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Petrology: Branch of Geology dealing with

the study of rocks. It includes-

a.Petrogenesis - origin and mode of

occurrences as well as natural history.

b. Petrography – dealing with classification

and description of rocks.
•Is a branch of geology, which deals with study of rocks (Petro=rock,

IGNEOUS -thin veener above -proportion is similar to
-most abundant the Sial and Sima that of Igneous rocks
-source is magma in Oceanic and -change of forms of
or lava Continental Igneoua &
Sedimentry. Due to
Primary Rocks Crusts
-secondary rocks Pressure and
Chemical Fluids
James Hutton (1727–1797), the eminent 18th
century gentleman farmer and founder of modern
geosciences, authored the concept of the rock
cycle, which depicts the inter-relationships
between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
The Rock Cycle
Examples of Recycling
• A volcano erupts, leaving large
igneous rocks scattered around.
• These rocks crumble (weather) over
time. Rain washes the sediments to
the a river in the valley.
• The river carries them to the ocean,
where the sediments are deposited
• The deposits build up and lithify
(become rock). Now the igneous
particles are included in the
sedimentary rock.
of fire”. In other words,
vent they were once molten
and upon cooling, the
land surfac
e magma (molten rock)
conduit crystallized into solid
magma rock. Igneous rocks may
form deep inside the
Earth or at the Earth’s
surface when a volcano
erupts. (*)

Anat omy of a Vol cano

Igneous rocks
 Magma and lava

 Igneous rocks are the products of

consolidation of magma or lava
Igneous rocks
Classification based on mode of
 Extrusive and Intrusive Igneous
Intrusive Igneous rocks: Plutonic (coarse
grained), Hypobasal (intermediate size grain)
 Extrusive Igneous rocks: Volcanic rocks (Fine
Mode of Occurrence of Igneous
The form, i.e. the size,Rocks
shape of igneous bodies
depends mostly on the following factors-

1.Mode of formation

2. Viscosity of magma, which in turn depends on

 Temperature and
 Composition of magma
3. In relation with the surrounding rocks
Physical characters of the invaded rocks
Weight of the overlying rock mass in case
intrusive bodies
Intrusive & Extrusive rock exhibit typical forms, which are characteristics to
Types of Igneous Rocks

• Intrusive- • Extrusive-
Form when Forms when lava
magma inside breaks through
the earth cools the earth surface
and solidifies. and solidifies
Rapid cooling near or at the
Earth’s surface, produces
Slow cooling deep beneath the many small crystals that are
Earth’s surface allows not readily seen by the
crystals to grow to large size unaided eye. This group of
(1/8” or more). These igneous rocks is called
crystals are easily visible and EXTRUSIVE and are
typically volcanic in origin.
distinguish this group of
Cooling may be so rapid that
igneous rocks as crystals do not have a
INTRUSIVE. chance to form and instead a
glass is produced. (*)
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
• Cool slowly,
• Slow cooling =
LARGE crystals
• Crystals are
visible to eye
• Example:
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
• Lava cools
quickly on
• Microscopic
crystals= FAST
• Often looks like
• Example:
• Lava often
cools quickly,
trapping air
(vacuoles) in
the rock.
• These air
bubbles make
the rock feel
very light.
• Example:
It’s igneous if you see….
1.Air pockets
2.Glassy and
3.Black color
and crystals
too small to
see with the
naked eye


TEXTURE Ultramafic
GRAINED Can see crystals. Usually C a n s e e c r y s t a ls w i t h Can see crystals — lots of Composed of 90-
gray or pink. Can see somewhat more light coloredflat shiny cleavage surfaces. 100% olivine
(You can see quartz - gray, glassy grains. feldspar grains than dark
different Can see feldspar - pink, colored minerals. A mix of light Usually black to greenish
minerals) buff, or white. and dark but with no quartz. Salt black. PYROXENITE:
& pepper appearance. Composed of pre -
do minately pyroxene


GRAINED Usually gray, pink, Light to dark gray. Normally has Usually black or rust red.
Composed of pre -
(You can NOT pastel. Might see small small black crystals May have some or lots of
do minately amphiboles
clear, rectangular crystals. gas bubble ho les, some
see crystals, for Sometimes banded. holes may be filled. May
(such as hornblende)
the most part) see small green grains.

OBSIDIAN: Black, red, green, GLASS

GLASSY PERLITE: Usually pearly gray. May contain Apache Tears.
PUMICE: LOTS of gas bubble ho les, very lightweight, will float on water. Abrasive.


(2 grain sizes)
TUFF: Compacted volcanic fragments generally less than 4mm diameter (ash)
FRAGMENTAL VOLCANIC BRECCIA: Mixed tuff and angular large (>32 mm diameter) fragments (*)
AGGLOMERATE: Mixed ash and rounded/sub-rounded large (>32mm dia meter) fragments
Igneous Rock Textures

Coarse-grained Fine-grained Porphyritic

Glassy Vesicular Pyroclastic

Igneous Rock Classification
Silicic Intermediate Mafic

Granite Diorite Gabbro

Rhyolite Andesite Basalt

Granite - intrusive
GRANITE is a coarse to medium-
grained rock that forms from
(*) the cooling of magma deep
within the Earth (intrusive). It
is made up mainly of varying
feldspar amounts of the minerals:
quartz, orthoclase, muscovite,
biotite and hornblende. The
name is from the Latin
granum, for “grains”.

Granite - intrusive
Graphic Granite




Diorite - intrusive
DIORITE is very similar to
granite, but is distinguished in
the hand specimen by the
absence of visible quartz.

Generally it has a salt and

pepper appearance (about ½
black and ½ white).

feldspar biotite (*)

Gabbro - intrusive
GABBRO is a coarse-grained
rock that is high is iron &
minerals (pyroxenes,
amphiboles, plagioclase
feldspar, olivene). The rocks
will be dark in color,
somewhat heavier than
granitic rocks and devoid of

Black minerals are primarily amphibole (like

hornblende) and plagioclase feldspar. (*)
Peridotite - intrusive
composed of 90-100%
olivine. As a result it is
characteristically olive-
greens in color.

This material is thought

to have originated in the
upper mantle of the
Earth. (*)
Rhyolite – extrusive
RHYOLITE name comes from the sized crystals develop. The
Greek rhyo, from rhyax, “stream volcanoes that produce
of lava”. It is formed when rhyolite are very explosive
molten rock with the same varieties such as Mt. St. Helens,
composition as a high silica Krakatoa and O’Leary Peak (AZ).
granite oozes (rhyolite is VERY Frequently it is banded due to
viscous and does not really flow) flow alignment of different
to the Earth’s surface; and associated minerals (quartz,
therefore cools quickly so only feldspar, mica, and hornblende).
microscopic- (*)
Rhyolite – extrusive

This is another sample of rhyolite.

This has a crystal of garnet that
grew after the rhyolite was
deposited. (*) This is an example of
banded rhyolite. (*)

If you look closely, you might see tiny clear phenocrysts of

feldspar. (*)
Andesite - extrusive
equivalent of
DIORITE. It tends
to be a darker gray
phenocrysts (*)
than rhyolite and
is often
porphyritic, with
visible hornblende.
Basalt - extrusive
is dark, fine-grained and often
BASALT occurs as thin to vesicular (having gas pockets).
massive lava. flows, The pockets may be filled with
sometimes accumulating to secondary minerals, e.g. quartz,
zeolite minerals, calcite, opal, etc.
thicknesses of thousands of and then it is called amygdaloidal
feet and covering thousands (a-mig-duh-loy-dal) basalt.
of square miles. The The name may have originated with
volcanoes that produce Pliny who used the Ethiopian word
basal for iron-bearing rocks. (*)
basaltic lavas are relatively
quiet, such as the Hawaiian
Islands volcanoes. Basalt
Basalt - extrusive
Vesicular (Scoria)

Gases released near the surface

of a lava flow create bubbles or
vesicles that are “frozen” in
stone. (*)
Basalt - extrusive

Peridotite xenolith

Basalt (*)

Peridotite (*)
Basalt - extrusive
Pahoehoe is a feature
that forms on the
surface of very fluid
basalt flows. Much
like the skin on a bowl
of tomato soup – the
surface in contact with
the air begins to
crystallize, while the
fluid lava below
continues to flow. This
drags the upper, still
plastic, surface into a
series of smooth
wrinkles. (*)
Obsidian - extrusive
OBSIDIAN is volcanic glass have cooled so quickly
(an acrystalline “solid” –
actually a supercooled that the minerals
liquid). Its glassy, lustrous could not develop and
and sometimes banded crystallize.
appearance makes it rather
easy to distinguish from all Colors vary from black
other rocks. It is composed to red, black & red
of the elements that make (mahogany), gray,
quartz, feldspar and iron/ green, iridescent,
magnesium minerals that
Apache Tears are little
nodules of obsidian.
Volcanic Breccia - extrusive
pyroclastic (fire-formed
fragments) and forms in
explosive eruptions. It is a
mix of large angular
fragments and small ash.
Often, the material is hot when
it comes to rest and cools
(welds) into a very hard rock.
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are composed of
particles derived from pre-existing rocks
or by the crystallization of minerals that
were held in solutions. A general
characteristic of this group is the layering
or stratification, as seen in the outcrop.
Those sedimentary rocks that CHEMICAL sedimentary rocks
are composed of particles of are the result of either
pre-existing rocks are precipitation of solids from
considered FRAGMENTAL solutions (like salt from
or CLASTIC. These water) or by organic
fragments show evidence of process, like shells from
transport – rounding of the marine organisms.
grains and size sorting.
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: are the secondary rocks which are
formed from the loose fragments or
detrital or clastic sediments produced
by weathering of older rocks.

 Almost 90% of earth crust is made up of igneous rocks

 75% of land surface on the earth is covered by thin
veneer of sediments or sedimentary rocks.
 These sediments are transported and deposited by river
water, wind or by movement of glacial ice.
Transportation is either in suspension or in solution.
 When settle down on the beds of ocean, river and lakes
undergo compaction/cementation for millions of years to
“Present is the key to the past”
 Helps in knowing depositional environment viz.
marine (ocean deposits), fluvial (river deposits),
aeolian (wind deposits), glacial, estuarine, Lacustrine
(lake deposits) etc.
 Helps in knowing the provenance (i.e. source area of
the sediments); change in climatic conditions i.e. in
knowing and understanding old climate=paleoclimate.
Clastic rocks Chemical & Organic rocks
 Sandstones
 Conglomerates
 Breccia
 Shale/mudston

Carbonate rocks Organic rocks

Form basically from Form due to

Evaporitic rocks decomposition of
CaCO3 – both by
chemical leaching and organic remains
These rocks are formed
by organic source under temperature
due to evaporation of saline
(biochemical) eg. and pressure eg.
water (sea water)
Limestone; dolomite Coal/Lignite etc.
eg. Gypsum, Halite
(rock salt)
Sedimentary rocks are secondary rock constituted of
Weathering is the most important process that operate in
the formation of sedimentary rocks.

Weathering take place by three methods-

•Mechanical disintegration, associated with physical


•Rock decomposition, associated with chemical factors

•Biological Weathering associated with the activities of

Sedimentary Rocks




Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks are those that represent the material record of environments in the
form of rock layers or strata that once existed on earth.
There are two (2) types of sedimentary rocks, based on their textures:
1. Clastic (also called “Detrital”)--
”) form from deposition of solid grains; classified based
on grain size: conglomerate, sandstone, and shale
2. Chemical -- form from minerals precipitating out of water and usually involves some
sort of chemical reaction; classified based on mineral content: limestone, dolomite
are examples.
 Importance of sedimentary rocks: Sedimentary rocks contain information about
what earth surface environments were like in the past and generally possess
natural resources including important fossil fuels.
Sedimentary Environments are places where sediments accumulate usually in nearly
horizontal layers. There are three (3) very general sedimentary environments:

1. Continental (on a landmass)

2. Near shore/shallow water (Transition between continental and ocean)
3. Deep marine water
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks due to integration of products of
weathering; so any classification to be acceptable must
take in to account:

a.Genetic aspects of sediments

b.Their textural characteristics
c.Mineralogical composition as well as their
d.Structural peculiarities
Structures of Sedimentary Rocks

