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MASS NUMBER = total number of protons and

Atomic Structure 7 neutrons in the nucleus


Li
3
ATOMIC NUMBER = number of protons (also equals
Sub-atomic particles
ELECTRONS number of electrons for neutral atoms, but not for ions!)
(orbit the nucleus NB Number of neutrons = MASS NUMBER – ATOMIC NUMBER
in shells or energy Isotopes
levels) • All atoms of a particular element must have the same number of protons
in their nuclei, but the number of neutrons can vary
• Isotopes of an element have the same ATOMIC NUMBER (ie the same
NUCLEUS
number of protons), but different MASS NUMBERS (because they have
(contains protons
different numbers of neutrons)
and neutrons)
• Isotopes have different physical properties but they always have the same
Properties of the particles chemical properties (because they have the same number of electrons)
Relative mass Relative charge
Electron arrangement
• Electrons are arranged in shells (energy levels) around the nucleus. The first
Proton 1 +1
shell (the lowest energy level) can hold a maximum of two electrons, and the
Neutron 1 0
next two shells a maximum of eight.
Electron Very small -1
• The number of shells occupied is equal to the period number
• The number of electrons on the outer shell is equal to the group number
• between a metal and a non-metal Ionic Bonding
• involves the TRANSFER of electrons forming IONS
• ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas • between non-metals Covalent
• metals LOSE electrons and become POSITIVE ions • involves the SHARING of electron pairs in order to achieve a full outer shell of electrons
Group 1: lose 1 electron and become 1+ ions e.g. Na+ • one shared pair is a single covalent bond, two shared pairs makes a double bond etc
+ • covalent bonds are strong bonds
Na Na

2, 8, 1 [2, 8]+

Group 2 lose 2 electrons and become 2+ ions e.g. Mg2+


H-H Cl-Cl H-Cl O=O
• non-metals gain electrons and become NEGATIVE ions
Group 7 gain 1electron and become 1- ions e.g. F-
-
F F

2, 7 [2, 8]-
CH4 NH3 H 2O
Group 6 gain 2 electrons and become 2 ions e.g. oxide O
- 2-
methane ammonia water
• there is a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely
charged ions and this is called an ionic bond Metallic
+ - • the electrons in the highest occupied energy levels (outer shell) of metal atoms are
Na DELOCALISED and so free to move through the whole structure
• this corresponds to a structure of positive ions with electrons between the ions holding
• Other examples: sodium chloride (NaCl)
them together by strong electrostatic attractions
2+ xx 2-
xx

Mg O
xx
magnesium oxide (MgO)
- 2+ -
Ca

calcium chloride (CaCl2)


• Ionic compounds have regular structures Ionic Structure and properties
(GIANT IONIC LATTICES) in which there are strong
electrostatic forces in all directions between
• Covalent substances fall into two categories with respect to structure: Covalent
oppositely charged ions. SIMPLE MOLECULES and GIANT STRUCTURES
(i) Simple Molecules e.g. water, methane, ammonia, oxygen, hydrogen, chlorine etc
• these have relatively low melting points and boiling points because only weak forces of
attraction between molecules (intermolecular forces) need to be overcome when the substance
melts or boils (this requires little energy). The covalent bonds are NOT broken.
• these do not conduct electricity because the molecules do not have an overall electric charge

(ii) Giant structures e.g. diamond, graphite, silicon dioxide


• Ionic compounds therefore have high melting points
• these have very high melting/boiling points because the atoms in these giant structures are linked
and high boiling points (a lot of energy is needed to
by many strong covalent bonds which must be broken when the substance melts or boils
break the many strong ionic bonds)
(NB MgO has a much higher m.pt than NaCl because In diamond, each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds with other carbon atoms
of increased charges on the ions (2+, 2- versus 1+, 1-)) Diamond is very hard
• When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds
conduct electricity because the ions are free to move In graphite, each carbon atom bonds to only three others, forming layers.
and carry the current The layers are free to slide over each other and so graphite is soft and slippery
• Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity One electron from each carbon atom is delocalised – this allows graphite to
because the ions are fixed in place conduct heat and electricity (like in metals)

• Metals consist of GIANT structures Metallic Carbon can also form macromolecules e.g. buckminsterfullerene (C60 )
of positive ions arranged in a regular pattern, which is very important in the world of nanotechnology
surrounded by a sea of electrons
• a NANOMETRE (nm) is ONE THOUSAND-MILLIONTH of a metre Nanoscience
• Metals conduct heat and electricity because of the
• nanoscience refers to the study of structures that are 1-100nm in size, of the order of a few
delocalised electrons in their structure
hundred atoms
• Metals can be bent and shaped because the layers
• nanoparticles show different properties to the same materials in bulk and have a high surface area
of atoms are able to slide over each other and fall
to volume ratio which may lead to the development of new computers/catalysts/sensors/coatings etc
into new positions
Collision Theory
RATES • Reactions can only occur when reacting particles collide with each other and with sufficient energy
General • The minimum amount of energy that particles must have to react is called the activation energy
• Reactions proceed at a variety of rates
• Not all collisions lead to a reaction. Rate: a measure of the number of successful collisions per unit time
• The rate of a reaction is followed by measuring
• The rate of a reaction can be altered by changing: conc, press, temp or surface area or adding a catalyst
the amount of a reactant used or the amount
of product formed OVER TIME: Concentration ↑ concentration ↑ rate Temperature ↑ temperature ↑ rate
• Increasing temperature increase the energy that
• Concentration is given in “Molar” which refers to
product reacting particles have, this increases their speed
reactant the number of moles per cubic decimetre (mol/dm3) so that they collide more frequently but also more
• Equal volumes of solutions of the same molar energetically – more collisions are successful
concentration contain the same number of moles • At room temperature, a temperature rise of 10ºC
approximately doubles the rate
Time Time of solute i.e. the same number of particles
• Rate is fastest at the start when most reactant is Surface Area ↑ s.area ↑ rate
• Increasing the concentration increases the number
• Increasing surface area increases the number
present. Graph levels off when reaction is finished of particles per unit volume, increasing the chance of solid particles exposed, increasing the
of a collision, therefore increasing the frequency of chance of a collision, therefore increasing
Rate = amount of reactant used or amount of product formed
the frequency of collisions ∴ rate ↑
Time collisions (more collisions per unit time)∴ rate ↑
• Direct proportionality
• The method chosen depends on the reaction: • Doubling the concentration doubles the number of
Catalyst add a catalyst ↑ rate
particles per unit volume, doubling the frequency of
(a) If a gas is produced: • Catalysts change the rate of reactions but are
collisions, doubling the rate (direct proportionality)
(i) measure mass over time (which will decrease as long NOT USED UP during the reaction.
as the gas is allowed to escape – use a cotton wool Pressure ↑ pressure ↑ rate • Catalysts lower the activation energy required,
plug to prevent loss of anything other than the gas) • Equal volumes of gases at the same temp and so more collisions are successful
(ii) measure volume of gas over time (which will
pressure contain the same number of molecules. • V. useful in industry – see reversible rxns sheet
increase – use a gas syringe or displacement of water,
• Increasing the pressure of reacting gases increases • Different reactions require different catalysts
a thistle funnel would reduce the amount of gas lost as
the number of particles per unit volume, e.g. manganese (IV) oxide in the decomposition
the reactants were added together)
increasing the chance of a collision, therefore of hydrogen peroxide
(b) If a solid is produced:
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2
Disappearing cross experiment – use of a light meter increasing the frequency of collisions ∴ rate ↑
and data logger would improve accuracy and precision • Direct proportionality NB Test for oxygen: relights a glowing splint
Equilibria Reversible Reactions
• a reversible reaction is one that proceeds in both directions ( )
Energy changes
• when a reversible reaction occurs in a CLOSED SYSTEM, • Exothermic e.g. combustion, neutralisation. Energy is transferred, often as heat,
EQUILIBRIUM is reached when the RATE of the forward reaction to the surroundings. This is detected by an INCREASE in temperature
becomes EQUAL to the RATE of the reverse reaction • Endothermic e.g. thermal decomposition. Eenergy is taken in, often as heat,
from the surroundings. This is detected by a DECREASE in temperature
Haber Process • A reversible reaction is EXOTHERMIC in one direction, ENDOTHERMIC in
• although reversible reactions may not go to completion, they can still be
the other
used efficiently in continuous industrial processes
Choosing conditions
• developed by Fritz Haber, the Haber process is used to manufacture • the relative amounts of all the reacting substances at equilibrium depend on
ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen: the CONDITIONS of the reaction. Often, the conditions are a COMPROMISE
N2 + 3H2 2NH3 to give a reasonable YIELD of product reasonably QUICKLY
Factors affecting YIELD:
• nitrogen is obtained from air by fractional distillation
1. Temperature: Endothermic Exothermic
• hydrogen is obtained from the cracking of oil fractions, or from natural reaction reaction
↑ Temp Yield increases Yield decreases
gas (methane + steam → hydrogen + carbon dioxide) ↓ Temp Yield decreases Yield increases
• The purified gases are passed over an IRON CATALYST at a high 2. Pressure: In gaseous reactions, an increase in pressure will favour the reaction
temperature (approx 450 ºC) and a high pressure (approx 200 atmospheres) that produces the LEAST number of molecules of gas
3. Catalysts do NOT affect the YIELD – they speed up the forward and reverse
• Some of the hydrogen and nitrogen reacts to form ammonia, although,
reactions equally
because the reaction is reversible, the ammonia also breaks down again Factors affecting RATE:
into nitrogen and hydrogen, giving a mixture of reactants & product Rate is increased by : increasing temp, increasing pressure or by adding a catalyst
• On cooling, the ammonia is liquefied and removed. The remaining N2 and NB catalysts allow a compromise of conditions: they speed up reactions so that
lower temps/pressures can be used (saves money and energy and is safer). In
H2 is recycled back into the reactor
addition, catalysts are not used up during the reaction.
• It is important for sustainable development as well as for economic reasons Haber: (i) increasing temp would increase rate, but lower the yield because the
to minimise the energy requirements and energy wasted in industrial forward reaction is exothermic, 450 ºC is a compromise (ii) increasing pressure
processes. Non-vigorous conditions mean less energy is used and released would increase rate and yield (fewer moles on right hand side), 200 atm is a
compromise in terms of cost, energy and safety
Acids, bases & salts Making soluble salts using acids
Making salts • All acids contain H+(aq) ions and they can be used to make soluble salts
• Salts can either be made by (i) precipitation reactions or by (ii) reacting • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used to make chlorides
acids with metals, bases or alkalis • Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is used to make sulphates
• The choice depends on whether the salt is soluble or insoluble:
• Nitric acid (HNO3) is used to make nitrates
• All sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are soluble
• The method chosen then depends on the metal in the salt:
• All nitrates are soluble
(i) acid + metal → salt + hydrogen (obs: fizzing, solid disappears)
• Most chlorides, bromides and iodides are soluble except silver & lead
e.g. 2HCl + Mg → MgCl2 + H2 (not neutralisation)
• Most sulphates are soluble except barium and lead
Add the solid metal to the acid until no more dissolves / until the fizzing stops; filter off the
• Many carbonates, oxides and hydroxides are insoluble except sodium,
excess metal; evaporate off the water to crystallise the salt. This method is not suitable for
potassium & ammonium
making salts using group 1 metals because they react too violently. Also, the metal must be
• Use the data sheet to write formulae, include state symbols: solid (s),
above hydrogen in the reactivity series, so this is not suitable for making copper salts
liquid (l), gas (g), aqueous solution (dissolved in water) (aq)
(ii) acid + base → salt + water (base = metal oxide)
Making insoluble salts by precipitation e.g. 2HCl + CuO → CuCl2 + H2O (neutralisation)
• Mix two appropriate soluble salt solutions together Add the solid base to the acid until no more dissolves (warm acid); filter off the excess solid;
• For example, if you wanted to make lead chloride you would need to evaporate off the water to crystallise the salt. This is not suitable for soluble bases.
choose a solution containing lead ions and one containing chloride (iii) acid + alkali → salt + water (alkali = soluble base, metal hydroxide)
ions e.g. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O (neutralisation)
• It is wise to choose a nitrate and a sodium salt as these are always H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) → H2O (l) (the ionic equation for this reaction)
soluble (e.g. lead nitrate solution and sodium chloride solution) Two colourless solutions reacting together to give a colourless solution. Therefore an indicator is
e.g. lead nitrate + sodium chloride → lead chloride + sodium nitrate
needed to show when the acid and alkali have completely reacted – the preparation has to be
• The solid lead chloride (precipitate) is filtered off, washed and dried
done twice, once with an indicator to find out exactly how much acid and alkali is required and
• Precipitation can be used to remove unwanted ions from solutions, for
then again without the indicator; finally the water must be evaporated off to crystallise out the
example in treating water for drinking or in treating effluent. The salt.
simplest way is to raise the pH by adding hydroxide ions which react
NB Ammonia (NH3) dissolves in water to produce an alkaline solution of ammonium hydroxide
with the unwanted metal ions to produce insoluble metal hydroxides.
Calculations Reacting Masses
• Work out moles for the substance whose mass is given (moles = mass/RAM or RFM)
Relative atomic mass (RAM or Ar)
• Use mole ratio from the balanced equation to find moles of the substance in question
This compares the mass of atoms of the element with the carbon-12 isotope. It is
• Convert this number of moles into mass (mass = moles x RAM or RFM)
an average value for the isotopes of the element e.g. Ar for chlorine is 35.5
e.g. Calculate the mass of H2O that is made when 8g of O2 reacts with an excess of H2
because 25% of all chlorine is 35 Cl and 75% is 37 Cl
2H2 + O2 → 2H2O RFMs: O2 = 32; H2O = 18
Relative formula mass (RFM or Mr)
moles O2 = mass/RFM = 8/32 = 0.25
This is the sum of the relative atomic masses of the atoms in the numbers shown
mole ratio O2:H2O is 1:2 therefore moles H20 = 2 x moles O2 = 2 x 0.25 = 0.50
in the formula of the compound
mass H2O = moles x RFM = 0.50 x 18 = 9g
e.g. Mr of H2O = (2 x 1)+16 = 18 (no units)
Percentage yield
Mr of Mg(NO3)2 = 24 + (2 x (14 + (3x16))) = 148 Yield is the mass of product made. Percentage yield is calculated by:
% yield = mass of product actually made x 100
In grams, the relative formula mass is known as one mole of the substance
mass of product expected
Percentage composition
It is not usually possible to get 100% yield because: the reactants may not be
This is the percentage, by mass, of an element in a compound, and is found by:
completely pure, the reaction may not go to completion because it is reversible, some
of the product may be left behind in the apparatus or may be lost when it is separated
number of atoms x Ar x 100% e.g. % H in H2O = 2 x 1 x 100 = 11%
Mr 18 from the reaction mixture or from other products. Some of the reactants may react in
Moles
mass mass
ways different to the expected reaction to give unexpected products (side reactions)
Used by chemists for counting
Atom Economy
(one mole of particles contains 6 x 1023 moles RAM moles RFM
The atom economy (or atom utilisation) is a measure of the amount of starting
particles, in the same way that a dozen is 12)
materials that end up as USEFUL products. It is calculated by:
Empirical formula % atom economy = Relative mass of useful product x 100
This is the simplest whole number ratio of elements in a compound and it can be Relative mass of all products
calculated from the masses/percentages of elements that combine together by: (NB Remember to take into account the number of moles of products as well)
(i) dividing each mass (or %) by the RAM for the element (i.e. work out moles)
Chemical companies rely on reactions to make the products which they sell. It is very
(ii) dividing all numbers by the smallest number to get a whole number ratio
important for them to use reactions with a high % yield and high % atom economy.
e.g. 160g Cu and 20g O Cu = 160/64 = 2.5 then ÷ by 1.25 = 2
This means less waste (good for the environment) and more profit (good for the
O = 20/16 = 1.25 then ÷ by 1.25 = 1 ∴ Cu2O
NB Be careful with rounding, only round up/down when the number is nearly whole, not company). It also conserves the Earth’s resources and reduces any associated pollution.
nearer to half way (if close to half then multiply both numbers by 2 to convert to whole!) This is good for sustainable development.
The basics Electrolysis
• When an IONIC substance is MELTED or DISSOLVED in water the
Purification of copper
IONS become free to move about within the liquid or solution
• Copper must be purified before it can be used to make electrical wires
• Passing an electric current through molten or dissolved ionic
substances
anode dissolves cathode builds up
breaks them down into elements. This is called ELECTROLYSIS
+ - Cu (s) → Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)
ANODE CATHODE
(remember that solid ionic (oxidation) (reduction)
compounds DO NOT
• The copper sulphate electrolyte allows the Cu2+ (aq) to move from the anode to the cathode
conduct electricity) ELECTROLYTE
• During electrolysis: (contains ions) • Impurities such as silver, gold (precious metals) and arsenic (toxic) fall to the bottom and

(i) positively charged ions (CATIONS) move to the negative electrode are

(CATHODE) and GAIN electrons. This is REDUCTION Electrolysis


recovered. of brine
• Electrolyte = concentrated solution of NaCl (brine)
e.g. Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)
• Ions present = Na+, Cl- (from NaCl) and H+, OH- (from H2O)
(ii) negatively charged ions (ANIONS) move to the positive electrode
(ANODE) and LOSE electrons. This is OXIDATION Anode: 2Cl- → Cl2 + 2e- Cathode: 2H+ + 2e- → H2
(the ions left behind make NaOH)
e.g. 2Cl- → Cl2 + 2e-
Overall: sodium chloride → hydrogen + chlorine + sodium hydroxide solution
• When the ionic substance is dissolved in water then there is a mixture
of ions present (H+ and OH- ions from water are also present). The Uses: (i) Cl2 is used to kill bacteria in purification of drinking water and in swimming pools. It
products formed depends on the reactivity of the elements involved can

according to the following rules: also be reacted with sodium hydroxide to make bleach (good at killing bacteria) (ii) H2 is used to

(i) At the cathode: Look at the reactivity series, if the metal present is hydrogenate unsaturated vegetable oils in the manufacture of margarine and is used in the Haber
lower than hydrogen then the metal ion accepts the electrons and is process to make ammonia (iii) NaOH is used to make soap and paper and to increase pH in many

formed. Otherwise hydrogen ions accept electrons and H2 is formed. Environmental


industrial processes (e.g.issues
can be used to precipitate out metal ions when purifying water)
• Lots of electricity is required, which often comes from the burning of fossil fuels (finite
(ii) At the anode: If Cl-, Br- or I- is present then they lose electrons and
resource,
the halogen is formed. Otherwise OH- ions lose electrons and water
burning produces greenhouse gas CO2 which causes global warming)
and oxygen is formed: 4OH- → 2H O + O + 4e-