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Routing

Routing

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0

S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24


R2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

10.0.0.1 /24 30.0.0.1 /24


dfg. 10.0.0.10 dfg. 30.0.0.10

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.1

S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24


R2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

10.0.0.1 /24 30.0.0.1 /24


dfg. 10.0.0.10 dfg. 30.0.0.10
IP route 30.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.2 IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.1
N/W N.H. N/W N.H.
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [1/0 ] via 20.0.0.1
R 10.0.0.0 /24 [120/1] via 20.0.0.1
S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24


R2

30.0.0.10 /24
Router Rip Router Rip
10.0.0.10 /24

Net 20.0.0.0 Net 20.0.0.0


Net 10.0.0.0 Net 30.0.0.0

10.0.0.1 /24 30.0.0.1 /24


dfg. 10.0.0.10 dfg. 30.0.0.10

IP route 30.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.2


Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 R 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 120/1 ] via 20.0.0.1
R 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 120/2 ] via 40.0.0.1
S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24 O 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 110/24567 ] via 20.0.0.1

R1 50
.0.
S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24

24
R2 O 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 110/245 ] via 40.0.0.1
.1 2/ .2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

0.1 0 .
/24 .0 .
40
.2
R3 .1

10.0.0.1 /24 30.0.0.1 /24


dfg. 10.0.0.10 dfg. 30.0.0.10

IP route 30.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.2


Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
C 40.0.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 C 40.0.0.0 /24 directly connected bri0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.1

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24


S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24
R2
.1 .2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

ISDN
.2R3
40.0.0.0 /24 IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.1

30.0.0.1 /24
10.0.0.1 /24
dfg. 30.0.0.10
dfg. 10.0.0.10

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
C 40.0.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 C 40.0.0.0 /24 directly connected bri0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.1
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0.1

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24


S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24
R2
.1 .2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

ISDN
.2R3
40.0.0.0 /24 IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.1
IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 40.0.0.1

30.0.0.1 /24
10.0.0.1 /24
dfg. 30.0.0.10
dfg. 10.0.0.10

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
C 40.0.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 C 40.0.0.0 /24 directly connected bri0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 directly conn 20.0.0.1
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0.1

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24


S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24
R2
.1 .2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

ISDN
.2R3 Best Practice

40.0.0.0 /24 IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.1


IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 S0/0

30.0.0.1 /24
10.0.0.1 /24
dfg. 30.0.0.10
dfg. 10.0.0.10

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
C 40.0.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 C 40.0.0.0 /24 directly connected bri0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.1
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [200/0 ] via 40.0.0.1

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24


S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24
R2
.1 .2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

ISDN
.2R3
40.0.0.0 /24 IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.1
IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 40.0.0.1 200

10.0.0.1 /24 30.0.0.1 /24


dfg. 10.0.0.10 dfg. 30.0.0.10

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0
C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0
C 40.0.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 C 40.0.0.0 /24 directly connected bri0
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.1
S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0.2 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [200/0 ] via 40.0.0.1

R1 S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24


S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24
R2
.1 .2

30.0.0.10 /24
10.0.0.10 /24

ISDN
.2R3
40.0.0.0 /24
IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 40.0.0.1 200

10.0.0.1 /24 30.0.0.1 /24


dfg. 10.0.0.10 dfg. 30.0.0.10

IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.1 Permenant

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
R1 40.0.0.0 /24

R1
50.0.0.0 /24 20.0.0.0 /24

10.0.0.0 /24
R1
R1 .1
R2
R1 60.0.0.0 /24
30.0.0.0 /24

R1
70.0.0.0 /24

R1
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
20.0.0.0 10.0.0.1

R1 40.0.0.0 /24 30.0.0.0


40.0.0.0
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.1

R1 50.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
50.0.0.0 /24 20.0.0.0 /24 60.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
70.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
10.0.0.0 /24
R1
R1 .1
R2
R1 60.0.0.0 /24
30.0.0.0 /24

R1
70.0.0.0 /24

R1
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
20.0.0.0 10.0.0.1

R1 40.0.0.0 /24 30.0.0.0


40.0.0.0
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.1

R1 50.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
50.0.0.0 /24 20.0.0.0 /24 60.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
70.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
10.0.0.0 /24
R1
R1 .1
R2
STUB NETWORK
R1 60.0.0.0 /24
30.0.0.0 /24 IP route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
R1
70.0.0.0 /24

R1
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
What is a Routing Protocol?

