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Microwave Network Planning Course

1 © Nokia Siemens Networks INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007


PREFACE

Objectives
The main objective of this course is to give rules and guidelines
for a correct and effective microwave network planning.

Target Group
Planned for Technicians, System Engineers and Network
Planners

Prerequisites
Telecommunication knowledge

2 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
1.1 SDH Network

High CAPACITY Network


MULTI-DROP

STM
STM1 -4

STM-2
RING MSC

STM1

TM1
S

STAR
Full Optical Collector Point

Mw BSC or Hub

Optical +MW ( backup)


3 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
1.2 PDH Network

Medium CAPACITY Network

16E
1 – 32
4E1 E1
1+0
1+0
8E1 BSC
RING
1+1

4E1
1+0 0
1 1+
4E

MULTI-DROP STAR

BTS or Hub

4 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
1.3 2G Mobile Network

Medium CAPACITY Network

Core
Network

SRA 4 SDH MS MS SRALxD -


STM 1 C C PDH

BSC
BS BS
C C
BTS

BTS
BTS BT BTS
S BTS BTS BTS BT BTS
S
Ring Star Multi-drop
PDH Nx2
5 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Mbit/s
Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
1.4 UMTS Network 3G (1 of 2)

– Microwave Eqt: PDH N x 2


Mbit/s

4E1
16E 8E1
1 4E1
4E1 4E
Hub 1
8E 16E1

8E
1

6 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
1.4 UMTS Network 3G (2 of 2)

– Microwave Network SRA 4 1 or 2 STM1

1 or 2
STM-1
Hub
Hub

1 or 2
STM-1 1 or 2
STM-1 1 or 2
STM-1

RNC
1 or 2
Hub STM-1
1 or 2
STM-1
Hub

7 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
1.6 PDH and SDH Layer example

8 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2 .1.1 MW Planning: Activities Flow chart

Specifications Data Acquisition

Preparation work

Link Data Link & Site data Input

LOS

Refining Work

END

9 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.1.1 MW Planning: Short service description

Activities

Preliminary study

NETWORK DESIGN Intermediate study

Frequency plan
Final study Link Description
Microwave Planning

Preliminary Activity

FIELD ACTIVITIES Intermediate Activity T.S.S

Final Activity L.O.S.

10 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.1.3 Networks Design ( 1 of 2)

PRELIMINARY STUDY
• Nominal MW connection plan, including equipment capacity and configuration in accordance to the customer requirements;

• The nominal plan must be evaluated, eventually modified and finally approved by the customer.

INTERMEDIATE STUDY
• Survey activity coordination.
• Updating and modification of the nominal plan according to the path survey results.

• Adjustment of equipment configuration and capacity according the location definition.

• Antenna’s height and positioning according to the data coming from site survey.
 Calculation of antenna azimuth.
• Calculation of power received level.

• Frequency plan.
• Insertion in a database of all MW connection data.

• Presentation in MapInfo A4 – A3 – A0 format.

FINAL STUDY
• Final network plan preparation.
• Final frequency plan and interference calculation considering all the sub-network.
• Performance and outage evaluation for all sub-network.

11 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.1.3 Network Design ( 2 of 2)

PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES
• Candidates evaluation for each site location.
• The locations that are defined or pre-selected during the planning phase of a network will be inspected with respect to their availability
and suitability. Every site generally has three possible candidates that are sometimes visited in different moments.

• Compilation of a form with all data related to the different location candidates and with an indication on the preferred one.
• Insertion in a database of all the information of the sites.

PATH AND SITE SURVEY


• Technical site survey for each selected locations.
• The activity of site survey is performed to verify the suitability of the sites to installation of the radio system and includes a preliminary
visibility check. It will be followed if required by a path survey during the hop planning to assure the RF path clearance.

• At the end of the survey all notes taken in field will be checked, translated and put in final form. The survey report, then, will be prepared
and forwarded to the Customer if required.

