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c 




c  compact, indurated natural material (composed of one


or more minerals) that requires drilling, blasting, wedging, or
other Ơbrute forceơ to excavate.

c     solid rock material which does not contain


obvious structural features (discontinuities) and which usually
can be sampled and tested in the lab; known as Ơintact rockơ.

c   a complex system of natural rock material


comprised of blocks of intact rock and structural features
(discontinuities) that allow for interactions among the blocks;
too large and complex to sample and test in the lab
ï    c   

ð. Geologic mapping of formations and units needed to


generate surface-geology maps and cross-sections

2. Site topography and proposed cut-slope geometries (best to


display cross-sections ð ð with no vertical exaggeration)
ï    c   

ð. Geologic mapping of formations and units needed to


generate surface-geology maps and cross-sections

2. Site topography and proposed cut-slope geometries (best to


display cross-sections ð ð with no vertical exaggeration)

3. Relevant rock-strength data for the rock substance

4. Engineering properties of rock discontinuities, including


orientation, geometry, shear strength

5. Groundwater regime (water table, piez. head distributions)


_      

ã cylinder of rock taken from drill-core is cut square on the


ends, then the ends are ground smooth, and the specimen
loaded to failure in a testing machine. The length-to-diameter
ratio (L/d) typically ranges between 2 and 3.

UCS = Pf / ã (stress units of psi, psf, MPa, tsm)

where Pf = ultimate failure load (at rupture);


ã = cross-sectional area of the cylindrical specimen
= (d2/4
c  _  c 

             _ 


          !

"   # $

_# $ % _ & '()** + ()#,-& ./

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_$ $ % _ & '()00* + ()###-& ./


±  
The point load test is conducted on a piece of drill core (with
ragged ends) with L/d > ð.5 whereby the core piece is loaded
perpendicular to the core axis between cone-shaped platens
until failure occurs and the core is Ơsplitơ. The core diameter
and instrument gage pressure at failure are recorded. The
Point Load Index then is given by

PtL = Pg(ãr) / d2

where d= core diameter, Pg = instrument gage pressure at


specimen failure, and ãr = cross-sectional area of instrument
loading ram.
_ ±    _

UCS ü PtL(ð4 + 0.ð5d)

for d measured in units of mm

For typical core diameters (4  ð mm), use the


approximation
UCS ü 23(PtL)
  __   1 

2  3          


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c       4    5 


        $(
       -  
   .)

 6 7  7 

2         !   !    -. 
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  ) 7        

7 % #-8. & -(.

!  8 %      !      

2   3 3  -$(  7. ü 9


° :6  ; 6    ;6

Field mapping methods to obtain information on discontinuity


orientations, spacing, length, roughness, etc.

Scanline mapping  detailed mapping of individual discontin-


uities that intersect a designated mapping line or linear
Ơwindowơ
° :6  ; 6    ;6 

Field mapping methods to obtain information on discontinuity


orientations, spacing, length, roughness, etc.

Scanline mapping  detailed mapping of individual discontin-


uities that intersect a designated mapping line or linear
Ơwindowơ

Fracture-Set mapping (Cell mapping)  mapping of fracture-


set properties observed within user-defined cells on the rock
exposure
° :6  ; 6    ;6 

Field mapping methods to obtain information on discontinuity


orientations, spacing, length, roughness, etc.

Scanline mapping  detailed mapping of individual discontin-


uities that intersect a designated mapping line or linear
Ơwindowơ

Fracture-Set mapping (Cell mapping)  mapping of fracture-


set properties observed within user-defined cells on the rock
exposure

Oriented core logging  mapping of oriented drill core to


obtain orientations, fracture spacings, roughness
6  ; 6    ;<   

The orientations of planar discontinuities are best displayed


and evaluated by plotting their poles (normals) on lower-
hemisphere stereographic projections (known as Ơstereonet
plotsơ). ã cluster of such poles then represents a fracture set
having Ơplanesơ in similar orientations.


