Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 46

BEE 4123

Electrical Machines & Drives

Chapter 3
Induction Motors
Module Outlines
 Induction Motor Construction
 Basic Induction Motor Concepts
 The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor
 Power and Torque in an Induction Motor
 Induction Motor Torque-Speed Characteristics
 Starting Induction Motors
 Speed Control of Induction Motors
 Determining Circuit Model Parameters
 Induction Motor Ratings
Induction Motor Construction
 The single-phase
induction motor is Power
Supply
the most
frequently used
Rotor
motor in the world.
 Most appliances, Stator
such as washing
machines and
refrigerators, use a
single-phase
induction machine Shaft
 Highly reliable and
economical
Induction Motor Construction
 Using amortisseur windings, no DC field circuit.
 Called “induction machines” because the rotor
voltage is induced in the rotor windings instead of
physically connected by wires.
 Mostly used as motor, rarely as generator.
 2 types of rotor – squirrel cage & wound rotors.
 Most motors use the squirrel-cage rotor because
of the robust and maintenance-free construction.
Induction Motor Construction
 Squirrel-cage rotor
Induction Motor Construction
Rotor bars (slightly skewed)

End ring

 Squirrel cage rotor


 This rotor has a laminated iron core with slots, and is mounted
on a shaft.
 Aluminum bars are molded in the slots and the bars are short
circuited with two end rings.
 The bars are slanted on a small rotor to reduce audible noise.
 Fins are placed on the ring that shorts the bars. These fins work
as a fan and improve cooling.
Induction Motor Construction
 Wound rotor
 Large or older motors use a
wound rotor with three phase
windings placed in the rotor
slots.
 The windings are connected in a
three-wire wye.
 The ends of the windings are
connected to three slip rings.
 Resistors or power supplies are
connected to the slip rings
through brushes for reduction of
starting current and speed
control.
Basic Induction Motor Concepts
The Development of Induced Torque
Maximum Net voltage Maximum
induced voltage induced current
BS ER IR
120 f e
nsync = eind = (v × B) ⋅ I
P Bnet
θ
Apply R
3-phase voltage
ω BR and BS rotate
to stator,
3-phase current at nsync , but rotor
flowing in stator BR turns at a slower
produces BS. speed.

τ ind = kBR × BS
Basic Induction Motor Concepts
The Concept of Rotor Slip
 The voltage induced in rotor bar depends on the speed
of the rotor relative to the magnetic fields.
 2 terms to define the relative motion:
 Slip speed -- difference between synchronous speed
and rotor speed:
nslip = nsync − nm
 Slip -- relative speed expressed on p.u. basis:
nslip ω sync − ωm
s= s=
nsync ω sync

nm = (1 − s)nsync
Basic Induction Motor Concepts
The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor
 Induction motor also called as rotating transformer due to
its induced voltage and current.
 Primary (stator) & Secondary (rotor).
 Unlike transformer, frequency not necessarily same at
secondary and primary.
 If rotor is locked, fr = fs or fe.
 If rotor at nsync, fr = 0.
 If rotor rotate in between the above speeds,
P
f r = sf e fr = (nsync − nm )
120
The Equivalent Circuit
 An induction motor has two magnetically coupled circuits:
the stator and the rotor. The latter is short-circuited.
 This is similar to a transformer, that the secondary side is
rotating and short-circuited.
 The motor has balanced three-phase circuits;
consequently, the single-phase representation is sufficient.
 Both the stator and rotor have windings, which have
resistance and leakage inductance.
 The stator and rotor winding are represented by a
resistance and leakage reactance connected in series.
The Equivalent Circuit
 A transformer represents the magnetic coupling between
the two circuits.
 The stator produces a rotating magnetic field that induces
voltage in both windings.
 A magnetizing reactance (XM) and a resistance
connected in parallel represent the magnetic field
generation.
 The resistance (RC) represents the eddy current and
hysteresis losses in the iron core.
 The induced voltage is depend on the slip and the turn
ratio.
The Equivalent Circuit
The Transformer Model of an Induction Motor

I1 jX 1 I2 IR jX R
R1 aeff
IM

VP RC jX M E1 ER RR

Stator Rotor
The Equivalent Circuit
Magnetization curve
φ
(Wb)
The curve is more
shallower because
Transformer
of the air gap in an
induction motor
Induction that increases the
motor reluctance of the
ℑ (A-turns) flux path. More
magnetizing
current is needed!
The Equivalent Circuit
The Rotor Circuit Model
 The magnitude of induced rotor voltage is directly
proportional to slip (s) of the rotor; largest during
locked-rotor and smallest during synchronous
speed with stator magnetic field.
E R = sE LR During locked-rotor

 RR is constant but XR is dependent of slip.


