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WITHOUT LEAVES,

WITHOUT BUDS, WITHOUT


FLOWERS:
YET THEY FORM FRUIT.
AS A MEDICINE, AS A FOOD,
AS A TONIC:
THE ENTIRE CREATION IS
PRECIOUS.
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Important wild edible
mushrooms in Pakistan
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plack morels, à  




Appears in Northern
Areas after snow
melts.
60-70 tons of morels
exported annually.
hamiri, Ê 
 



Wild edible
mushroom of
paluchistan, used
for eating by local
inhabitants.
Khumbi
Podaxis pistillaris
Importance
 It is not land dependant as it is
grown indoor.
 Medicinal and nutritional value
 Grown on waste materials
 Can be developed as cottage
industry
 Source of income
 Export potential
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ëow do mushrooms grow?
What is the mushrooms industry?
Why grow mushrooms?
What knowlelge and training are necessary?
What problems may be consider in growing
and marketing.
Where can you get for further information?
ë 

ΠIn nature Mushrooms appear infrequently.


Fungi which can produce mushrooms do so
only when nutritional and environmental
conditions are right.
ΠMushroom cultivation requires firstly the
preparation of substrates and secondly
management of growing environments.
Present Status of Mushroom Industry in
Pakistan

ΠAt present, mushrooms are generally


cultivated in underdeveloped agricultural
areas using simple low-cost methods mostly
under natural conditions with low labour
costs, frequently as a part time activity.
Standard methods for Ê 
 cultivation
are adopted for small-scale production in
some parts of Pakistan.
  

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 Button mushroom, Ê   
 Oyster, Ô 
 species
 Shiitake, Ú  

 Straw mushroom,
 

 
 Wood¶ear, Ê  species
 Winter mushroom, V   
   
  
 



ΠMushroom production requires considerable


capital outlay.
ΠYou have to consider whether to convert
existing buildings for mushroom growing.
ΠThis also depends upon the type of
production system to be adopted
 
 

ΠFor the purchase of spawn


ΠFor the purchase of substrates for the
preparation of composts.
ΠCapital investment for the construction of
building and purchase of machinery.
ΠEnergy costs
ΠLabour costs
Ô   


Which production system you


will choose? Some requires
high investments, other less,
but you must exceed a break
even yield to be profitable.
Training
 

   

  

 

   
   
 


 

Problems
 Pests and diseases can be
devastating and their control in
mushroom is a constant cost which is
involved and complicated.
 Growers cannot depend chemical
pesticides as the crop is extremely
sensitive.
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Œ wyster Mushroom Ô   Species

Œ putton Mushroom, Ê 
 

  



Œ Shiitake Mushroom, Ú


  

ΠStraw Mushroom, 


 
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ΠSource of proein (25-35% on dry wt., basis)


ΠSource of vitamin p,C and niacin
ΠVery low fat contents
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ΠCotton Waste
ΠPaddy straw
ΠWheat straw
ΠCotton poll locules
ΠDry banana leaves
mrowing Techniques

 

 
 

   
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The Straw or other materials


are chopped and partly
shredded and then mixed with
water. The optimum water
content is about 70%.
Soaking and fermentation of
cotton waste

 Cotton waste is soaked in water.


 5% wheat straw may also be mixed.
 Lime 2% is added.
 The mixture is piled up and covered
with plastic sheet for 4-
4-6 days.
 
Fermentation
 
   

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ëeat treatment

  
  

 In order to destroy the vegetative


form of competing microorganisms,
the substrate is subjected to
sterilization or pasteurization.
ëot water treatment

Wheat or paddy straw can be treated


with hot water (65°
(65°C ± 5°C) for 10
minutes to one hour. The excess
water is drained off and discarded.
Steaming in drums

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Substrate filled bags or
containers are placed in a
room. Steam is introduced
into the room from steam
generator and the bags or
containers are kept at 58-
60°C for 4-6 hours.
Pasteurazation by steam
generator
Pasteurization: Inner view
 
Mixing of spawn into
the substrate is
called spawning
 
ΠAfter the heat treatment is completed and the
substrate has cooled down to 20-25°C it can
be inoculated.
ΠPure culture grain spawn is commonly used.
The quantity of spawn can be varies from 1-
1.5% on the wet weight of the substrate.
Method of spawning
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Tying
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The spawned bags are then kept


preferably in a dark room until the
mycelium has fully penetrated the
substrate downward. It takes about 3-
4 weeks.
During spawn running stage the
temperature is ranged between 25-
28°C.
6  
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ΠFructification or fruit-body formation is started


as soon as the substrate is fully impregnated
with mycelial growth.
ΠVentilation, temperature and relative humidity
play important role.
Πpy means of ventilation the temperature is
decreased to desired level.

   
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The optimum temperature for


pin--head formation and
pin
development of fruit-
fruit-body of
different Ô 
 species is
ranged between 16-16-26°
26°C.
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Production
 Production depend on the types of
substrates used, environmental
control systems and personal
experience.

 The yield varies between 25-


25-100%
calculated in proportion to the dry
weight of the substrate,
Pin head formation
Mushroom development
Picking stage
  
Vertical containers
Cropping
Cropping
Cropping
Cropping
  



 
 
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Pink oyster, 

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in plastic
bottles
wyster Mushroom Farm, orea
Inside view
Mushroom growing

 
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ëarvesting
 Oyster mushroom
should be
harvested before
the mushrooms
show slightly
curled edges.
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Compost preparation
Pasteurization
Spawning
Spawn running
Casing
Strategies for pin-head formation
Management of crop and harvesting
 
  
  
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 
3   
 
 When
horse manure is used as basic
ingredient or cereal straw is
gathered from horse stables.
  3   
 
:: It refers to
compost using no horse manure.
 


Composting is a process of microbial
decomposition.
Microbes present in the compost
need only the addition of water to
become active. Nutrients are also
added to enhance their growth.
The supplements provide nitrogen
and carbohydrates for microbial
activity.
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Completion of spawn running
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Where you can go for help?

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