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04 major challenges in approaching research


as an early-career/ young researcher

1. Deciding on a Topic
2. Deciding on Research Questions
3. Finding Relevant Theories and
Theorists
4. Choosing the best Design and Methods
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CHALLENGE 1: WHAT TO CHOOSE?

DECIDING ON A TOPIC
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Consider:

‡ Is it of your concern/interest?
‡ Is it of others¶ concern/interest?
‡ Are the results/outcomes not so obvious?
‡ Does it help to demonstrate your knowledge
and skills?
‡ Is it feasible?
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From critical reading «

To this «

‡ (1) No four go!


‡ (2) M0^ng Hem Thaµnh th0^y -Danhµ We^n ±Dj
‡ (3) «..vCl]`])iF_µ `/v\µ º]\[' ]\[º]µ««.!!!! (º¶
]\[‚|µ ]\[(¬? ])]F_µ ` ‚‚ |Cl‚ RÒ ]<º ‚‚|F_? 3]F_‚¶
‚PvÒº(¶ ])(. 3º]~

Gen9X¶s language
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(Version 1.4)
http://www.mediafire.com/?ml1oxwjylcn
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Gen 9X (Vietnamese born in the 1990s)

1990s with radical Today: ¶alien¶


changes language practices
(esp. English, technology and
media) and values
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Gen 9X vis-à-vis the Rising Generation


Worldwide
‡ µMillennial Generation¶ (Howe & Strauss, 2000, p. 4)
‡ µGeneration M¶, (Media, Millenials, Mobile,
Multitaskers, Multisensory) (Cvetkovic & Lackie, 2009),
‡ µGeneration I¶ (Internet) (Bill Gates, "The Challenge and Promise of
"Generation I"," 1999),

‡ µGeneration Z¶ (Walliker, 2008)


‡ µbeyond Y¶ (McGregor, 2010)
‡ Õ both similarities and differences with
Vietnamese Gen9X
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English mixed with Examples


Vietnamese
Code-switching µcomment¶ bài; µsend¶ cái µfile¶; µDamn¶,
tao µstupid¶ quá, µsorry¶ mày etc.
Spelling mixture làm wen, làm shao, zui zҿ, làm j

Word-by-word Like is afternoon¶ (Thích+thì+chiӅu),


translation µNo four go¶ (Vô+tư+đi)
Abbreviations and 2 (µhai¶ = hi!), 4EV(forever), g9
homophones (goodnight), u (you),
Transliteration măn-ni (money), kiu (cute), hao-a-diu
(how are you?) teo-mi (tell me)
Whole speech in
English
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Consider:

‡ Is it of your concern/interest?
‡ Is it of others¶ concern/interest?
‡ Are the results/outcomes not so obvious?
‡ Does it help to demonstrate your knowledge
and skills?
‡ Is it feasible?
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CHALLENGE 2: NARROWING DOWN!

DECIDING ON
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
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Consider

‡ Narrow it down: No scope is too narrow!


‡ Always justify your choices/narrowing
‡ What is new/what is the expected
contribution?
‡ Choose a nice, catchy title!
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Gen 9X TESOL Trainees as among the most


µcritical¶ cases:
‡ Most exposed to English
language and Western values; _ 
‡ Most likely to extend their
language and values to _ 
generations as moral guides;  
‡ Most likely to be in sharp 

values-language conflicts
‡ Õ language-values concern:
Across time, space & identities
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1. Rationales of the Study

‡ Gen9X TESOL trainees as a µcritical¶ group in the


language and values concerns of their
generation.
‡ The media reports also need problematizing for
its:
± Distant positioning;
± Essentialist depiction;
± Voice, agency & other possibilities failed to be
acknowledged.
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cellent :)
acerbated :(
›
aggerated :O

Vietnamese Gen9 TESOL Trainees


in the Struggle of Voices for their
Language and Values
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2. Purposes of the Study

VOICE

Time; Space & Identities

LANGUAGE VALUES
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Research Questions
1. What are Gen9X Vietnamese TESOL trainees¶
voice(s) regarding:
± The impacts of English language learning and teaching
(inside and outside the language classroom) on their
uses of both Vietnamese and English languages; and
± The institutional values they wish to promote in the
English language classroom in Vietnam.
2. To what extent and how could they negotiate a
space for these voices in the English language
classroom discourse?
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CHALLENGE 3: FIND A GIANT¶S SHOULDER!