X R = ωr LR = 2πf r LR
The Equivalent Circuit
The Rotor Circuit Model
IR
jXR =jsXLR
 By fr=sfe,
X R = sX LR +
ER=sELR RR
-

 Rotor current,
ER E LR
IR = = Z R ,eq = RR / s + jX LR
RR + jX R RR / s + jX LR
The Equivalent Circuit
Final Equivalent Circuit (Per phase circuit)
 Referred rotor circuit to stator side (similar to
transformer – secondary referred to primary).
E1 = E R' = aeff E LR
VP = VS' = aVS
IR
IS I2 =
IP = =I S' aeff
a
Z S' = a 2 Z S 2  RR 
Z2 = aeff  + jX LR 
 s 
Transformer Induction motor
The Equivalent Circuit
Per-phase Equivalent circuit of induction motor

jX 1 R1 jX 2 I2

IM
I1
Vφ jX M Rc E1 R2/s

2
R2 = aeff RR
2
X 2 = aeff X LR
Power and Torque
 Transformer has electric power output from secondary,
but induction motor has no electric power output from
rotor as it is shorted out.
 Only mechanical power output from rotor.
PAG Pconv
Mechanical power

Air-gap power Pout =τ ω


τ ind ω m
load
Pin =√ 3VTILcosθ m

Pstray
Pfriction
PRCL (Pmisc. )
Pcore and
PSCL (Rotor
IR
2 (Core windage
(Stator copper
losses) losses
copper loss)
loss) RC
Power and Torque
jX 1 R1 jX 2 I2

IM
I1
Vφ jX M Rc E1 R2/s


I1 =
Z eq
1
Z eq = R1 + jX 1 +
1
GC − jBM +
R2 s + jX 2
Power and Torque
 The stator copper losses
PSCL = 3I12 R1
 The core losses
Pcore = 3E12GC
 The air-gap power
R2
PAG = Pin − PSCL − Pcore = 3I 22
s
 The rotor copper losses PRCL = sPAG

PRCL = 3I R2 RR = 3I 22 R2
Power and Torque
 The electrical power is then converted to
mechanical power, called Pconv or developed
mechanical power.
Pconv = PAG − PRCL Pconv = PAG − PRCL
2 1− s  = PAG − sPAG
= 3I 2 R2  
 s  = (1 − s ) PAG

 The output power,


Pout = Pconv − PF &W − Pmisc
Power and Torque
 The induced torque or developed torque,
Pconv
τ ind =
ωm
(1 − s ) PAG
=
(1 − s )ω sync
PAG
=
ω sync
Power and Torque
I1 jX 1 R1 jX2 R2 I2

(SCL) IM (RCL)
R2(1-s)/s

(Core loss) Rc jX M E1
(Pconv)

R2 1− s 
Rconv = − R2 = R2  
s  s 
Torque-Speed Characteristics
I1 jX 1 R1 jX2 I2

Vφ jX M E1 R2 /s

jX 1 R1 jX 1 R1

Vφ +- XM VTH jX M ( R1 + jX 1 ) jX M
VTH = VjX
φ
M ZTH =
R12 + ( X 1 + X M ) 2 R1 + j ( X 1 + X M )

Thevenin Equivalent Voltage Thevenin Equivalent Impedance


Torque-Speed Characteristics
jX TH RTH jX2 I2

+ E1 R2 /s
V TH
-

 Since XM>>X1, XM>>R1 and XM+X1>>R1,


XM  XM 
2
X TH ≈ X 1
VTH ≈ Vφ RTH ≈ R1  
X1 + X M
 X1 + X M 
Torque-Speed Characteristics
 From the circuit,
VTH VTH
I2 = =
ZTH + Z 2 RTH + R2 s + jX TH + jX 2

 The magnitude of I2,


VTH
I2 =
( RTH + R2 s ) 2 + ( X TH + X 2 ) 2
 The air-gap power,
2
R 3VTH R2 s
PAG = 3I 22 2 =
s ( RTH + R2 s ) 2 + ( X TH + X 2 ) 2
Torque-Speed Characteristics
 The rotor-induced torque,
PAG 3VTH2 R2 s
τ ind = =
ω sync ω sync [( RTH + R2 s ) 2 + ( X TH + X 2 ) 2 ]
Torque-Speed Characteristics
Typical induction motor torque-speed characteristic curve

Pullout torque
500

400 Starting
torque
300

200 Full-load torque


ll uf f τo dni%
(

100
) da ol

nsync
Mechanical Speed
Torque-Speed Characteristics
Torque-speed characteristic curve (extended operating ranges)

τ ma
400
x

Braking Motor region


region
nm
nsync 2nsync Mechanical Speed
ll uf f τo dni%
(
) da ol

Generator region

-800
Torque-Speed Characteristics
Torque and power converted versus motor speed
800 120
700
105
600
90
500
75
400
60
300
45

) Wk( r e wo P
200
30
100
( e uqr ot dec udnI

15
250 1000 2000
Mechanical speed (r/min)
Torque-Speed Characteristics
Maximum (Pullout) Torque
 Maximum torque occurs when the air-gap power
is maximum and it is equal to the power
consumed in load resistor, R2/s.
R2 2
= RTH + ( X TH + X 2 ) 2
s

 Maximum power transfers to R2/s when the


magnitude is equal to the magnitude of the
source impedance, Zsource.
Z source = RTH + jX TH + jX 2
Torque-Speed Characteristics
 The slip at pullout torque,
R2
smax =
2
RTH + ( X TH + X 2 ) 2