Depending on the mechanism of formation of formation, structures are

classified in to –

Primary Structures: The primary structures are due to mechanical

action of current and show the following characteristics-
These structures show pale current condition
Rate of supply sediments
Mode of transportation
Environment of deposition
Top and bottom beds

Gravel Sand Silt Clay

>256-2 mm 2- 0.062 mm 0.062-0.004 mm <0.004 mm

Boulder: >256mm

Cobble: 64-256 mm

Pebble: 4-64 mm

Granule: 2-4mm
Fine gravel
Physical, chemical, and biological processes operating in the environment produce
diagnostic features in the sediments

Controls on sedimentary environments:

Sedimentary rocks may contain fossils
 Body fossils are lithified remains of the hard parts of organisms.
 Trace fossils are disruptions of sediment by animals moving through, or may be
imprints of animal's movement (e.g. dinosaur tracks)
Continental Sedimentary Environments
1. Glacial -- deposits may have wide range of grain sizes (poorly sorted). Bluffs made of
glacial till.
2. Fluvial -- migration of ripples/dunes on riverbed produces X-stratification in deposits.
3. Lacustrine -- deposition of mud thin layers on lakebed; in arid regions forms evaporites
4. Aeolian -- large wind-blown sand dunes produces thick cross-stratification in deposits
Marine (Nearshore) Sedimentary Environments (Transitional)
1. Deltas -- where rivers meet the sea -- clastic sediments are deposited
2. Beaches -- deposits of sand at the coast
3. Shelf -- may be sand and mud or carbonate sediments
4. Reefs -- build-up of limestone from coral skeletons
Marine (Offshore) Sedimentary Environments (Deep Sea)
1. Shelf -- carbonates
2. Slope and rise -- clastics and mixed carbonates/clastics
3. Deep marine -- finely layered mud

FRAGMENTAL: Composed of pieces of rocks and minerals

BRECCIA: Composed of large angular pieces and clay

LARGE PIECES CONGLOMERATE: Composed of large rounded pieces and
(Boulders,cobbles, clay

SMALL PIECES SANDSTONE: Looks sandy (may “shed” sand grains), feels
(sand) rough (like sandpaper); may be tan, white, red, gray.

SHALE: Has very thin layers; often black. May have fossils —
VERY SMALL PIECES usually impressions (no shell, but indentation with p attern of
(clay, silt, mud) shell) or carbonized film (as for plants). Has a dull luster. Is
soft. When tapped with a rod or on a table, it generally makes
a dull thunk.
Importance of
Sedimentary Rocks

Bauxite: ore of aluminum

Breccia - fragmental

A BRECCIA is made of
varying sizes of angular
fragments cemented
together. The name is
from the Italian word for
“broken stones” or
Many form as the result of
fault movement; others
form as the result of rapid
and short transportation,
such as landslides.
Conglomerate - fragmental
very similar to breccias,
but the fragments are
rounded. The name is
from the Latin
conglomeratus for
“heaped, rolled or
pressed together”.
These rocks form in alluvial
fans, stream beds and
pebble beaches.
Sandstone - fragmental
SANDSTONE is made up of fine-
grained particles (1/16 –2 mm). The
sand grains (often quartz) are
commonly cemented by silica,
carbonates, clay or iron oxides.
Sandstone is identified by its sandy
texture – which often translates into
a gritty feel.
Environments in which sandstones
form include beaches, sand bars,
deltas and dunes.
Coconino Sandstone,
the result of a Permian
age coastal dune field
Shale - fragmental
SHALE is a very common rock made of
silt and clay sized particles. It is
generally very thin-bedded and splits
along the bedding planes. In fact,
the name is probably from the Old
English scealu, “shell or husk”.
Normally gray to black, shale may be
brown to dark red, depending on the
amount of included iron oxide.
Shales form in quiet environ-ments,
such as lakes, swamps, deltas and Black shale, deposited in a offshore
offshore marine. basin in a Middle Cambrian sea.
Wheeler Shale with trilobite fossil
(Elrathia kingii)