FINAL ACTIVITIES
• Control of the L.O.S foreseen in the nominal plan and other possibilities.
• For green field location (towers of 30-40 meters) crane will be rented.
• Insertion in a database of all the information of the antenna structure and visibilities.
• Search of repeaters or leased line request for those locations that do not have any visibility.
For all the locations, the project drawings will be reviewed and the possible changes will be added.
• Approval of the project drawings.

12 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.2 Technical Site Survey T.S.S.

•Description and Form


•Candidate evaluation process
•Participants & Scope of work

13 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.2.1 T.S.S.: Description
• Example of report form

The site survey activity is performed to verify


the suitability of the sites for the installation of
the radio system

A preliminary path survey to assure the RF


path clearance will be carried out:
of the type pass no-pass.

Check of foreseen L.O.S in the nominal plan.


Search of leased line for alternative radio
solution .

A report will be issued and will be forwarded


to the Customer if required.

Note: For green-field location (towers) a 30 - 40 m. crane


must be provided .

14 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.2.2 T.S.S.: Candidate evaluation process

Evaluation of BTS/BSC candidates


 The defined planned locations will be inspected verifying their availability and suitability.
Every site generally has three possible candidates generally surveyed in different moments
Indication of the preferred candidates , 1-2-3 ranking : 1 stands for not preferred, 3 as preferred.

 For each HUB area at least three candidates will be selected and analyzed.

 At the end of process candidates will be proposed to the Acquisition Department.

Example of ranking between three candidates


Departments or delegates Candidate A Candidate B Candidate C

Site Acquisition Dpt. 2 1 2


Civil Work Dpt. 1 2 1
RF Planning Dpt. 2 1 Rejected
MW Planning Dpt. 3 1 2
RANKING 8 5 Rejected
Candidate A has been selected

15 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.2.3 TSS : Participants and scope of work
Survey Organization
Involved Departments:

TSS TEAM

 Definition of BSC sites . Radio Network planning Site Acquisition

 Definition of Hub sites.

 Evaluation of BTS sites Microwave planning Civil Works

TSS REPORT

16 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
2.3 Equipment forecast: Bill of Material (BOM)

• BoM guidelines
• BoM by site priority
• BoM total
• BoM by site
• BoM by Infrastructure

17 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
3 - Line of Sight (LoS)

•Scope
•Example of report
•Example of Matrix of LoS
•Team Eqt

18 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
3.1 LoS : Scope

Verify the presence of obstruction in the link with a mirror flash

Verify the structure high

Verify the space on existing infrastructure

Site orientation with compass

Verify the presence of near obstacle

19 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
3.2 LoS : Report example

Site A Photo of Site A from Site B Profile

Site B Photo of Site B from Site A Polygonal

20 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
3.3 LoS : Visibility matrix

Positive LOS

Alternative LOS

Negative LOS

21 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
3.4 Team Eqt

1 LOS Form

2 Cluster Network

3 GPS : Type Garmin III plus 76S

4 Binocular : Type 10x70 (magnify x diameter)

5 Mirror : min 70x50cm

6 Mobile phone

7 Compass

8 20m tape

9 Digital Camera

22 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
Network Planning Course
NP02 - TYPOLOGIES

4 & 5 Typologies & Protections


23 © Nokia Siemens Networks INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.1 Mobile Networks Overview and associated issues

•Network Typologies
•Protection

24 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.1.1 PDH Network Typology

CONFIGURATION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

•Config. 1+0
•All E1 are protected through two different hops •Difficult to implement (all sites must be defined)
RING •Longest hops allowed (less performance
required for the single hops)

•More flexible than ring


(sites can be added later on) •Expensive use of Frequency channels
STAR •Config. 1+0

•Very flexible •Critical situation for first link


MULTIDROP •Config. 1+0 or 1+1

25 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.1.2 SDH Network typology

