of


multi position valves
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Direction control valves


Method of designation of valve:
Control valve symbols –
- The basic symbol for control valve is a square.
- two or more squares are used.
- Each square representing the switching position provided by the valve.
1. Two position valve.

2.Three position valve.

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Lines in the boxes are used to show flow path with arrow indicating
direction of flow.

FLOW

The shut off position is indicated by the line drawn at right angle to the
horizontal line inside the rectangle.

SHUT OFF / NO FLOW

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PIPE CONNECTIONS :-

- The pipe connections i.e. inlet and outlet ports to the valve are
indicated by lines drawn on outside of the box and right angle to
the horizontal line .
- The first position from left indicates the rest, initial or neutral
position when the valve is not actuated.
- The second position or square from left indicates actuated
position.

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PIPE CONNECTIONS :-

1) Single position (initial)

2) Two position valve

3) Three position valve

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PORT TABLE:
- The ports of the valve are show on the outside of the box.
- These are labeled by a number or letter according to its functions.
- For this purpose some standard letters or numbers with symbols are
used which are shown in the following table.
PORT NUMBERING LETTERING SYSTEM
SYSTEM
Pressure supply port 1 P
Tank T
Signal outputs 2,4 A,B
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COMMONLY USED DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE.

D.C. valve is used to control or to change the direction or to start


or stop the fluid flow only on the receipt of any signal which may
be mechanical, electrical or a fluid pressure pilot signal.

D.C. valves are described by number of ports and number of


positions
n / n way valve
( n = 1, 2, 3,……)

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Way Valve Ports Positions

2/2 2 (1 input , 1 output) 2

3/2 3 (1 input, 1 output, 1 tank) 2

4/2 4 (1 input, 2 output, 1 tank) 2

4/3 4 (1 input, 2 output, 1 tank) 3

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2/2 way valve normally closed

Not actuated

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2/2 way valve normally closed

Actuated Circuit simulation

p3_1_8_6

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3/2 way valve normally closed (poppet principle)

Not actuated

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3/2 way valve normally closed (poppet principle)

Circuit simulation
Actuated

p3_1_8_13

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3/2 way valve normally closed (slide principle)

Not actuated

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3/2 way valve normally closed (slide principle)

Actuated

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4/2 way valve (slide principle) with two pistons

Not actuated

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4/2 way valve (slide principle) with two pistons

Circuit simulation
Actuated

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4/2 way valve (slide principle) with three pistons

Not actuated

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4/2 way valve (slide principle) with three pistons

Actuated

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4/3 way valve types

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4/3 way midposition recirculation /


tandem midposition

Not actuated

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4/3 way midposition recirculation /


tandem midposition

Left actuated

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4/3 way midposition recirculation /


tandem midposition

circuit
Right actuated

p3_1_8_28

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4/3 way midposition cutoff / all ports


blocked midposition

Not actuated

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4/3 way midposition cutoff / all ports


blocked midposition

Left actuated

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4/3 way midposition cutoff / all ports


blocked midposition

Circuit
Right actuated
simulation

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4/3 way valve overlap positions

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4/3 way valve overlap positions

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Floating center / Y midposition Open center / H midposition


Free movement of piston is possible in neutral position

Note : Circuits after completing non return valves

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Non return valve


B A

B A

Flow can take place only from A to B

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Non return valve

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Delockable non return valve /


pilot operated check valve

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Delockable non return valve /


pilot operated check valve

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Circuit showing application of piloted NRV

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Circuit showing application


of piloted NRV

P3_1_9_11

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Delockable double non return valve

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Delockable double non return valve

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Pressure control valves

- These are single position valves

- In their normal position they can be open or closed

- Two types

- Pressure relief valves


- Pressure reducing valves / Pressure regulator
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Pressure relief valve

Sensing input pressure

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Pressure relief valve When input pressure


becomes more than set
spring force value the valve
opens & excessive pressure
is drained to tank via T port

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Uses of pressure relief valve


- It can be used

- To relive excessive pressure / to protect pump / other parts


- To limit the system pressure
- As a back pressure valve / counterbalancing valve
- As a sequence valve

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PRV used to limit system pressure

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PRV used to limit system pressure

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PRV used as a back pressure valve
Or counterbalancing valve

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PRV used as a sequencing valve

- It can be used for sequencing of two or more operations


(cylinders or between cylinder & motor)

- For ex. Cylinder B has to move when cylinder A has reached its
forward end & a pressure of 30 bar has been reached.

Circuit simulation

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PRV internally controlled, cushioned

Pressure relief valves often incorporate cushioning pistons or flow control valve.
The cushioning device shown provides fast opening & slow closing of valve.
This prevents damage caused by pressure shocks

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PRV externally controlled / remote pilot PRV

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PRV externally controlled / remote pilot PRV

The valve opens


when pressure at X
port is more than
spring force.

