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ƥ What is a computer?
ƥ Computer main components:
a xardware
a Software
a Program
a Operating System
ƥ Programming languages
ƥ Computer program
ƥ Computer organization
ƥ Computer system overview
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ƥ A
  is a device capable of
performing computations and making logical
decisions at speed faster than human being.
ƥ Computer process data under the control of
sets of instructions called
  

 .
ƥ Computer programs guide the computer
through orderly sets of actions specified by

  
  .
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ƥ The tangible or physical computer equipment
is known as hardware.
ƥ Example: CPU, RAM, CD-drive, USB
FlashDrive, Printer, CD-ROM, disks, screen,
keyboard.
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ƥ Software is the set of instructions to the
computer or synonym for program.
ƥ Two types:
a ë 

 
ƥ refers to programs that solve some specific problems
a 
 
ƥ refers to programs that make the computer usable and
accessible to the developers and programmers of
application software.
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ƥ Program is a set of instructions that is used to
solve a particular problem.
ƥ |
  
 
a A set of detailed directions telling the computer
exactly what to do, one step at a time. A program
can be as short as one line of code, or as long as
several millions lines of code.
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ƥ Operating System is the software that
manages the overall operation of the
computer system.
ƥ Divided into 2:
a [etwork Operating System ([OS)
a Distributed Operating System (DOS)
ƥ Example: Windows 2000, LI[UX
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 ! 
ƥ Programming Language is an artificial and
formal language that has a limited vocabulary
consisting of a set of keywords for making up
instructions and a set of precise grammar
rules.
ƥ Example: C, C++, Java, COBOL
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ƥ Input unit
a Obtains information from input devices.
ƥ Output unit
a Takes information that has been processed and places it on
various output devices to make the information available
outside the computer.
ƥ Memory unit
a Retains information that has been entered through input
devices so that the information may be made immediately
available for processing when it is needed
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ƥ Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)
a Responsible for calculations.
ƥ Central processing unit (CPU)
a Computerƞs coordinator
a Responsible for supervising the operations of computer.
ƥ Secondary storage unit
a Information stored in secondary storage unit takes longer
time to access than the information in primary memory.
a Example: Disks, thumb drives, CD-R
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ƥ 
 %& 

1. Programs are 
 permanently in secondary
memory (e.g. on hard disk). Instructions are
encoded as binary numbers ( 
$'
2. When a program is to be run, it is copied
(
  ) into main memory, and the CPU
&  the instructions of the program.
3. Program may  data from secondary memory
and input devices.
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. Through 
(

 (if-then-else, loops) the
program can control the order in which program
instructions are executed.
5. Program data ( )) are stored in main
memory.
6. Results are   to output devices or to
secondary memory.
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ƥ Major Software Categories:
a Operating System (OS)
ƥ Manages the computer's resources
a Process Management
a Memory management
a Input/Output
a Window System
a [etwork Control
a Security