CONFIGURATION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

•Config. 1+0
•Up to 2xSTM1 •Difficult to implement (all sites must be defined)
RING •Every E1 is protected trough two different hops
•Longest hops allowed (less performance
required for the single hops)

•Config. 1+0 or 1+1 HSBY •Expensive use of Frequency channels


STAR •More flexible than ring (sites can be added later
on)

•Config. 1+0 or 1+1 HSBY •Critical situation for first link


MULTIDROP •Very flexible

26 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
3.2.4 Ad/disadvantages

ST
STAR ST
MULTIDROP ST
RING
M M M
1 1 1
f1 HUB f1 f1 HUB
A A HUB A
2xSTM1 3xSTM1

2xSTM1
1xSTM1

3xSTM1
1xSTM1
f2 f2
f3 f2 f2 f2

ST ST f1 ST
1 M 1 M 1 M
M 1 M 1 M 2xSTM1 1
ST ST ST
B C B C B C

27 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.2 Protection

•Frequency diversity
•Space diversity
•Path Protection
•Rain protection

28 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.2.0 Link Countermeasures

Rain Increasing the Rx Power


Antenna diameter

Link Issues Fading Frequency Diversity


Double Eqt & RF Channels

Reflection Space Diversity


Double Eqt & Antenna

29 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.2.1 Frequency Diversity

Protection against fast/deep fading


Statistically a deep fading is not coherent among near frequencies
f1

TX RX
1 f2 1

TX RX
2 2

Amplitude attenuation vs frequency at time t0

frequency
f1 f2

30 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.2.2 Space Diversity

Protection against the co presence of direct and reflected rays


The phase among the two rays varies till make null the vector sum
1st virtual link Rx status (to)
1st virtual Link

TX RX
1 2 virtual Link
nd
1

TX RX
1 1

2nd virtual link RX status (to)

Link effected : Sea/ lake paths , flat plane (flood subject) , rice fields

31 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.2.3 Path protection x Ring configuration

STM
-4

 A
MSC  B
B
 C
Branch Failure

3 STM4

A ring branch FAILURE doesn't affect the Data Transmission

32 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
4.2.4 Rain effects - countermeasures

Due to the characteristics of the rain phenomenon,


spatial extension and very wideband effects, the
classic frequency and space diversity countermeasures,
are not applicable.

Two possibilities remain :


A B
1. Fade Margin increase
2. Routing diversity selection α s
Diversity-gain is defined as
the difference between the attenuation measured
on one hop and the
simultaneous attenuation measured on the opposite hop.

Test gave the following results on the diversity-gain :

• Increases with the distance with a saturation around 12 km


• Decreases with the hop length
• Is independent from the frequency

33 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
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End of Paragraph

34 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
5 - Network dimensioning

•Ring & Branch configuration

35 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
5.1 Ring and Branch Applications

HUB sites HUB


HUB MTX
MW SDH Rings
MW + Fiber Optic SDH Rings
PDH traffic

1° Define the hub sites


HUB
HUB
2° Define the Major ring network

3° Define the secondary rings

4° Define PDH links

HUB
HUB

36 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
5.2 Network Set up Procedure

Procedure

1. Localize all the sites on the map


2. Localize the major Tx Site or the Switching station
3. Define the SDH Ring Network
4. Define the secondary SDH/PDH Ring Network
5. Connect the sites on the ring with Multi-drop Networks
6. Connect the remaining sites with Star Network

37 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
Next

Next Slide Pack


-
NP03 Topics

38 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP01 INTRODUCTION / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
Network Planning Course
NP03 - Topics

6 & 7 Frequency Plan & Equipment

39 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007


6 - Frequency Plan 40

•Channel raster
•Channels density
•Channels priority
•High-Low Technique

40 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.1 Raster for Analog System 41

Recommended for Analog Systems

Lower sub band Upper sub band


Polarization

1 3 5 7 N-1 1’ 3’ 5’ 7’ N-1’