FINDING RELEVANT
THEORSISTS AND
THEORIES
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Consider

‡ Major theorists and major theories


associated with these names
‡ Read them first, and other successors
‡ How far could it be applied in Vietnamese
contexts and your topic?
‡ Critical reading, problematizing, take side
and build up the theoretical framework as
you go.
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Typical education theorists


‡ John Dewey
‡ Karl Marx
‡ Ferdinand de Saussure
‡ Mikhail Bakhtin
‡ Pierre Bourdieu
‡ Michel Foucault
‡ Paulo Freire
‡ Stuart Hall
‡ Edward Said
‡ Lev Vigostky
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John Dewey

‡ Instrumentalism
‡ Pragmatic epistemology/ metaphysics/
ethics/ aesthetics
‡ Education and experience
‡ Reflection
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Saussure

‡ Structuralism
‡ Structural linguistics
‡ Language and parole
‡ Sign, signifier, and signified
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Bakhtin

‡ Utterance
‡ Dialogism
‡ Heteroglossia
‡ Voice
‡ Genre
‡ Social language
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Pierre Bourdieu

‡ Practice
‡ Field
‡ Habitus
‡ Taste
‡ Cultural Capital
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Michel Foucault

‡ Discourse
‡ Genealogy
‡ Power
‡ Ethics of self
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Paulo Freire

‡ Critical pedagogy
‡ Conscientization
‡ Dialogue
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Stuart Hall

‡ Ideology
‡ Culture
‡ Popular culture
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Edward Said

‡ Orientalism
‡ Imperialism
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Vigotsky

‡ Learning and development


‡ Internalization
‡ Thought-language relations
‡ Zone of proximal development
‡ Constructivism
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Overview
1. Rationale of the Study
2. Purposes of the Study
3. Literature Review: Theoretical and Conceptual
Framework
- English language classroom discourse and its
trainers/trainees in Vietnam
- Voice in the English language classroom in
Vietnam
4. Methodology & Methods
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3.1. The English language classroom in


Vietnam
‡ As a rendezvous of Western and traditional values
± Institutional values (Rokeach, 1979)
± Traditional (educational) values
> hierarchy and respect (Phan, 2008; Valentin, 2007)
> knowledge (Trҫn, 1996)
> affection and humanity (Trҫn, 1996; Phan, 2008)
± Western values (Phillipson (1992), Pennycook (1994), Canagarajah (2003) &
Holliday (2005))
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The English language classroom in


Vietnam and its trainers & trainees

‡ As non-neutral in the language ± values concern


± Vietnamese µcontaminated¶ by English language
learning
± The loss of cultural identities (Hitchcock, 1994; Marr & Rosen,
1998; Valentin, 2007; Pennycook, 1994; Tsui & Tollefson, 2007a)
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Problematizing «

‡ The Concerns about the Englishization of the


Mother Tongue:
± L2 not necessary a threat to L1 (Tsui & Tollefson, 2007b;
Canagarajah, 2003)
± Englishization could assist the young generation
in their adaptation to a changing world (McGregor,
2010; Canagarajah, 2003)
± Gen9Xers¶ actively resisting and negotiating with
it (Kramer-Dahl, 2009)
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Problematizing (cont.)

‡ the Concerns about the Westernization of


Traditional Values
± Values as an essentialist (D'Andrade, 2008) vs. non-
essentialist concept (Raths, Harmin, & Simon, 1966) or
both (Rokeach, 1979)
± The possibility of value changes (Rokeach, 1979)
± The continuity rather than sudden fragmentation
(Rokeach, 1979; Hitchcock,1994)
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3.2. Voice
‡ In critical pedagogy: as a means of participation
(Kamler, 2001,)

‡ In this study:
± With both representational and discursive senses
± As a means of:
> Struggle
> Engagement
± As silence (Pennycook, 1994)
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Voice (cont.)

‡ In this study (cont.)