Fish scales


CHEMICAL: Rocks are crystalline

LIMESTONES: Composed of calcite and all WILL FIZZ vigorously in acid

Crystalline — Looks sugary, usually gray or tan
Fossiliferous — Contains seashells (usually) or other aquatic organisms
Travertine — Looks sugary with bands of various colors
Chalk — White and soft (comes off on hands)
Coquina — Contains almost nothing but seashells or seashell fragments
CHERT: Cryptocrystalline QUARTZ
Very fine — can NOT see crystals
Waxy luster
Conchoidal fracture (breaks like glass)
Very hard — will easily scratch glass
May be ANY COLOR (Red = Jasper, Black = Flint, includes
Silicified Wood)
GYPSUM: White, gray, clear
Very soft — you can scratch with fingernail
Clear sheets, fibrous or sugary
ROCK SALT: White to clear — cubic shape
Soft — you can scratch it with fingernail
Tastes like table salt (IT IS TABLE SALT!)
COAL: Black; Brittle; Lightweight
May contain plant fossils
Varieties: peat, lignite (incl. jet), sub-bituminous, bituminous

Very soft (comes off on your hands)
Will NOT fizz in HCl acid (unlike chalk)
Limestone - chemical
LIMESTONE is  Manufacture of lime and
composed primarily of Portland cement & to
neutralize smokestack
calcite. Generally it is gases.
dense, fine-grained,  Finely ground, used as a
functional filler in
and usually white to products such as paint,
countertops & plastics.
dark gray. Its most
 The dust on chewing gum
distinguishing feature is ground limestone.
is its solubility in  Mild abrasive additive to
weak hydrochloric or  Soil conditioner
acetic acid  Flux in processing iron
and copper ores.
accompanied by brisk
 Building and ornamental
effervescence. stone.

The environment of
deposition if generally
warm, shallow seas.
LIMESTONE - chemical Coquina

Pleistocene, Rocky Point,

Redwall Limestone

CHERT - chemical
CHERT is crypto-crystalline
quartz. It is often the result of
the dissolution of volcanic ash
and is sometimes found in
extensive beds, such as the
novaculite of Arkansas.
It has waxy luster, is translucent
and fractures conchoidally.
Chert can be any color, but
extensive beds are generally
white to gray.
GYPSUM - chemical
Satin Spar
GYPSUM (calcium sulfate) is found in
geographically wide-spread deposits
resulting from the evaporation of a
body of water, such as ocean basin
or playa lake.
It is soft (H=2) & usually white to gray.
Three varieties are: Alabaster, Satin
Selenite Spar and Selenite.
Gypsum is mined for use in wallboard
and plasters, as an agricultural
amendment and to control the
set/cure time of Portland cement.

Gypsum & Anhydrite (water-less

calcium sulfate), Carlsbad, NM
ROCK SALT - chemical
ROCK SALT (halite – sodium
chloride) is also a deposit
resulting from evaporation of
a marine basin or playa lake.
It has cubic cleavage and tastes
Rock salt is used as a source of
chlorine and sodium, as a food
supplement, in water
softeners and as a road de-

Halite Trona, CA
COAL - chemical
COAL is considered a rock,
although it is not composed of
minerals, but rather the
decomposed remains of large
volumes of vegetation that
accumulated in a wet, low
oxygen environment, such as a
swamp or marsh.
Peat, Lignite and Sub-Bituminous &
Bituminous are sedimentary
varieties of coal and are used as

Coal (sub-bituminous) out of the Cretaceous Dakota

Formation of north-eastern Arizona.
DIATOMITE - chemical
DIATOMITE also known as
diatomaceous earth, is
composed of the siliceous
shells of microscopic alga
called diatoms. It is light
weight and is generally
Diatomite is used as an
abrasive, insecticide,
San Manuel, AZ filtering medium, and
paint “flattener”.
Metamorphic Rocks
•• Metamorphic Rock
"Meta"= Change (Grk)
"Morph"= form (Grk)
form (Grk)

a --rock that has been changed

from its original form ( parent) by
heat ,pressure, andfluid activity
into a
into a new
new rock
rock ((daughter
Metamorphic rocks
 When rocks are baked by heat of molten magma or
squeezed by the movements of huge tectonic plates or
by the pressure of overlying thick succession of rocks