10.120.2.0 172.16.1.0

• Routing protocols are E0


used between S0
routers to determine paths
and maintain
routing tables.
• Once the path is determined a
router can route a routed
protocol.
Network Destination Exit 172.17.3.0
Protocol Network Interface
Connected 10.120.2.0 E0
RIP 172.16.2.0 S0
IGRP 172.17.3.0 S1

Routed Protocol: IP
Routing protocol: RIP, IGRP
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
Autonomous Systems: Interior or Exterior
Routing Protocols
IGPs: RIP, IGRP EGPs: BGP

Autonomous System 100 Autonomous System 200

An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain


IGPs operate within an autonomous system
EGPs connect different autonomous systems

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
Classes of Routing Protocols

B
Distance Vector
C A

Hybrid Routing

B
Link State
C A

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
IGP EGP

RIP V2 RIP V1 IGRP EIGRP OSPF ISIS BGP

D.V D.V D.V Adv. L.S L.S D.V


D.V

D.V = Distance Vector


L.S = Link State

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
R1
10.0.0.0 /24
10.0.10.0 /24
R1 10.0.0.0

10.0.20.0 /24 R1 .1

R1 10.0.30.0 /24

R1

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
Distance Vector Routing Protocols

C A

Distance—How far
Vector—In which direction D

D C B A

Routing Routing Routing Routing


Table Table Table Table

• Pass periodic copies of routing table to neighbor


routers and accumulate distance vectors
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
Distance Vector—Sources of Information and
Discovering Routes

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table


10.1.0.0 E0 0 10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S0 0
10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S1 0 10.4.0.0 E0 0

• Routers discover the best path to


destinations from each neighbor

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
Distance Vector—Sources of Information and
Discovering Routes

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table


10.1.0.0 E0 0 10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S0 0
10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S1 0 10.4.0.0 E0 0
10.3.0.0 S0 1 10.4.0.0 S1 1 10.2.0.0 S0 1
10.1.0.0 S0 1

• Routers discover the best path to


destinations from each neighbor

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
Distance Vector—Sources of Information and
Discovering Routes

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table


10.1.0.0 E0 0 10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S0 0
10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S1 0 10.4.0.0 E0 0
10.3.0.0 S0 1 10.4.0.0 S1 1 10.2.0.0 S0 1
10.4.0.0 S0 2 10.1.0.0 S0 1 10.1.0.0 S0 2

• Routers discover the best path to


destinations from each neighbor

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
Distance Vector—Selecting Best Route
with Metrics

A IGRP

Bandwidth
56
RIP Delay
Load
Hop count
T1 56 Reliability
IPX MTU
Ticks, hop count T1

Information used to select the best path for routing

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
Do not delete

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
Distance Vector—Maintaining Routing
Information

Process to
update this
routing
table

Topology
change
causes
routing
A table
update

• Updates proceed step-by-step


from router to router

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
Distance Vector—Maintaining Routing
Information
Process to
update this
routing
table

Router A sends Topology


out this updated change
routing table causes
after the routing
next period A table
expires update
• Updates proceed step-by-step
from router to router

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
Distance Vector—Maintaining Routing
Information

Process to Process to
update this update this
routing routing
table table

Router A sends Topology


out this updated change
routing table causes
after the routing
B next period A table
expires update
• Updates proceed step-by-step
from router to router

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
Maintaining Routing Information Problem—
Routing Loops

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table


10.1.0.0 E0 0 10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S0 0
10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S1 0 10.4.0.0 E0 0
10.3.0.0 S0 1 10.4.0.0 S1 1 10.2.0.0 S0 1
10.4.0.0 S0 2 10.1.0.0 S0 1 10.1.0.0 S0 2

• Each node maintains the distance from itself to each possible destination network

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
Maintaining Routing Information Problem—
Routing Loops
10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0
E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table

