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Management de l’ éthique

Ethique et responsabilité
sociale
Planning Ahead — Chapter 3 Study Questions

1. What is ethical behavior?


2. How do ethical dilemmas complicate the
workplace?
3. How can high ethical standards be
maintained?
4. What is social responsibility and governance?
Study Question 1: What is ethical behavior?

 Ethics
 Code des principes moraux
 Définissez les normes de «bonne» ou
«mauvaise» ou «droite» ou «mauvaise»
dans sa conduite.
 Comportement éthique
Ce qui est accepté comme bon et juste dans
le contexte du code moral régissant.
Study Question 1: What is ethical behavior?

 Droit, valeurs et comportement éthique:


Le comportement juridique n'est pas
forcément un comportement éthique.
Les valeurs personnelles aident à déterminer
le comportement éthique individuel.
Study Question 1: What is ethical behavior?

 Droit, valeurs et comportement éthique:


Valeurs - croyances et attitudes sous-jacentes
qui aident à déterminer le comportement
individuel
Valeurs du terminal - préférences concernant
les finalités souhaitées
Valeurs instrumentales - préférences
concernant les moyens aux fins souhaitées
Study Question 1: What is ethical behavior?

 Alternative ethical views


 Utilitarian
 Delivers the greatest good to the most people
 Individualism
 Advances long-term self-interests
 Moral rights
 Maintains fundamental rights of all human beings
 Autres points de vue éthiques
- Utilitaire
Offre le plus grand bien à la plupart des gens
-Individualisme
Avance les intérêts personnels à long terme
- Droits moraux
Maintient les droits fondamentaux de tous les êtres
humains
Study Question 1: What is ethical behavior?

 Justice view of ethics


 fair and impartial treatment of people according to legal rules and
standards
 Procedural justice – policies and rules fairly applied
 Distributive justice – equal treatment for all people
 Interactional justice – people treated with dignity and respect
 Commutative justice – fairness to all involved
Justice vue de l'éthique
Un traitement juste et impartial des personnes selon les règles et
normes légales
Justice procédurale - politiques et règles appliquées équitablement
La justice de la distribution - l'égalité de traitement pour toutes les
personnes
Justice interactionnelle - personnes traitées avec dignité et respect
La justice commutative - l'équité pour tous les acteurs
L’éthique au plan stratégique et opérationnel

 Au plan stratégique
 L’éthique est au cœur de la politique de
l’entreprise
 déclinaison de l’éthique à tous les niveau de
l’organisation
 implication de tous les acteurs dans la décision
stratégique
 les « top managers » doivent être convaincus
et disposant de cette compétence
Au plan opérationnel

 Objectif principal: l’éthique comme levier


d’implication des RH dans la stratégie de
l’entreprise
 Les objectifs opérationnels
 Construire l’estime de soi chez
l’employé (sentiment d’accomplissement au
travail, l’identité de l’employé se confond
avec l’identité de l’organisation (savoir-être
et vie accomplie dans l’organisation)
Suite

 La confiance:
 Le rapport avec l’autre (mon comportement
et le comportement de l’autre)
 les valeurs partagées avec l’autre constitue
cette harmonie pour l’entreprise
 la confiance est cette combinaison entre le
soi et l’autre (dans le travail la confiance est
le moteur des relations professionnelles)
Suite

Le sens:
 L’organisation doit créer du
sens et de la valeur pour ses RH
 L’employé compare ses valeurs
individuelles avec celles de
l’organisation (la compatibilité des
deux types de valeur = degré
d’implication )
L’éthique au plan stratégique et opérationnel

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 12


Study Question 1: What is ethical behavior?

 Cultural issues in ethical behavior:


 Cultural relativism
 Ethical behavior is always determined by cultural
context.
 Universalism
 Behavior unacceptable in one’s home
environment should not be acceptable anywhere
else.
 Ethical imperialism
 Imposing one’s ethical standards on others.
Management 11e/ Chapter 3 13
The extremes of cultural relativism and ethical imperialism in
international business ethics.

Source: Developed from Thomas Donaldson, “Values in Tension: Ethics Away from Home,”
Harvard Business Review, vol. 74 (September-October 1996), pp. 48-62.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 14


Study Question 1: What is ethical behavior?

 Sources of information on ethical behavior:


 Institute for Global Ethics at www.globalethics.org
and on Facebook at
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Rockland-ME/Institu
te-for-Global-Ethics/51585783748?ref=ts
 Ethics Resource Center at www.ethics.org

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 15


Study Question 2: How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?

 An ethical dilemma
 occurs when choices, although having
potential for personal and/or organizational
benefit, may be considered unethical.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 16


Study Question 2: How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?

 Ethical dilemmas include:


Discrimination

Sexual harassment

Conflicts of interest

Product Safety

Organizational resources

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 17


Checklist for ethical dilemmas

Step 1 Recognize the ethical dilemma.

Step 2 Get the facts.

Step 3 Identify your options.

Step 4 Test each option: Is it legal? Is it right? Is it beneficial?

Step 5 Decide which option to follow.