 They are altered or changed beyond their recognition

i.e. change in Chemical composition, texture and


Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphism is the mineralogical and

structural adjustment of solid rocks to physical
and chemical conditions which have been
imposed at depths below the surface zone of
weathering and cementation.
Important feature of metamorphic change-

The bulk chemical composition of the metamorphic rock is the same as that
rock from which it is formed. Thus metamorphic change are isothermal

The textural and structural characteristics of the metamorphic rocks are the out
come of the structure and structure of the pre-existing rocks and temperature
and pressure conditions of the metamorphic change .

The change in metamorphism take place in an essentially solid medium

Agents of Metamorphism

1.Temperature – 200 to 1200 0C

2. Pressure
a.Hydrostatic or uniform pressure
b.Directed pressure or stress

3. Chemically active fluids

Following type of metamorphism are the result of temperature-
Pyro metamorphism- At 800 to 1000 0 C in the immediate vicinity of

Contact Metamorphism- It occurs around larger intrusive at

comperatively lower temperature.

Noraml contact metamorphism- When rock are simply crystallised without

new mineral formation.

Metasomatic metamorphism- The composition of the rock is vastly modified

depending upon the addition of material from magmatic emanantions.

Injection Metamorphism- With intrusion of magma or its residual liquid may

alter the intruded rock substantially.

Auto-metamorphism- It is the mineralogical adjustment of an igneous

assemblage to the falling temperature as the body of the igneous rock cools.
Retrograde Metamorphism- Where mineralogical rearrangement of
high temperature assemblage to a low temperature on take place.

Regional Metamorphism- Caused by extreme pressure and heat.

Happens over wide “regions
Uniform Pressure- It is hydrostatic pressure increase with depth.
Uniform pressure and temperature can both dominate at greater depth.
There is reduction in volume of rock and change in mineralogical
composition . It is known as plutonic metamorphism.

Load Metamorphism- It is due to vertically acting stress of rock

masses at high temperature.

Directed Pressure: It is produced due to orogenic movements. It

dominates at or near the surface. Its result in crushing and granulation of
minerals without formation of new minerals. Dynamic or cataclastic
Chemically Active Fluids: These are from the following sources-
Meteoric water & Juvenile water
Grade of Metamorphism-

Epi Zone- It is a zone of low grade metamorphism. Temperature is

100 to 300 0 C and pressure is moderate. It is characterized by the
presence of hydrous minerals.
Minerals-Seicite, Muscovite, chlorite, biotite, talc, actinolite, epidote, andalusite
Rocks- Slate, phyllite, chlorite-schists, muscovite-schist, biotite -schist

Meso Zone- Medium grade metamorphism. Temperature is 300 to

500 0 C and pressure is moderately high. It occurs at an intermediate
depth i.e. between 5 to 10 miles.
Minerals- Biotite, andalusite, cordierite, quartz, hypersthene, almandine,
orthoclase, illieminite.
Rocks-Phyllite and mica-schist

Keta Zone- High grade metamorphism. Temperature is 500 to 650 0 C

and pressure is quite high. It occurs at the depth of 9 to 13 miles.
Minerals- Biotite, Alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz. Garnet, silliminite, kynite
Rocks- Gneisses and hornfelse
 Non-Foliates are metamorphic
rocks that have no cleavage at
 Quartzite and marble are two
examples of non-foliates
quartzi marb .
te le

FOLIATED: Rocks have layers or banding

SLATE: Rock breaks into very thin layers

Beginning to look polished; Is harder than shale
Cannot see crystals
Black , gray or red
PHYLLITE: Like slate, but shinier (“phyllitic sheen” — similar to satin)
SCHIST: Very shiny — you can SEE CRYSTALS (usually MICA)
Is layered
May have crystals (of garnet, tourmaline, etc.) growing
with the mica
GNEISS: Crystalline
Black & White BANDING (due to segregation of minerals)
SLATE - foliated
SLATE is derived from shale. It is a
dense, microcrystalline rock, but
one in which parallel planes are
very evident in its slaty foliation –
a feature resulting from the
alignment of clay and mica
minerals,which allows it to split
readily into sheets. It may be
gray, black, green or red.
Uses include roofing, flagstone, pool
table tops and “blackboards”.