1 1 1
2 1 2

• Slow convergence produces inconsistent routing

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
Maintaining Routing Information Problem—
Routing Loops
10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0
E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table

1 1 1
2 1 2

Router C concludes that the best path to network


10.4.0.0 is through Router B
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
Maintaining Routing Information Problem—
Routing Loops
10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0
E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table

1 3 1
4 1 2

Router A updates its table to reflect the new but


erroneous hop count
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
Symptom: Counting to Infinity

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table

1 5 1
6 1 2

• Packets for network 10.4.0.0 bounce between routers A, B, and C


• Hop count for network 10.4.0.0 counts to infinity

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
Solution: Defining a Maximum

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table


10.1.0.0 E0 0 10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S0 0
10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S1 0 10.4.0.0 S0 16
10.3.0.0 S0 1 10.4.0.0 S1 16 10.2.0.0 S0 1
10.4.0.0 • Define16a limit on
S0 10.1.0.0
the number 1 to prevent
S0 of hops infinite loops
10.1.0.0 S0 2

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
Solution: Split Horizon

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X
X X
Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table

1 1 1
2 send information about a route back in
• It is never useful to 2 the direction from which the original 2
packet
came

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
Solution: Route Poisoning

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X

Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table


10.1.0.0 E0 0 10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S0 0
10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S1 0 10.4.0.0 S0 Infinity
10.3.0.0 S0 1 10.4.0.0 S1 1 10.2.0.0 S0 1
• Routers
10.4.0.0 S0 set2 the distance
10.1.0.0 of E1
routes that
2 have gone down
10.1.0.0 S0 to infinity
2

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
Solution: Poison Reverse

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X
Poison
Reverse
Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table
10.1.0.0 E0 0 10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S0 0
10.2.0.0 S0 0 10.3.0.0 S1 0 10.4.0.0 S0 Infinity
Possibly
10.3.0.0 S0 1 10.4.0.0 S1 Down 10.2.0.0 S0 1
10.4.0.0 S0 2 10.1.0.0 E1 2 10.1.0.0 S0 2

• Poison Reverse overrides split horizon

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
Solution: Hold-Down Timers

Network 10.4.0.0
Update after is unreachable
hold-down Time
10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0
E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X
Update after
hold-down Time Network 10.4.0.0 is down
then back up
• Router keeps an entry for the network possibly down state, allowing
then back time
down for
other routers to recompute for this topology change

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
Solution: Triggered Updates

Network 10.4.0.0 Network 10.4.0.0 Network 10.4.0.0


is unreachable is unreachable is unreachable

10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0 10.3.0.0 10.4.0.0


E0 A S0 S0 B S1 S0 C E0 X

• Router sends updates when a change in its routing table occurs

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
Blank Slide for Instructor Notes

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes

10.4.0.0

E B X C

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes
(cont.)

Holddown

10.4.0.0

E B X C
Holddown

Holddown

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes
(cont.)

Holddown

Poison Reverse
D
Poison Reverse

10.4.0.0

E B X C
Holddown

Poison Reverse

Poison Reverse
A

Holddown

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes
(cont.)

Holddown

10.4.0.0

E B X C
Holddown
Packet for
Packet for Network 10.4.0.0
Network 10.4.0.0
A

Holddown

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes
(cont.)

10.4.0.0

E B C
Link up!

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes
(cont.)

10.4.0.0

E B C
Link up!

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
Link-State Routing Protocols

C A

D
Link-State Packets
Topological
Database
Routing
SPF Table
Algorithm

Shortest Path First Tree


• After initial flood, pass small event-triggered link-state
updates to all other routers

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
Hybrid Routing

Choose a
routing path based
on distance vectors

Balanced Hybrid Routing

Converge rapidly using


change-based
updates
• Share attributes of both distance-vector
and link-state routing

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
IP Routing
Configuration Tasks

Network 172.16.0.0
RIP
• Router configuration
IGRP, IGRP
Select routing protocols RIP
Specify networks or interfaces Network
160.89.0.0

RIP
Network 172.30.0.0

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
Dynamic Routing Configuration

ter(config)#router protocol [keyword]

Defines an IP routing protocol

r(config-router)#network network-number

• Mandatory configuration command for each

IP routing process

• Identifies the physically connected network


that routing updates are forwarded to
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
RIP Overview

