Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 115

m  w 


 
 
  


÷   
 



@ 3-1: Matter: Forms, tructure, and Quality


@ 3-2: nergy: Forms and Quality
@ 3-3: ysical and Cemical Canges and te Law
of Conservation of Matter
@ 3-4: Nuclear Canges
@ 3-5: Te Two Ironclad Laws of nergy
@ 3-6: Connections: Matter and nergy Laws and
nvironmental roblems
÷ 

    !

à ÷  " " "    #


 $
à ÷ 
  %
 " !

!  

 $
à & 
! 

 

" 

 
" '$

! ()  * 

+
 ÷
! !
à 
" !! 
 " 
 )
   ! ! $
à +
!  !! "   



  

 
$
à ÷
! !
  

%





" 
  ! "! 

"  " !
$
^"  
,
à "   !   !
#
  
 

-! "  ../ "  
/w./   -! "  
(./
à  " 
"  '! !!  

  !
   

 

$
ttp://mediaserv.sus.mcgill.ca/content/2004-Winter/180-Winter/Nuclear/frame0008.tm

 /  ÷ 
/ $

à 
   
à " 


 "
 !
 "
 
$
à ÷   
à "
 ! 


| 
     !$
!  
 0 "
""
 
 !
 !  !  

 ! !!
 
 !!
 

 !
+
  

 
à !!

   . 
à +
 

 
à 
 "!
 1/ !2
à 
  
1/ .32
à 
- ! 

 
à " 
 132
à 
 
' 1.2
à 
  
' 1/.2
à ! 
' 1.2
à 
 1/342
+
  

 
à " "5 


 

!

    !

#
à " "
 

 !!


 % !

 %
! & 

  


!
! !!  "!  #" !#
  ! $

  !$
/
 !! ! $

à  
12.' 1.2/
 
1/2!123 
 132 
"
"

12$
à /
 !! !  #

667
" 

 !!
!- " $
+
 

 
tructure
à Composed of oppositely-carged ions
à Network of ions eld togeter by attraction
Ionic bonds
à Forces of attraction between opposite carges

 

+
 

 
à  
! 
 % " 


"! 
à 
"  !!
! 
1
' 
2



-
à 
" 
 !  ! 

1  
2
 
  -
à !     " 
"! 
 -
!-
ttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/redox.gif

"!
 
à 
  "8
8 !
! %" 
!-9
!

à "!
  "
!
  
à ^"   !! 
  
% "! " 
 
 
 -  -
!  
 
 

 !!     !! 

"!
 

! !!  ! !99 
%"  !!   !
!

- ! 

à 
  %

9 !
à ! ! 
 -

à /" 
8
8
"
 !
! 

"
"
à "
" 
" "
! 


- ! 

à "!
  
%"- ! ! 
"
%
à "!
  
" - - ! ! 
 
×|  "
à ^"    ! 
"  
" 

%
" - !!- ! 
"! 

à + -  ! 
     
"


  !   " %
"!
 
! !1!2 " -   !  !
.  

 
à 

 
    
 


   %" "
"%" 






"!  " 
" 
 
'  
 ! $
à 3 


à 

 
 
 " 

à "!

!



à  
 "!
  !
  

à ! 
"  
à 
" 
 
' 
  

.  

 

Dydrocarbons Clorofluorocarbons

!
 !.  

 

Carboydrates (Glucose) rotein (Cytocrome 450)



!
 !.  

 

Lipid (Triglyceride) Nucleic mcid (DNm)


 "5
÷   !

à ÷ ) !  


"
%! 
 
     - ! ! 

  
$
à 3") ! 
 0 
   
 !!
   " "5 $
à (
%) ! 
 0  ! " 
!!
  !
   
 $
3") !(
%) !

DIGD QUmLITY LOW QUmLITY


 

à  "  

%
# 
 " $
à  
  
!"" 
!  $
à :   " "  " 
 
   
-!
$
! 