Z X X X
H (V)
Fc F
V (H)
X X X Z

2 4 6 8 N 2’ 4’ 6’ 8’ N’
X/2 Y
RF Channel Band

Y= Central guard Band Z= Edge guard Band X= co-polar channel spacing

41 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.2 Raster for Digital System 42

Recommended for Digital Systems

Lower sub band Upper sub band


Polarization

1 3 5 7 N-1 1’ 3’ 5’ 7’ N-1’

H (V) Z X X X
Fc
F
Z
V (H)

2 4 6 8 N 2’ 4’ 6’ 8’ N’

Y
RF Channel Band

42 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.3 Raster example 43

Single polarization 4Tx +4Rx  4 Channels

Frequency shifter = 245 MHz

Central Band frequency = 7662.5 MHz

Recommendation ITU RF 385 6 Annex 4

43 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.3.1 Raster 38 GHz example 44

RASTER 38 GHz
2X2 LOW HI
81 37339.75 385

82 37343.25 386
44 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.3.2 Raster 23 GHz example 45

RASTER 23 GHz
2X2 LOW HI
35 22123.5 23

45 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
46
6.3.3 Channels density

fA
fA’
TR TR

16xE1
8xE1
2xE1
4xE1

frequency

Tx-Rx Rx -Tx

46 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.4 Frequency Assignment 47

Single Link

Once the Tx channel will be chosen among the frequencies into the Upper Band or in the Lower Band ,
the correspondent Rx channel is the opposite frequency.

f4
A B
f4’
Consecutive Links

Once the TX and RX frequencies for the first link has been assigned how to continue to proceed with the
frequency assignment ?
f4 B fx ?
A C
f4’ fx’

fy ?
How to choose the frequencies fx and fy ? fy’
D
The frequencies fx’ and fy’ are defined as soon the fx and fy frequencies are defined.

47 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.4.1 High Low Technique 48

A4

A1 A2 f3’
High

Low f4’ A3
High
f5’ A7
Low
f1’ Low

A5 f1’ A12
A6
High f4’ Low

f2’ A10 A11


A8 f4’ f3’
A9
f3’ Low High
f5’
High Low

48 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.5 INTERFERENCE 49

INTERFERANCE DEFINITION

Any un-desiderate signal received with the same frequency of the main signal interferes with it,
and it generates an interference (error bit) during the demodulation process

Fundamental helping actors for interference limitation

 ANTENNA

 RF FILTER Only for adjacent frequencies

 Link Polarization Only for opening angles < 60°

49 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.5.4 RF Interference 1st case 50

Interference [dB]= AΔd + Aφ AΔd=A(d1)-A(d2)

Main Link
f3 d1
Link 1
A(d1)
φ Aφ

Link
2
d2 f3
Inte
A(d2) rfer
ing
Link

Note : Equipment transmit the same Tx Power

50 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
6.5.5 RF Interference typical case 51

Interference [dB]= AΔd + Aφ + Aβ AΔd=A(d1)-A(d2)

Main Link
f3 d1
Link 1
Reducing Effects (improving)
A(d1)
Aφ φ 1 Hop clearance
2 Different Environmental hop status
Inte
rf e r 3 Automatic Transmitted Power Control
ing
d2 Virt
ual
hop
A(d2)
f3
Link 2 β

Interfering Link

Situation doesn’t change if the Link 2 works with cross polarization


Note : Equipment transmit the same Tx Power

51 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
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End of Paragraph

52 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
7 MW Equipment selection and Network Planning 53

Mw Equipment Selection

Ring Configuration & SDH Network SRA medium size antenna

Multipoint Configuration & PDH Network SRA L small antenna

Frequency Rasters

Ring Configuration & SDH Network limited number of frequencies in 7-11GHz

Multipoint Configuration & PDH Network reasonable number of frequencies in 15-18-23 GHz