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PRV externally controlled / remote pilot PRV

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Pressure reducing valve / pressure regulator

2 way pressure regulator

Sensing output pressure


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Pressure reducing valve / pressure regulator

2 way pressure regulator

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Pressure reducing valve / pressure regulator

2 way pressure regulator

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2 way pressure regulator
IGTR

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Pressure reducing valve / pressure regulator

3 way pressure regulator

This valve is combination of 2 way pressure regulator & PRV

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Pressure reducing valve / pressure regulator

3 way pressure regulator

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Pressure reducing valve / pressure regulator

3 way pressure regulator

P3_1_7_26

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3 way pressure regulator

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3 way pressure regulator

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Flow control valves

Throttle valve (needle restrictor)

Controls the flow in both directions, (load dependent)


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Flow control valves

Throttle valve (Gap restrictor with helix)

Controls the flow in both directions, (load dependent)


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Throttle valve

Circuit simulation

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One way flow control valve

Flow from A to B is controlled,


hence speed gets reduced

Controls the flow in one directions


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One way flow control valve

Flow from B to A is free, hence no


change in speed
Circuit simulation
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 133
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One way flow control valve

Meter in & meter out control

Circuit simulation

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Two way flow control valve

Controls the flow in both directions independent of load


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Hydraulic cylinders

Single acting cylinder

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Hydraulic cylinders

Plunger cylinder

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IGTR
Hydraulic cylinders

Double acting cylinder

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IGTR
Hydraulic cylinders

Double acting cylinder with end position cushioning

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IGTR
Hydraulic cylinders

Double acting cylinder with end position cushioning

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 140


IGTR
Hydraulic cylinders

Double acting cylinder with end position cushioning

P3_1_11_7
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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Symbols for energy transfer

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 142


IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Symbols for energy transfer

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 143


IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for energy conversion

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 144


IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for hydraulic motors

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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for single acting cylinders

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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for double acting cylinders

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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for direction control valves

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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for direction control valves

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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for direction control valves

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 150


IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for manual actuation

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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for mechanical actuation

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IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for pressure valves

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 153


IGTR
Circuit Symbols

Circuit symbols for flow control valves

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 154


IGTR

Basic hydraulics exercises

Exercise 1 Solution 1

Exercise 2 Solution 2

Exercise 3 Solution 3

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IGTR

Calculations Ex. 2

Load (force) = pressure x area


Pressure = load / area
A = П x d² / 4 = 3.14 x 1.6² / 4 = 2 cm²
Load pressure = 9 / 2 = 4.5 kg / cm²

Hydraulic resistance or back pressure = Travel pressure - load


pressure
Hydraulic resistance or back pressure = – 4.5 = kg / cm²

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IGTR

Flow rate = Area x velocity


Velocity = flow rate / Area
Velocity = 2 x 1000 / 2
Velocity = 1000 cm / min
= 1000 / 60
= 16.6 cm / sec

Time = distance travelled / speed


Time = 20 / 16.6
Time = 1.2 sec
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 157
IGTR

Basic hydraulics exercises

Exercise 6 Solution 6

Exercise 7 Solution 7

Exercise 8 Solution 8a

Solution 8b
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 158
IGTR
Filters / strainers

Surface type filters Depth type filters

Single layer porous medium Multi layer porous medium

Micron rating 44 to 238 μ Micron rating 3 to 15 μ

Pressure line 5 to 10 μ
Filler / Suction Return
breather line line
40 μ 125 μ 25 / 40 μ
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 159
IGTR

Surface type filtering principle

Mesh no. Opening size

60 236 µ
100 149
200 74
325 44

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 160


IGTR

Depth type filtering principle

Filter media. Max. pressure diff.

paper 10 bar
polyester 200 bar
Stainless fiber 44 bar

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 161


IGTR

Filter arrangement

Hydraulic filters can be arranged in various different positions within a


system.
A distinction is made between

filtering of the main flow: return, inlet and pressure filtering

filtering of the by-pass flow: only one part of the delivery is filtered.

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IGTR

Filtering of the main flow

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IGTR

Filtering of the main flow

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IGTR

Filtering of the main flow

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IGTR

Filtering of the by-pass flow

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IGTR

The various possible filter arrangements are listed in the above


diagrams

The most favorable filter arrangement is decided by considering


the sensitivity to dirt of the components to be protected, the
degree of contamination of the hydraulic fluid and the costs
involved

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 167


IGTR

Power supply section

Provides energy required by hydraulic system

Consists of

- Drive unit
- hydraulic pump
- Pressure relief valve
- Reservoir
- Filter
- Cooler & heater
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 168
Basic hydraulic system IGTR

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 169


IGTR

Positive head installation

If the pump is below the


tank level it is called
positive head installation

It eliminates cavitation
problem

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 170


IGTR

cavitation

-P

P=0

+P

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 171


IGTR

cavitation

-P

P=0

+P

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 172


IGTR

Flooded suction installation

Pump is inside the reservoir / flooded

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 173


IGTR

Negative head installation

If the pump is above the


reserviour it is called
negative head installation

It can give rise to cavitation

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Negative head installation


Suction side fitting must be air tight

Oil level must be above minimum


level

The negative head must be lower


than pump suction capacity.