! 
 
   
  
 


à " 
! 
   % -%" "  
% -! "1   %  - #


"2  
 $
:   $

à :   " "  " 


 
   
-!
$
à +   



$
à ^ !
%   !! 
#
!  
-  9 !!" -#  
 $

  ! 
à 
  ! 
  " 

  ! - ! !
$
à 
  !    "  
#  
 $
   !
à &3"!  / ! 
 

    !"$
à 3"3 
  /  !  
!$
à ÷
 /
 ! !" %

$
à (
%(
%9  "    

" ! $
/  ! 
-; 
à   !  "  %" "  !



 
! 
-   !
""   


"  ' 
 
à "  !

  !
#
%  
 
-


 



/  ! 
-; 
à "  
  !"
 !



  !
 
-


à w !" "  
    

0   

à *   
à !"   !
à    !
à  " !9!"  !  
  !
!"  *   
/ ! 

à / !  "  %" "  !
   


%"!     !
  
!"  !%"  # 


à  "
! %

"


  
Click to see QuickTime Movie of Fission ttp://www.atomicarcive.com/Movies/Movie4.stml
/ ! 

à Critical Mass à Cain Reaction


à noug fissionable à Multiple fissions witin
nuclei available for a critical mass
multiple fission reactions à Releases uge amounts
to occur of energy
à mtomic Bomb or
Nuclear ower lant
"<( %

- 


÷   =
à +    !  " "
 ! 
 

    -
!-   "
 $
à > 
à "     "! 
"

 ! 
 
#!
 
 %!!

 
" 
!-  "
 
 !!"%   "(

 !   
  ????

^" / ! 
,

à / ! 
   !  "  %" "
%



!"!  " 
" 
  
  
" '!
""  !"

 
" -  !!    "

$
( %
"
  

à +  !!" !  " ! " 


à   "   
 

à   
- 





"

( %
"
  

à ^"   "  







"
à 

"!  !% 
  
!
%9) !
  
!! 
à !
#
%  ( %
 

3"^ 

à 
!
 
 % 
 

   
   
    
à 

 ""9% 
%!!


à w/w+/(@
*
!
÷   ! 



 !!
%

 
%"

 
%"
 !  
 


  ' 
!!

÷   ! 

 -   ; -  
à  -  à )""9) ! 
)""9
à  %" "
   !
à  % " 
à /
  !
 
 !
""99) !  - ! !
""
à (
  
 
  !    !
(
%^ 

à ^
#%" 
  "
"
à   
 !
%    ! 
(
%^ 
 

$ A  !

 % !
 
 
$ w
  !! % !
 

 " " ! "
4$ w   
 
  !
(
%^ 
 

B$      




C$ " 0
!!
- 
 
%   

D$ 

!
! 

%"
w " 4
" 4


^" "
3
%
"^
#
" B

!

 

^ 

@ 4-1 cology and Life


@ 4-2 arts Life-upport ystems
@ 4-3 cosystem Concept
@ 4-4 Food Webs and nergy Flow in
cosystems
@ 4-5 Dow do cologists learn about
cosystems?
@ 4-6 cosystem ervices and ustainability
B9
!
 (
à 6 - study of relationsips between
organisms and teir environment
à cology examines ow organisms interact wit
teir nonliving (abiotic) environment suc as
sunligt, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrients
à Biotic interaction among organisms, populations,
communities, ecosystems, and te ecospere
; 
 %  
à ^  - one tat exists as
a population of individuals in a
natural abitat, ideally similar
to te one in wic its ancestors
evolved

à £
  - animals
suc as cows, seep, food
crops, animals in zoos
xocabulary
à  
| 
à Group of interacting individuals of te same
species tat occupy a specific area at te same time
à G    
à opulations tat are dynamic groups tat cange in
size, age distribution, density, and genetic
composition as a result of canges in
environmental conditions
à D| |
à lace were a population or individual organism
naturally lives
à 2 
à Complex interacting network of plants, animals,
and microorganisms
à 6 
à Community of different species interacting wit
one anoter and wit teir nonliving environment
of matter and energy
à 6    
à mll earts ecosystems
^" (,
à mll life sares a set of basic
caracteristics
à Made of cells tat ave igly
organized internal structure and
functions
à Caracteristic types of
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNm)
molecules in eac cell
(- . 