    

   
  

 
Ú 

 
 
 

  
 




 


   


6  ; 6    ;<   

Poles near the center of the stereonet are for shallow-dipping


(fairly flat) fractures, and poles near the outer edge of the
stereonet are for steeply dipping fractures.

Thus, a cluster of fracture poles in the upper-right portion of


the lower-hemisphere stereonet plot indicates a fracture set
with planes dipping toward the southwest.
r r  °  6    

ð. Linear Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope with y-intercept


(known as cohesion) and slope (known as the coefficient
of friction, tanÈ)

= c + nƞ tanÈ

where = shear strength along the discontinuity;


nƞ = effective normal stress acting on the discontinuity;
c = cohesion (generally equal to zero or a very small
value for clean rock fractures);
È = friction angle.
r r  °  6    

2. General nonlinear, power-curve model

= c + a(nƞ )b

where = shear strength along the discontinuity;


nƞ = effective normal stress acting on the discontinuity;
a, b, c = power-curve parameters.

Note that when b = ð.0, this model reduces to a linear model


with the parameter a = tanÈ. Therefore, this general
model also covers the special case of the linear model.
r r  °  6    

3. JRC model of shear strength (nonlinear model)

= nƞ · tan[(JRC)logð0(JCS/nƞ) + Èb]

where = shear strength along the discontinuity;


nƞ = effective normal stress acting on the discontinuity;
JRC = joint roughness coefficient (typ. values 2 to );
JCS = joint-wall compressive strength (UCS of intact rock);
Èb = base friction angle (i.e., for saw-cut, smooth surfaces).
r r  °  6    

4. Back-analysis of a rock-slope failure with well-


defined geometry and groundwater conditions

e set the FOS equal to ð.0, and back-calculate the


corresponding combinations of È and waviness that seem
appropriate (linear shear-strength model with zero
cohesion). e can follow the same approach with the JRC
model of shear strength (select appropriate values of Èb,
JCS, and JRC that give FOS = ð.0).
r r
ã ;     ; 6  r 6

Xuring the laboratory direct-shear test of a natural


rock joint, data are collected to record the shear load
as a function of the applied normal load and the shear
displacement. The graph of shear load vs. shear
displacement for each applied normal load provides
the basis for describing the shear strength of the
specimen.
 

r 
 

 





r   


  ; 6  r 6

The contact area in shear when the specimen attains either the
peak shear load or the residual shear load is needed to
calculate the corresponding normal stress and shear stress
(strength) for any particular graph trace (trial).

For circular or rectangular specimens, this contact area can be


calculated directly, once the pertinent shear displacement is
identified. For irregularly shaped specimens, a reference table
must be constructed that displays the contact area as a
function of shear displacement.
  ; 6  r 6

ã least-squares regression program (such as Taussm


or the Mathcad sheet entitled ƠTauRegrơ) then
provides the linear and power models for shear
strength, as shown in the typical plots of shear
strength on the overheads
<  r r    1; " 

c  ° 

ð. Exponential RQX Method

Required input:
ãverage RQX (Rock Quality Xesignation) of the
rock mass (%)
Estimated c (psi) and È for intact rock
Estimated c (psi) and È for natural fractures

Intermediate factors (weights):


ã = .45exp(.00 x RQX) B = .ðexp(.0ð3 x RQX)

Then:
cm = cr (B2) + cf (ð-B2) in psi
Èm = Èr (ã2) + Èf (ð-ã2) in deg.
2. Hoek-Brown Rock Mass Strength Model

Required input:
mi - Hoek-Brown constant (a material constant
ranging from about 4 to 33)
GSI - Geological Strength Index (see handout)
Ci - uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock
X - estimated rock-mass disturbance factor (0 for
insitu rock or for carefully designed blasting
programs; ð for poor blasting practices with
considerable overbreak)

See Mathcad calculation sheet for examples.