± As situated, resisted, negotiated,
appropriated, changing (hooks, 1989; Canagarajah,
2003)
± As individual and collective (Giroux, 1997)
± As a cultural concept (Trҫn, 1996)
> Language of love
> Possibilities for the language of critique,
(when appropriated)
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Voice (cont.): In Vietnamese traditional


proverbs

Language of Love & Conformity (Possibilities for) Language of Critique


(Willett & Jeannot, 1993) (Willett & Jeannot, 1993)
³Mӝt sӵ nhӏn, chín sӵ lành´ ³Chim khôn hót tiӃng rҧnh rang - Ngưӡi
(A little silence brings a lot of peace) khôn nói tiӃng dӏu dàng dӉ nghe´
(The clever bird twitters in a leisurely
³Cá không ăn muӕi cá uơn ± Con cãi cha manner, The wise person talks with a
mҽ trăm đưӡng con hư´ gentle pleasing voice)
((Like) fish without salt is stale; a child
without obedience to his parents is surely ³Lӡi nói chҷng mҩt tiӅn mua - Lӵa lӡi mà
spoiled) nói cho vӯa lòng nhau´
(it doesn¶t cost to be polite; choose the
words that please each other)
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Voice in the English language classroom


Giroux Canagarajah Pennycook
(1997) (2003) (1994)
03 discourses of The Periphery 03 forms of
educational English language students¶ voice
practices classroom regarding the
discourse cultural politics of
English
-Discourse of - the participants in - discursive actions
production the discourse of - linguistic actions
-Discourse of text production and of - subjective actions
analysis lived culture
-Discourse of lived - the Periphery and
culture the Center
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Conceptual 
framework

  

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    (*)
_  
  
    
 
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  ! 


  
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CHALLENGE 4: DO IT NOW, BUT HOW?

METHODS AND
METHODOLOGY
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Consider

‡ Research paradigm: Epistemology &


ontology
‡ Research design
‡ Research methods
‡ Again! Always justify your choices.
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(Tentative) Design and Methodology: A


case study with mixed methods

! % 
 &
    

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! '  

 

 &
( # (   
  " 
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(Tentative) Design and Methodology


(cont.)
‡ Case Study as necessary and suitable (Yin (1994,
p. 1)

‡ Mixed Methods: quan Õ QUAL


± Mixed methods as feasible (Johnson & Christensen, 2008; Yin,
1994) and facilitating

± The sequence as feasible (Creswell, 2005; Johnson &


Christensen, 2008) and useful (Johnson & Christensen, 2008)

± Dominant status for practical and ontological


reasons (Freire, 1985)
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Problems with Learning about Silenced


Voices: Liberation or Neo-oppression?
‡ Paradigm: Constructivism
‡ Positioning: µideological shifts¶ (Canagarajah 2003)
‡ Methods: Qualitative as dominant; survey
questionnaires
‡ Techniques:
± valuing and validating their contributions; reading
the subtexts; indirect data collection (O'Toole & Beckett,
2010)

± generate themes (Freire, 2009)


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Methods and Procedure

‡ Stage 1: Case Study Pilot


‡ Stage 2: Preliminary Analysis & Study
Design Refined
‡ Stage 3: Primary Data Collection
‡ Stage 4: Data Analysis
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Methods and Procedure (cont.):


Focusing on Stage 3

! $.  
(stratified and cluster random sampling)
%/+ 


 !  
! ) (selected by the survey respondent)

* _
" (selected by the survey respondent
and homogeneity (Johnson & Christensen, 2008) )
%+ 
! )

  ,- 
(as allowed by the participants)
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Research Site:
Department of English Language Teacher Training,
University of Languages and International Studies,
Hanoi (Vietnam)
‡ as a µtypical¶ case, µmeeting the criteria typical of
the phenomenon¶ (Johnson & Christensen 2008)
± the principal TESOL training institution in Vietnam
± a frequented rendezvous of traditional and Western
values (training objectives, historical background etc.)
± a site of growing cultural concerns (fostered use of
Internet, CLT, separate & minor courses on two
cultures, lived culture of Gen9X)
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Methods and Procedure (cont.):


Focusing on Stage 4 (Data Analysis)

‡ Quantitative analysis to identify (possible)


trends, extremes, and (possible) new themes:
± Using factors in the survey questionnaires as a
typology (Caracelli & Greene, 1993, cited in Creswell, 2005).
± Following up on outliers or Extreme Cases (Caracelli
& Greene, 1993, cited in Creswell, 2005)

‡ Qualitative analysis to develop categories


system (Johnson & Christensen, 2008)
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THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION