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FAULT LEVEL

CALCULATIONS

(As per IS 13234 : 1992 &


IEC 60909 : 1995)
WHAT IS FAULT LEVEL?

FAULT LEVEL AT ANY


GIVEN POINT OF THE
INSTALLATION IS THE
MAXIMUM CURRENT THAT
CAN FLOW IN CASE OF S/C
AT THAT POINT
PURPOSE OF FAULT LEVEL
CALCULATIONS
• FOR SELECTING S.C.P.Ds OF
ADEQUATE S/C BREAKING CAPACITY

• FOR SELECTING BUSBARS, BUSBAR


SUPPORTS, CABLES &
SWITCHGEARS, DESIGNED TO
WITHSTAND THERMAL &
MECHANICAL STRESSES BECAUSE
OF S/C

• TO DO CURRENT BASED
DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN CBs
FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS

TYPES OF FAULTS

SYMMETRICAL ASYMMETRICAL
THREE PHASE FAULT LINE TO LINE
DOUBLE LINE TO
EARTH
LINE TO EARTH
SOURCES OF SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENTS
ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEMS

D.G SETS

CONDENSERS

MOTORS
NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT
SOURCE : UTILITY SYSTEM
THE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WILL
CONSIST OF FOLLOWING COMPONENTS

THE AC COMPONENT WITH CONSTANT


AMPLITUDE

THE DECAYING DC COMPONENT


NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT WAVEFORM
CURRENT

TOP ENVELOPE

DECAYING DC COMPONENT
2√ 2 IK ´´

IP

2√2 IK = 2 √2 IK''
A

TIME

BOTTOM ENVELOPE
CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS
WHAT ?
 TYPE OF SHORT CIRCUIT : THREE PHASE BOLTED SHORT
CIRCUIT
 IMPEDANCES OF BUSBAR/SWITCHGEAR/C.T. /JOINTS ARE
NEGLECTED
 TRANSFORMERS ARE CONNECTED TO INFINITE BUS ON H.T.
SIDE
 TRANSFORMER TAP IS IN THE MAX. POSITION
 S/C CURRENT WAVEFORM IS A PURE SINE WAVE
 DISCHARGE CURRENT OF CAPACITORS ARE NEGLECTED
CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT

1 . 05 * LINE VOLTAGE
I S/C =
√ 3 * ( ZTR + Z CABLE )

% Z * 10 * KV2
Z TR =
KVA
(in ohms)
CASE STUDY
STEP 1 : SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
TRANSFORMER STANDBY GENERATOR
1600kVA G
PCC 1250kVA

11 ° ) 12 ° )
° °

°)
°
13
21 ° ) °) F1 °) °)
° ° ° °

350A 300A 300A

MCC
°
31
°
)
°
° ° ° °
F2 °

M1 M2 M3 M4

50HP 100HP 30HP 150HP


STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA

TRANSFORMER : 11/0.433 KV
1600 KVA
%R = 0.94
%X = 5.46
%Z = 5.54
STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA

CABLE : R = 0.062 Ω /KM


X = 0.079 Ω /KM
LENGTH OF CABLE, 21 TO 31= 100m

INDUCTION MOTORS : M1, IrM = 200A


M2, IrM = 135A
M3, IrM = 135A
M4, IrM = 200A
STEP 3 : CALCULATION OF RT &
XT
10 (%R)(SECONDARY KV)2
 RT =
KVA
10 (0.94)(0.433)2
= = 0.001102 OHMS
1600

 XT = 10 (%X)(SECONDARY KV) 2

KVA
10 (5.46)(0.433)2
= = 0.006398 OHMS
1600
STEP 4 : CALCULATION OF RL &
XL

 RL = 0.062 × 0.1 = 0.0062 OHMS

 XL = 0.079 × 0.1 = 0.0079 OHMS


STEP 5 : CALCULATION OF ‘Z’
UP TO THE POINT OF FAULT
 TOTAL ‘Z’ UP TO FAULT LOCATION F1

= √ (RT)2 + (XT)2 = √ (0.001102)2 + (0.006398)2

= 0.00649 Ω
STEP 5 : CALCULATION OF ‘Z’
UP TO THE POINT OF FAULT

 TOTAL ‘Z’ UP TO FAULT LOCATION F2

= √ (RT + RL)2 + (XT + XL)2

= √ (0.007302)2 + (0.01430)2

= 0.01606 Ω
STEP 6 : CALCULATION OF RMS
VALUE OF S/C CURRENT AT THE
POINT OF FAULT
c Un
 IK″ AT FAULT LOCATION F1 =
√3 Z
1.05 × 415
=
√3 × 0.00649

= 38765 A OR 38.77 kA
STEP 6 : CALCULATION OF RMS
VALUE OF S/C CURRENT AT THE
POINT OF FAULT

c Un
 IK″ AT FAULT LOCATION F2 =
√3 Z
1.05 × 415
=
√3 × 0.01606

= 15665 A OR 15.67 kA
STEP 7 : CALCULATION OF
MAKING CAPACITY AS PER
STANDARD IEC 60947-2
Short-circuit Power factor Multiplying
breaking factor
capacity (kA)
4.5<= I<=6 0.7 1.5
6< I<=10 0.5 1.7
10< I<=20 0.3 2.0
20< I<=50 0.25 2.1
50< I 0.2 2.2
STEP 8 : CALCULATION OF PEAK
VALUE OF S/C CURRENT AT THE
POINT OF FAULT
 iP AT FAULT LOCATION F1 = 2.1 × 38.77

= 81.41 kA (PEAK)

 iP AT FAULT LOCATION F2 = 2 × 15.67

= 31.34 kA (PEAK)
CALCULATION OF X AND R FOR
GENERATOR
• The value of xd″ will be given in percentage terms.
• Calculate xd″ in ohms.
• Calculate R in ohms as per data in standard:
• Rg =0.15 xd″ for generators less than 1000V
• Rg =0.07 xd″ for generators up to 100MVA
• Rg =0.05 xd″ for generators 100MVA and above.
• Apply correction factor and recalculate R and X.
• Find Z and use in the formulae.
THANK YOU