Note the relatively dull luster of slate.

PHYLLITE - foliated
PHYLLITE is somewhat more
metamorphosed than
slate. The platy crystals of
mica have grown and the
rock displays a subtle,
satiny shine referred to as
“phyllitic sheen”. The
name comes from its leaf-
like (many fine layers)
Note the phyllitic sheen.
SCHIST - foliated
SCHIST is medium to coarse-grained,
crystalline, with prominent parallel mineral
orientation. Typically, it is predominately
muscovite mica, which lends a silvery white
to gray sparkly appearance. It is not
unusual for accessory minerals (such as
garnets, staurolite, tourmaline) to grow in
the rock.
Schist is added to clay mixtures as a
strengthening material in vitreous pipe (red
Crumpling of schist due to
sewer) and clay roof tiles.
pressure and collapse of
mica crystals

– note

Gneissic granite –
separation of dark
& light minerals is

GNEISS - foliated
just beginning

Well banded gneiss

GNEISS formed under
conditions of high
temperatures and
pressures at great depth Augen = quartz
pebble resistant to
during regional compression
metamorphism. It is
characterized by foliation
expressed as black and
white banding. Because
the rock becomes plastic,
the banding is often Augen Gneiss
contorted (squiggly).

kink in gneiss
metamorphism of shale
SHALE is the most common sedimentary rock.
Through the agents of metamorphism it changes to rocks that
are stable at higher temperatures and pressures.
These changes take place in the solid state.


MELTING Produces

Slate Schist
Shale Phyllite Gneiss
Increasing Temperature and Pressure

NON-FOLIATED: Shows NO layers or banding

MARBLE: Sugary looking

Will fizz in HCl (acid)
Often is multi-colored, may be white
Soft — will not scratch glass
QUARTZITE: Very dense
MAY look a bit sandy
Very hard — will easily scratch glass
METACONGLOMERATE: Looks like sedimentary conglomerate,
BUT it is harder (BREAKS THROUGH PEBBLES) and often the
pebbles are squished & aligned (it is at this point foliated)
SERPENTINITE: Composed of members of the serpentine family
(includes chrysotile asbestos)
Generally light greenish gray to greenish black
Waxy luster
Often exhibit curved and slickensided surfaces
MARBLE – non-foliated
MARBLE is metamorphosed limestone or
dolomite. The colors can vary from pure
white to gray, green, yellow, brown,
black, red or any combination thereof,
depending on the ‘impurities’ in the
parent limestone. Bands or streaks
result from plastic flow during extreme
deformation, due to high pressure and
It is calcite or dolomite and will fizz in weak
Marble is used for building facades, floors,
countertops, statuary, landscaping,
paving/roofing, poultry grit, and as
Aguila, AZ filler/extender for paint, plastics, paper
and adhesives.

Hewitt Canyon, AZ
QUARTZITE – non-foliated
QUARTZITE is metamor-
phosed quartz sand-stone.
It is a very dense,durable,
massive, microcrystalline
rock (but still may retain a
slightly sandy look). It can
be any color, but tends to
be white, tan or pink.
SERPENTINITE – non-foliated
SERPENTINITE is composed of
one or more minerals in the
serpentine family. It is common
where wet basalts or mantle
rocks are metamorphosed, such
as at convergent boundaries.
Its green colors, waxy luster, often
associated asbestos and
common slickensided surfaces
are clues to its identity.


Salt River Canyon, AZ

Conglomerate metamorphosed conglomerate. It
retains its pebbly appearance, but
while a sedimentary conglomerate will
break around the pebbles, a
metaconglomerate will break through
the pebbles.

If temperatures are high enough in the

presence of pressure, the pebbles
may become squished or flattened
and will be elongated parallel to each
other (becomes foliated).