à Capture and transform matter and energy from


teir environment to supply teir needs for
survival, growt, and reproduction
à Maintain favorable internal conditions, despite
canges in teir external environment troug
omeostasis, if not overstressed
(- . 
à erpetuate temselves troug reproduction
à mdapt to canges in environmental conditions
troug te process of evolution
%%%$%$ $ A 
A  "$ 
B9*
"
Te art contains several
layers or concentric speres
àLitospere à Crust
à Crust and upper mantle à Outermost, tin silicate zone, eigt
elements make up 98.5% of te
weigt of te earts crust
B9*
"
à Mantle àCore
à urrounded by a tick, solid zone, à Innermost zone, mostly iron, solid
!  zone, ric wit iron, silicon, inner part, surrounded by a liquid
oxygen, and magnesium, very ot core of molten material
à Inner Core is otter tan surface of
te un
à "  -!

 
B9
" 
 "! 
à 

"
à ' 
E#!


- !-!
  

 1EF72

' 172 %"
% "

à  
"
à E9BF#!

- 
!-!!
%



  
"
0
1.42

!


"
 5! -
!  



" "5
B93 
" !) %   
% - 
 "

"
^"   
(
 ",
à Life on te eart depends on tree
interconnected factors
à One-way flow of ig-quality energy
from te sun
à Cycling of matter or nutrients (all
atoms, ions, or molecules needed for
survival by living organisms), troug
all parts of te ecospere
à Gravity, wic allows te planet to
old onto its atmospere and causes
te downward movement of cemicals
in te matter cycles


à Fireball of ydrogen (72%) and elium


(28%)
à Nuclear fusion
à un as existed for 6 billion years
à un will stay for anoter 6.5 billion years
à xisible ligt tat reaces tropospere is
te ultraviolet ray wic is not absorbed
in ozone

!  

à 72% of solar energy warms te lands


à 0.023% of solar energy is captured by green
plants and bacteria
à owers te cycling of matter and weater
system
à Distributes eat and fres water
%%%$
$
-$ A! A ! A!-!"A ! "A ! "$"

/ 
à  
à mny atom, ion, or molecule an organism needs to live grow
or reproduce
à x: carbon, oxygen, ydrogen, nitrogen« etc
à ÷  
à nutrient tat organisms need in large amount
à x: posporus, sulfur, calcium, iron « etc
à ÷  
à nutrient tat organism need in small amount
à x: zinc, sodium, copper« etc
  ¦ Large regions
caracterized by
distinct climate, and
specific life-forms

2
| ¦ Long-term
weater; main factor
determining wat type of life
will be in a certain area.

"  

à Te cospere and its ecosystem can be


separated into two parts
à mbiotic- nonliving, components
àx: air, water, solar energy
à ysical and cemical factors tat influence living
organisms
à Biotic- living, components
à x: plants and animals
 

! 
à xariations in its pysical and cemical
environment
à Differences in genetic makeup, ealt, and
age.
à x: trout as to live in colder water tan
bass
(  

à More important tan oters in regulating
population growt
à x: water ligt, and soil
à Lacking water in te desert can limit te growt of
plants
(  
 !
à too muc or too little of any abiotic factor can
limit growt of population, even if all te oter
factors are at optimum (favorable) range of
tolerance.
à x: If a farmer plants corn in posporus-poor
soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum
levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up
available posporus.
;
!- .' 
 