19.2 kbps

T1 T1

T1

Maximum six paths (default = 4)


Hop count metric selects the path
Routes update every 30 seconds

Session Number
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RIP Configuration

ter(config)#router rip

Starts the RIP routing process

(config-router)#network network-number

• Selects participating attached networks


• The network number must be a major classful
network number

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51
RIP Configuration Example

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

2.3.0.0
router rip 2.3.0.0
router rip
network 172.16.0.0 network 192.168.1.0
network 10.0.0.0 network 10.0.0.0

router rip
network 10.0.0.0

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52
Verifying the Routing Protocol—RIP

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA#sh ip protocols
Routing Protocol is "rip"
Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 0 seconds
Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240
Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is
Redistributing: rip
Default version control: send version 1, receive any version
Interface Send Recv Key-chain
Ethernet0 1 1 2
Serial2 1 1 2
Routing for Networks:
10.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update
10.1.1.2 120 00:00:10
Distance: (default is 120)
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53
Displaying the
IP Routing Table

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA#sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate
default
U - per-user static route, o - ODR
T - traffic engineered route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R 10.2.2.0 [120/1] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:07, Serial2
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial2
R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/2] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:07, Serial2

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54
debug ip rip Command

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA#debug ip rip
RIP protocol debugging is on
RouterA#
00:06:24: RIP: received v1 update from 10.1.1.2 on Serial2
00:06:24: 10.2.2.0 in 1 hops
00:06:24: 192.168.1.0 in 2 hops
00:06:33: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.255.255.255 via
Ethernet0 (172.16.1.1)
00:06:34: network 10.0.0.0, metric 1
00:06:34: network 192.168.1.0, metric 3
00:06:34: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.255.255.255 via
Serial2 (10.1.1.1)
00:06:34: network 172.16.0.0, metric 1

Session Number
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Introduction to IGRP

IGRP

More scalable than RIP


Sophisticated metric
Multiple-path support

Session Number
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IGRP Composite Metric

19.2 kbps 19.2 kbps

Source

Destination

Bandwidth
Delay
Reliability
Loading
MTU

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57
Blank Slide for Instructor Notes

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58
IGRP Unequal Multiple Paths

New Route

Source

Initial
Route Destination

Maximum six paths (default = 4)


Within metric variance
Next-hop router closer to destination

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59
Configuring IGRP

Router(config)#router igrp autonomous-system


• Defines IGRP as the IP routing protocol

config-router)#network network-number

• Selects participating attached networks

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60
Configuring IGRP (cont.)

Router(config-router)#variance multiplier
• Control IGRP load balancing

ter(config-router)#traffic-share
alanced | min }

• Control how load-balanced traffic is distributed

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61
IGRP Configuration Example

Autonomous System = 100


E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

router igrp 100 router igrp 100


network 172.16.0.0 network 192.168.1.0
network 10.0.0.0 network 10.0.0.0

router igrp 100


network 10.0.0.0

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 62
Verifying the Routing Protocol—IGRP

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA#sh ip protocols
Routing Protocol is "igrp 100"
Sending updates every 90 seconds, next due in 21 seconds
Invalid after 270 seconds, hold down 280, flushed after 630
Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is
Default networks flagged in outgoing updates
Default networks accepted from incoming updates
IGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0
IGRP maximum hopcount 100
IGRP maximum metric variance 1
Redistributing: igrp 100
Routing for Networks:
10.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update
10.1.1.2 100 00:01:01
Distance: (default is 100)

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 63
Displaying the
IP Routing Table

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA#sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default
U - per-user static route, o - ODR
T - traffic engineered route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
I 10.2.2.0 [100/90956] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:23, Serial2
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial2
I 192.168.1.0/24 [100/91056] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:23, Serial2

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 64
debug ip igrp transaction Command

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA#debug ip igrp transactions