Planning technique

High Low Technique & Polarization discrimination

53 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
7.1 SDH EQT 54

SRA EQT 2xSTM1 in cross polarization


Working Bands 7-11 GHz
Antennas 0.6-0.8-1.2-1.8m

54 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
7.2 PDH EQT 55

SRA L EQT 2x(1-4–8-16)E1 in 1+0 or 1+1 configuration single polarization


Working Bands 15-18-23-38 GHz
Antenna diameter 0.3-0.6-0.8-1.2-1.8 m

55 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP03 TOPICS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
Network Planning Course
NP04 - PathLoss

8&9 DTM & PATHLOSS


56 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
8 - DTM: Digital Terrain Maps 57

•Example of
•DTM Maps
•3D views
•Terrain profiles

Note DTM = DEM


DEM Maps
Digital Elevation Model

57 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
8.1 DTM: map 58

58 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
8.2 DTM and cartographic 59

59 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
8.3 Immediate terrain profile generation 60

60 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
8.4 Profile Rendering 61

A Digital Maps is a data file containing matrix points corresponding to terrain heights

The maps records points with a fixed minimum grid step.


Grid
Step

Real Profile

Selected Points

Stored Data (i.e.) 891 892 879 882 891 877 865 875

Rendered profile

Curve with minimum Grid Step Curve with 2 times Grid Step

61 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
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End of Paragraph

Note for instructor To more on MAPS go to : PL08 MAPS

62 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9 - Planning tool - Pathloss 63

•Description
•Calculation procedure
•Main feature
•Data insertion
•Terrain View
•Path Profile
•Interface calculation
•Reports

63 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9.1.1 Pathloss 4.0 : Description 64

 Pathloss 4.0 is a module for link propagation analysis.

 The tool-scope is the radio link performance prediction (quality and


unavailability) and the interference degradations calculation.

 Pathloss has been developed by Contract Telecom Engineering (CTE) in


Windows environment following SIEMENS procedure and knowledge. The
formulas are computed according to Rec. ITU-R P.530-8 and taking into
account SIEMENS consolidated experience.

 CTE commits himself to implement The equipment database is at


the future evolution of the SIEMENS care. SIEMENS is
recommendations. responsible to maintain and update
the equipment database.

64 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9.1.2 Pathloss 4.0 : Calculation Procedure 65

Equipment Geographical System


OBJECTIVES
Data Base Data Data

Flat Fade Margin Interference Path Clearance


Calculation Study Study

RAIN If If

Multi-path Diversity Improvement Diversity Improvement


CHANGES
( Flat ) ( Flat ) ( Selective )

Multi-path
( Selective )

QUALITY Objectives
Reached? NO
YES
Availability

FINAL RESULT

65 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9.1.3 Pathloss 4.0 : Main Features 66

Calculation of link performance

Interference analysis

Managing of high resolution digital maps in raster


format
Reflection and multi-path analysis

Antennas height optimization

Import/export of data in text format

Calculation method:
Geo-climatic factor (Rec. ITU-R P.530-8)
BER SES (ITU-T G.826)
Non-availability due to rain (ITU-R Rec. 530-8).
Non-availability due to rain in the worst month
(Rec. ITU-R P.841)

66 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9.1.4 Pathloss 4.0 : Data Input 67

Clicking on the
corresponding
network elements,
the following
parameters can be set:

Reliability options
Geo-climatic factor
Rain attenuation
Antenna
Wave-guide
Branching losses
Equipment
Frequency channels
Diversity

67 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9.1.5 Pathloss 4.0 : Terrain view 68

MOUNTAIN

HILL

FLAT PLAIN

Different color range correspond to different altitude range

68 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9.1.6 Pathloss 4.0 : Path profile 69

69 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007
9.1.7 Pathloss 4.0 : Interference Calculation 70

Three main type of interference mechanisms can be


individuated

Not correlated interferences


Partially correlated interferences
Correlated interferences

Simply ticking on the pop up windows:

70 © Nokia Siemens Networks Microwawe Network Planning - NP04 PATHLOSS / F.TADDEI / MAY 2007