à mmount of oxygen
gas dissolved in a
given volume of
water at a particular
temperature and
pressure.
à Limiting factor of
aquatic ecosystem
 ! 
à amount of salt dissolved
in given volume of
water
(- .  


roducers or autotrops- makes teir


own food from compound obtained
from environment.
à x: plant gets energy or food from
sun
(- .  

otosyntesis-
otosyntesis- ability of producer to convert
sunligt, abiotic nutrients to sugars and oter
complex organic compounds
à Cloropyll
Cloropyll-- traps solar energy and converts into
cemical energy
à 
  9C7


    

" ! %" "

  
!'

"  ! 

    !    
! 
"
 "9
"9
à Bacteria can convert simple
compounds from teir
environment into more
complex nutrient compound
witout sunligt
à x: becomes consumed by
tubeworms, clams, crabs
à Bacteria can survive in great
amount of eat


3

"
à Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on
oter organisms or teir remains


à D    (plant-eaters) or primary consumers
à Feed directly on producers
à Deer, goats, rabbits

ttp://www.olidays.net/easter/bunny1.tm


à 2    (meat
eater) or   


à Feed only on
primary consumer
à Lion, Tiger


à u  (iger-
level) consumer
à Feed only on oter
carnivores
à Wolf


à Œ
  -
consumers tat eat
bot plants and
animals
à x: pigs, umans,
bears


à M   - feed on dead organisms
à xultures, flies, crows, sark


à £  - live off
detritus
à Detritus parts of dead
organisms and wastes of
living organisms.
à £   - extract
nutrients from partly
decomposed organic
matter plant debris, and
animal dung.


à £ 
 - Fungi and
bacteria break down and
recycle organic materials
from organisms wastes
and from dead organisms
à Food sources for worms
and insects
à Biodegradable - can be
broken down by
decomposers
 

à m    
à Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into
carbon dioxide and water
à Glucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water +
energy
à m     
 
à Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen


" 
à Food Cain-eries of organisms
in wic eac eats or
decomposes te preceding one
à Decomposers complete te cycle
of matter by breaking down
organic waste, dead animal. lant
litter and garbage.
à Weter dead or alive organisms
are potential (standard) sources of
food for oter organisms.

( %
 
à Organisms need ig quality cemical energy
to move, grow and reproduce, and tis energy
is converted into low-quality eat tat flows
into environment
à 
" levels or feeding levels- roducer is a
first tropic level, primary consumer is second
tropic level, secondary consumer is tird.
à Decomposers process detritus from all tropic
levels.


^
à Complex network
of interconnected
food cains
à Food web and
cains
à One-way flow of
energy
à Cycling of
nutrients troug
ecosystem


^ 
à G  ^ 
à nergy and nutrients
move from plants to
erbivores
à Ten troug an array
of carnivores 1?????w 
 2
à ventually to
decomposers


^ 
à G  ^ 
à nergy and nutrients
move from plants to
erbivores
à Ten troug an array
of carnivores 1???w 
 2
à ventually to
decomposers


^ 
à G  ^ 
à nergy and nutrients
move from plants to
erbivores
à Ten troug an array
of carnivores 1??w 
 2
à ventually to
decomposers


^ 
à G  ^ 
à nergy and nutrients
move from plants to
erbivores
à Ten troug an array
of carnivores 1?w 
 2
à ventually to
decomposers


^ 
à G  ^ 
à nergy and nutrients
move from plants to
erbivores
à Ten troug an array
of carnivores 1w 
 2
à ventually to
decomposers


^ 
à £ ^ 
à Organic waste material
or detritus is te major
food source
à nergy flows mainly
from producers
(plants) to
decomposers and
detritivores.
  