IGRP protocol debugging is on
RouterA#
00:21:06: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Ethernet0 (172.16.1.1)
00:21:06: network 10.0.0.0, metric=88956
00:21:06: network 192.168.1.0, metric=91056
00:21:07: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial2 (10.1.1.1)
00:21:07: network 172.16.0.0, metric=1100
00:21:16: IGRP: received update from 10.1.1.2 on Serial2
00:21:16: subnet 10.2.2.0, metric 90956 (neighbor 88956)
00:21:16: network 192.168.1.0, metric 91056 (neighbor 89056)

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 65
debug ip igrp events Command

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA#debug ip igrp events


IGRP event debugging is on
RouterA#
00:23:44: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Ethernet0 (172.16.1.1)
00:23:44: IGRP: Update contains 0 interior, 2 system, and 0 exterior routes.
00:23:44: IGRP: Total routes in update: 2
00:23:44: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial2 (10.1.1.1)
00:23:45: IGRP: Update contains 0 interior, 1 system, and 0 exterior routes.
00:23:45: IGRP: Total routes in update: 1
00:23:48: IGRP: received update from 10.1.1.2 on Serial2
00:23:48: IGRP: Update contains 1 interior, 1 system, and 0 exterior routes.
00:23:48: IGRP: Total routes in update: 2

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 66
Updating Routing Information Example

E0
S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 X A B C
192.168.1.0
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1

RouterA# debug ip igrp trans


00:31:15: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Ethernet0, changed state to down
00:31:15: IGRP: edition is now 3
00:31:15: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial2 (10.1.1.1)
00:31:15: network 172.16.0.0, metric=4294967295
00:31:16: IGRP: Update contains 0 interior, 1 system, and 0 exterior routes.
00:31:16: IGRP: Total routes in update: 1
00:31:16: IGRP: broadcasting request on Serial2
00:31:16: IGRP: received update from 10.1.1.2 on Serial2
00:31:16: subnet 10.2.2.0, metric 90956 (neighbor 88956)
00:31:16: network 172.16.0.0, metric 4294967295 (inaccessible)
00:31:16: network 192.168.1.0, metric 91056 (neighbor 89056)
00:31:16: IGRP: Update contains 1 interior, 2 system, and 0 exterior routes.
00:31:16: IGRP: Total routes in update: 3

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 67
Updating Routing Information Example
(cont.)

E0
S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 X A B C
192.168.1.0
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1
RouterB#debug ip igrp trans
IGRP protocol debugging is on
RouterB#
1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial2 (10.1.1.2)
1d19h: subnet 10.2.2.0, metric=88956
1d19h: network 192.168.1.0, metric=89056
1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial3 (10.2.2.2)
1d19h: subnet 10.1.1.0, metric=88956
1d19h: network 172.16.0.0, metric=89056
1d19h: IGRP: received update from 10.1.1.1 on Serial2
1d19h: network 172.16.0.0, metric 4294967295 (inaccessible)
1d19h: IGRP: edition is now 10
1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial2 (10.1.1.2)
1d19h: subnet 10.2.2.0, metric=88956
1d19h: network 172.16.0.0, metric=4294967295
1d19h: network 192.168.1.0, metric=89056
1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial3 (10.2.2.2)
1d19h: subnet 10.1.1.0, metric=88956
1d19h: network 172.16.0.0, metric=4294967295
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 68
Updating Routing Information Example
(cont.)
E0
S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 X A B C
192.168.1.0
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1
RouterB#sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default
U - per-user static route, o - ODR
T - traffic engineered route

Gateway of last resort is not set

I 172.16.0.0/16 is possibly down, routing via 10.1.1.1, Serial2


10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial2
C 10.2.2.0 is directly connected, Serial3
I 192.168.1.0/24 [100/89056] via 10.2.2.3, 00:00:14, Serial3
RouterB#ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
RouterB#
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 69
Updating Routing Information Example
(cont.)