As a rule of thumb pump suction is


max. 125 mm of Hg
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 175
IGTR
Hydraulic power unit

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 176


IGTR

Reservoir size, dependent on:

- pump delivery
- the heat resulting from operation
-volume of liquid
- place of application
- circulation time

Minimum reserviour size is 3 to 5 times pump delivery

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 177


IGTR

Lubrication
WATER
Temp. Range

HYDRAULIC WATER / OIL Corrosion


FLUID

MINERAL OIL Flammability

Ecological
VEGETABLE OIL
Cost
SYNTHETIC
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 178
IGTR

Basic hydraulics exercises

Exercise 9 Solution 9

Exercise 10 Solution 10

Exercise 11 Solution 11

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 179


IGTR

Hydraulic Calculations

Volume of cylinder (base end) = piston area x stroke length

Volume of cylinder (rod end) = (piston area – rod area) x stroke length

Flow rate = flow velocity x flow area


m³ / sec m / sec m²

Usually flow rate is given in lit / min & area in cm² or mm²

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 180


IGTR

Example –

Calculate the cross section area required for the suction line of a
pump delivering 40 l/min with a maximum flow velocity of 1.2 m/s

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 181


IGTR

Flow rate = 40 l/min = 40 x 10 -³ / 60

Flow area = flow rate / flow velocity


Flow area = 40 x 10 -³ / 60 x 1.2
Flow area = 0.555 x 10 - ³ m²
Π x d² / 4 = 0.555 x 10 - ³

d² = 0.555 x 10 -³ x 4
3.142
d = 26.6 mm pipe bore dia.
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 182
IGTR

Work done = force x distance moved

Force = pressure x area

Work done = pressure x area x distance

Work done = pressure x volume

Power = work done per unit time

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 183


IGTR

Power = pressure x volume


time

Power = pressure x flow rate

If pressure is in Pascals & flow rate in m³ / sec then power is in Watt

But usually pressure is given in bar & flow rate in lit. / min

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 184


IGTR

Hydraulic power = pressure (bar) x flow rate (lit./min)


(KW)
600
1 bar = 100000 N / m²
1 lit/min = 1/ 1000 x 60 m / sec

Power (Kw) = 100000 PxQ


60000 x 1000 600

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 185


IGTR

Basic hydraulics exercises

Exercise 4
Solution 4

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 186


IGTR

Accumulators
Hydraulic accumulator is an accessory of a hydraulic system
A hydraulic accumulator is a pressure storage reservoir in which a
non-compressible hydraulic fluid is held under pressure by an external
source.
The external source can be a spring, a raised weight, or a compressed
gas. An accumulator enables a hydraulic system to cope with
extremes of demand using a less powerful pump, to respond more
quickly to a temporary demand, and to smooth out pulsations. It is a
type of energy storage device.

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IGTR

The function of hydraulic accumulator


is to store pressurized oil.

Types
Weighted accumulator
Spring loaded accumulator
Gas-charged accumulator

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IGTR

The three types of gas-charged accumulators are bladder, piston


and diaphragm.

The most popular of these is the


bladder type. Bladder accumulators
feature fast response (less than 25
milliseconds), a maximum gas
compression ratio of around 4:1 and a
maximum flow rate of 15 liters (4
gallons) per second,

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 189


IGTR

Piston accumulators, can handle much


higher gas compression ratios (up to
10:1) and flow rates as high as 215
liters (57 gallons) per second. Unlike
bladder accumulators, whose preferred
mounting position is vertical to prevent
the possibility of fluid getting trapped
between the bladder and the shell,
piston accumulators can be mounted in
any position.

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 190


IGTR

Diaphragm accumulators have most of


the advantages of bladder-type units
but can handle gas compression ratios
up to 8:1. They are limited to smaller
volumes, and their performance can
sometimes be affected by gas
permeation across the diaphragm.

The charging gas pressure is 25% to


30% of operating oil pressure

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 191


IGTR

Basic hydraulics exercises

Exercise 5
Solution 5

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 192


IGTR

PRO-ACTIVE
MAINTENANCE

May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 193


IGTR

THANK
YOU
May 2, 2020 IGTR Training - Vijay Bankar Basic - Hydraulics 194