 !
%
à More steps or tropic levels in food cain or web, greater loss
of usable energy as energy flows troug tropic levels
à More tropic levels te Cains or Webs ave more energy is
consumed after eac one. Tats wy food cains and webs
rarely ave more tan 4 steps
  
 !
%
à Loss of usable energy as energy flows troug
tropic levels of food cains and webs
à Rarely ave more tan 4 steps

 
à Dry weigt of all organic matter contained in
organisms.
à Biomass is measured in dry weigt
à Water is not source of energy or nutrient
à Biomass of first tropic levels is dry mass of all
producers
à Useable energy transferred as biomass varies from
5%-20% (10% standard)
  

 
torage of biomass at various tropic levels of
ecosystem
  
/ 
Number of organisms at eac tropic level
ttp://www.nicksnowden.net/Module_3_pages/ecosystems_energy_flows.tm
*
 
 -1*2
Rate in wic
producers
convert solar
energy into
cemical
energy
(biomass) in a
given amount
of time
/ 
 -1/2
à Rate in wic energy for use by consumers is
stored in new biomass of plants
à Measured in kilocalories per square meter per year
or grams in biomass
à N is te limit determining te planets carrying
capacity for all species.
à 59% of N occurs in land / 41% occurs in ocean

!
 !  
à ercentage of energy transferred from one
tropic level to anoter.
à 10% ecological efficiency
à 1,000,000 units of energy from sun
à 10,000 units available for green plants (potosyntesis)

à 1000 units for erbivores

à 100 units for primary carnivores

à 10 units for secondary carnivores


  

à FILD RmRCD
à Going into nature and observing/measuring te structure of ecosystems
à Majority of wat we know now comes from tis type
à Disadvantage is tat it is expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to carry out
experiments due to many variables
à LmBORmTORY RmRCD
à et up, observation, and measurement of model ecosystems under laboratory
conditions
à Conditions can easily be controlled and are quick and ceap
à Disadvantage is tat it is never certain weter or not result in a laboratory will
be te same as a result in a complex, natural ecosystem
à YTM mNmLYI
à imulation of ecosystem rater tan study real ecosystem
à Delps understand large and very complicated systems

+
 
à cosystem services are te natural
services or eart capital tat support life
on te eart
à ssential to te quality of uman life and
to te functioning of te worlds
economies

+
 
à cosystem services include:
à Controlling and moderating climate
à roviding and renewing air, water, soil
à Recycling vital nutrients troug cemical cycling
à roviding renewable and nonrenewable energy
sources and nonrenewable minerals
à Furnising people wit food, fiber, medicines,
timber, and paper

+
 
à cosystem services include
à ollinating crops and oter plant species
à mbsorbing, diluting, and detoxifying many
pollutants and toxic cemicals
à Delping control populations of pests and disease
organisms
à lowing erosion and preventing flooding
à roviding biodiversity of genes and species
^"+
-
+
 ,
à Food, wood, fibers, energy,
raw materials, industrial
cemicals, medicines, «
à rovides for billions of
dollars in te global
economy
à rovides recycling,
purification, and natural pest
control
à Represents te millions of
years of adaptation, and is
raw material for future
adaptations
%
 !


  !
à Use renewable solar
energy as energy
source
à fficiently recycle
nutrients organisms
need for survival,
growt, and
reproduction
w " C

/  ! 


!
÷  !  


à / 


" ! !
à /  !
"   !
  - 
 " !

    !  
"

!-  -
 
!- 

   #  
/  !1!
 2
 !
%1. 2

à Water à ulfur

à Carbon à Rock

à Nitrogen à oil

à osporus à nergy Flow




" ! !(


à 3 
"
à ^  "

 !)  - 

à . !
!
! !
!!-!
à 
"
à ( 


 - ! 1$$/
  2' 
 

 " 
"
à . !
!
! !
!!-!
à    
à "! 

" -  
" 
 



 
5 #   


!
à . !
! 
! 
/  ! 

  !
à /  !
 
 ! 
à /    ! %" 
!  
à 3   !   
!
%
 
à / !


!
à ;
 ! 

 !!
%
 
  " 
 
 ! 
 
!
!%  
0

!
 
!!
 !

 
-
à +
!  
    !   
"  -