E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0
172.16.1.0 A 192.168.1.0
B C
172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1
RouterB#debug ip igrp transactions
RouterB#
1d20h: IGRP: received update from 10.1.1.1 on Serial2
1d20h: network 172.16.0.0, metric 89056 (neighbor 1100)
RouterB#
RouterB#sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default
U - per-user static route, o - ODR
T - traffic engineered route

Gateway of last resort is not set

I 172.16.0.0/16 is possibly down, routing via 10.1.1.1, Serial2


10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial2
C 10.2.2.0 is directly connected, Serial3
I 192.168.1.0/24 [100/89056] via 10.2.2.3, 00:00:18, Serial3
RouterB#ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 32/38/48 ms
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 70
ip classless Command

Default route
10.7.1.1 E0 S0
172.16.0.0
10.1.0.0 10.2.0.0

Router(config)#ip classless
Network Destination Exit
Protocol Network Interface

C 10.1.0.0 E0
To get to 10.7.1.1: C 10.2.0.0 S0
RIP 172.16.0.0 via S0
0.0.0.0 E0
With ip classless Default
With no ip classless Drop

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 71
Visual Objective
pod ro’s s0 ro’s e0 sw
wg_pc_a A 10.140.1.2 10.2.2.3 10.2.2.11
10.2.2.12 B 10.140.2.2 10.3.3.3 10.10.10.11
RIP C 10.140.3.2 10.4.4.3 10.4.4.11
e0/1 D 10.140.4.2 10.5.5.3 10.5.5.11
e0/2 e0
wg_ro_a E 10.140.5.2 10.6.6.3 10.6.6.11
10.2.2.3 F 10.140.6.2 10.7.7.3 10.7.7.11
s0
wg_sw_a 10.140.1.2/24 G 10.140.7.2 10.8.8.3 10.8.8.11
10.2.2.11 H 10.140.8.2 10.9.9.3 10.9.9.11
I 10.140.9.2 10.10.10.3 10.3.3.11
wg_pc_l J 10.140.10.2 10.11.11.3 10.11.11.11
10.13.13.12 K 10.140.11.2 10.12.12.3 10.12.12.11
L 10.140.12.2 10.13.13.3 10.13.13.11
e0/1 RIP
wg_ro_l
e0/2 e0
LL
10.13.13.3
wg_sw_l s0
10.13.13.11 10.140.12.2/24

... s1/0 - s2/3


10.140.1.1/24 … 10.140.12.1/24
fa0/24 fa0/23 fa0/0

core_ server core_sw_a core_ro


10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.3
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 72
Visual Objective
pod ro’s s0 ro’s e0 sw
wg_pc_a A 10.140.1.2 10.2.2.3 10.2.2.11
10.2.2.12 B 10.140.2.2 10.3.3.3 10.10.10.11
IGRP C 10.140.3.2 10.4.4.3 10.4.4.11
e0/1 D 10.140.4.2 10.5.5.3 10.5.5.11
e0/2 e0
wg_ro_a E 10.140.5.2 10.6.6.3 10.6.6.11
10.2.2.3 F 10.140.6.2 10.7.7.3 10.7.7.11
wg_sw_a s0
G 10.140.7.2 10.8.8.3 10.8.8.11
10.2.2.11 10.140.1.2/24
H 10.140.8.2 10.9.9.3 10.9.9.11
I 10.140.9.2 10.10.10.3 10.3.3.11
wg_pc_l J 10.140.10.2 10.11.11.3 10.11.11.11
10.13.13.12 K 10.140.11.2 10.12.12.3 10.12.12.11
L 10.140.12.2 10.13.13.3 10.13.13.11
IGRP
e0/1
e0/2 e0 wg_ro_l
10.13.13.3
LL
wg_sw_l
10.13.13.11 s0
10.140.12.2/24

s1/0 - s2/3
...
10.140.1.1/24 … 10.140.12.1/24
fa0/24 fa0/23 fa0/0

core_ server core_sw_a core_ro


10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.3
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 73
Summary

• After completing this chapter, you should be able to perform the


following tasks:
Determine when to use a static or dynamic route.
Configure a static route on a Cisco Router.
Describe how distance vector routing protocols operate.
Configure the RIP and IGRP routing protocols on a Cisco router.
Use show ip route, show ip protocols, and other show and debug
commands to verify proper routing operation.

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 74
Review Questions
1. What is an advantage of using a static
route rather than a dynamic route?
What is a disadvantage?
2. What is the advantage of using IGRP
rather then RIP? What is a possible
disadvantage?
3. To scale up to very large IP networks,
what routing protocols are recommended?

Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 75
Session Number
Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 76