Step 6 Ask the Spotlight Questions: To double check your
decision.
• “How would I feel if my family found out about my decision?”
• “How would I feel if my decision was printed in the local paper or posted online?”

Step 7 Take action

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 18


Study Question 2: How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?

 Influences on Ethical Decision Making


 Ethical framework
 Provides personal rules or strategies for ethical
decision making
 Includes personal values
 Honesty
 Fairness
 Integrity
 Self-respect

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 19


Kohlberg’s stages of individual moral development

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 20


Study Question 2: How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?

 Situational Context and Ethics Intensity


 Will the situation pose an important ethic
challenge?
 Magnitude of the situation
 Risk of immediate harm
 Proximity and concentration of harm
 Social consensus

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 21


Study Question 2: How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?

 Organizational Culture Influence


 What is considered ethical behavior within
the organizational context?
 What are the expectations of management?
 What are the expectations of co-workers?
 Is there a code of ethics?

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 22


Study Question 2: How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?

 External environment

Government
laws and
regulations

Competitive Societal
climate in an norms and
industry values

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 23


Study Question 2: How do ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace?

 Ethical behavior can be rationalized by


convincing yourself that:
Behavior is not really illegal.

Behavior is really in everyone’s best interests.

Nobody will ever find out.

The organization will “protect” you.

Management 11e – Management 11e/


Chapter 3 24
Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Ethics training:
 Structured programs that help participants to
understand ethical aspects of decision
making.
 Helps people incorporate high ethical
standards into daily life.
 Helps people deal with ethical issues
under pressure.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 25


Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Codes of Ethical Conduct


 Formal statement of an organization’s values
and ethical principles regarding how to
behave in situations susceptible to the
creation of ethical dilemmas

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 26


Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Moral Management
 Managers behave in one of three ways

immoral ●
Chooses to behave
manager unethically

amoral Disregards ethics of actions,



intentionally or unintentionally
manger

moral Considers ethical behavior



manager as a personal goal

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 27


How can high ethical standards be maintained?

28
Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Areas often covered by codes of ethics:


Bribes and kickbacks

Political contributions

Honesty of books or records

Customer/supplier relationships

Confidentiality of corporate information

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 29


Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Whistleblowers
 Expose misdeeds of others to:
 Preserve ethical standards
 Protect against wasteful, harmful, or illegal acts
 Laws protecting whistleblowers vary

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 30


Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Barriers to whistleblowing include:


 Strict chain of command
 Strong work group identities
 Ambiguous priorities

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 31


Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Organizational methods for overcoming


whistleblowing barriers:
 Ethics staff units who serve as ethics
advocates
 Moral quality circles

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 32


Study Question 3: How can high ethical standards be maintained?

 Social entrepreneurship:
 a unique form of entrepreneurship that seeks
novel ways to solve pressing social problems
at home and abroad
 Housing and job training for homeless
 Bringing technology to poor families
 Improving literacy among
disadvantaged youth
 Offering small loans to start
minority-owned businesses
Management 11e/ Chapter 3 33
Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and corporate governance?

 Corporate social responsibility and


governance:
 Looks at ethical issues on the
organization level.
 Obligates organizations to
act in ways that serve both
its own interests and the
interests of society at large.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 34


Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and corporate governance?

 Stakeholder Management
 Stakeholders
 persons, groups, and other organizations directly
affected by the behavior of the organization and
holding a stake in its performance.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 35


Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and corporate governance?

 Typical organizational
stakeholders Organiz
ation
Interest
groups

Regulators Employees

Competitors Customers

Owners Suppliers

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 36


Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and corporate
governance?

 Perspectives on social responsibility:


 Classical view
 Management’s only responsibility is to maximize
profits.
 Socioeconomic view
 Management must be concerned
for the broader social welfare,
not just profits.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 37


Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and governance?

Arguments Arguments in
against social favor of social
responsibility: responsibility:

Adds long-run profits

Reduced business profits ●
Improved public image

Higher business costs ●
Avoids more government

Dilution of business purpose
regulation

Too much social power for
business

Businesses have

Lack of public accountability resources and ethical
obligation

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 38


Criteria for evaluating corporate social performance.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 39


Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and corporate
governance?

 Strategies for pursuing social


responsibility:
Obstru Accom
ctionis
Defe
modati
Proa
t nsive ve ctive
meets
● meets
● meets


meets economic, economic,
economic legal, ethical,
economic legal, and
and legal ethical
and
responsi discretionary
responsib responsibilit
bilities. ilities.
responsibilitie
ies. s.
Management 11e/ Chapter 3 40
Four strategies of corporate social responsibility—from
obstructionist to proactive behavior.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 41


Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and governance?

 Corporate governance:
 The oversight of the top management of an
organization by a board of directors.
 Corporate governance involves:
 Hiring, firing, and compensating the CEO.
 Assessing strategy.
 Verifying financial records.

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 42


Study Question 4: What is social responsibility and governance?

 How government influences


organizations:
 Common areas of government regulation of
business affairs:
 Occupational safety and health
 Fair labor practices
 Consumer protection
 Environmental protection

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 43


Chapter 3 Case

 Patagonia: Turning a profit without losing


your soul

Management 11e/ Chapter 3 44


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