 The pullout torque,


2
3VTH
τ max =
2ω sync [ RTH + RTH
2
+ ( X TH + X 2 ) 2 ]
Starting Induction Motor
 Simply start the induction motors by connecting them
to the power line may cause voltage dip in the power
system.
 For wound-rotor induction motor, the insertion of
extra resistance increases the starting torque and
reduces the starting current.
 For squirrel-cage induction motor, the starting current
is depends on the rated power (Sstart in kVA) and the
rated voltage (VT in V),
S start = (rated hoursepower )(code letter factor )
S start
IL =
3VT
Starting Induction Motor
 The code letter factor (in kVA/hp) is given on the
nameplate. The example of code letters,
Nominal code Locked rotor,
letter kVA/hp
A 0-3.15
B 3.15-3.55
C 3.55-4.00
D 4.00-4.50
Starting Induction Motor
 Starting circuit is use to reduce the starting current,
but it also reduce the starting torque.
 Common approach is to reduce the motor’s terminal
voltage during starting by using autotransformers.
Line terminals

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 3
hp- eer hT
nart ot ua

Motor terminals
Speed Control of Induction Motors
 2 techniques to control the speed of induction
motor:
i. Vary the nsync (changing fe and pole)
ii. Vary the slip (changing VT and rotor resistance)

Changing Pole
 Old technique, greatly obsolete nowadays!
Speed Control of Induction Motors
Changing Line Frequency
 From the below equation,
VM
φ(t) = − cos ωt f ↓, φ ↑ Excessive magnetization
ωN P e current flow in the motor!

 To decrease the magnetization current, voltage


applied to the stator need to be decreased. Thus
maximum power rating of the motor must be
decreased to avoid motor overheat.
P = 3VL I L cos θ
Speed Control of Induction Motors
Changing the Line Voltage
 The motor torque is proportional to (Vapp )2.
 The changing of torque will vary the motor speed and
it can be analyzed from the torque-speed
characteristic curve.
 Sometimes used on small motors driving fan.

Changing Rotor Resistance


 It is applicable for wound-rotor induction motors only
by inserting extra resistances.
 The extra resistances seriously reduces the efficiency
of the motor.
 Used only for short periods.
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
 Why important? To determine the torque-speed curve
of the real induction motor.
 What parameters? R1, R2, X1, X2, and XM.
 What tests?
 DC Test – to find stator resistance, R1.
 No-load test – to find Znl = X1+XM.
 Locked-rotor test – to find RLR=R1+R2 and XLR=X1+X2.
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
DC Test
Current limiting resistor
A I1=I1,rated

R1 R1
VDC V
(variable)
R1

 DC voltage is applied to stator windings.


 Since it is DC, thus, no eind and I2, and jX=0.
 I1 is adjusted to I1,rated and voltage between terminals is
measured. The total resistance, 2R1,
VDC
2 R1 =
I DC
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
No-load Test IA
Variable P1 A
voltage, V IB
variable
frequency,
A No I A + I B + IC
three-phase load IL =
3
power source P2 A IC

PSCL = 3I12 R1 Vφ
Pin = PSCL + Prot Z eq = ≈ X1 + X M
Prot = Pcore + PF &W + Pmisc I1,nl
I1 I 1 R1 jX1 I2=0
RR jX
jX11 jX2 R2
+ 11

Since + +
Initial
Combining
R2(1-s)/s IM R F,RW,
equivalent
R V jX MM F&W=
& core

>>F&WR2and
VφφVφ R
RCC jXjX
and M >>
R2(1-s)/s X
R 2 (1-s)/s
M
circuit
R
RC2(1-s)/s
- -
>> X2.
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
Locked-rotor Test
IA
aA P
Adjustable
IBV
voltage,
adjustable
frequency,
bA Locked
three-phase rotor f r = f e = f test
power source IC
cA
P
I A + I B + IC
IL = ≈ I L,rated
3

I1 R1 I2
jX1 jX2
+
X M >> R2 + jX 2
Vφ RC jX M R2/s=R2
RC >> R2 + jX 2
- So neglect RC and X M
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
Locked-rotor Test
 One problem with this test: During normal
operating conditions, s of the motor is only 2-4%,
and resulting the frotor is in the range of 1-3 Hz.
 The fe,rated (50/60 Hz) does not represent the normal
operating conditions of the rotor.
 A typical compromise is to use a frequency (ftest)
25% or less of fe,rated, examples: 12.5 Hz and 15 Hz.
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
Locked-rotor Test
 The input power to the motor,
Pin = 3VT I L cos θ

 The magnitude of total impedance in motor circuit,


Vφ VT
Z LR = = '
Z LR = RLR + jX LR = Z LR cos θ + j Z LR sin θ
I1 3I L

RLR = R1 + R2 and '


X LR = X 1' + X 2'
 The total equivalent reactance at normal operating
frequency,
f rated '
X LR = X LR = X 1 + X 2
f test
Induction Motor Ratings
 Typical ratings on the nameplate of induction motor:
 Output power
 Voltage
 Current
 Power factor
 Speed
 Nominal efficiency
 NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers
Association) design class (Class A, B, C, and D).
 Starting code