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Protection des Jeux de Barres

A.A LADJICI LSEI/2013


1. INTRODUCTION
2. Défauts dans un jeux de barres

 La majorité des défauts dans un jeux de barres sont des défauts phase-
terre, ainsi, à moindre degré, des défauts entre phases.
 Les défauts des jeux de barres sont souvent dues à des défauts de
manipulations des sectionneurs ou des défauts internes dans les
équipements du postes.
3 Exigences du systèmes de protection

 Les busbars est un équipement critique dans un poste. La protection


d’un busbar doit assurer deux caractéristiques importantes, la rapidité et
la stabilité:
 Rapidité : la protection d’un busbar à pour objectif principales :
- La limitation des dommages suite à un défaut;
- L’isolation du défaut rapidement, sans faire intervenir les protection backup
(lignes, transfo). Les dispositifs modernes de protection (différentielle à haute
impédance, peut éliminer le défaut dans deux cycles (0.04 s), combiné avec des
disjoncteurs à ouverture rapide, l’isolement du défaut peut se faire en moins de
0.1 s.
3 Exigences du systèmes de protection

 Stabilité: la stabilité du système de protection est d’une importance


primordiale. Les défauts dans les jeux de barres sont rares, un défaut
chaque dix ou vingt ans. Mais le relais peut déclencher de manière
intempestive suites à des erreurs de manipulations ou des perturbation
dans le réseau, pour assurer une meilleure stabilité du système de
protection:
- Installer deux protection: soit deux protection différentielles avec deux mesures,
ou une protection différentielle et une protection de défauts à la terre.
- Dans le cas d’une architecture à double busbars, une protection séparer est
appliquer à chaque busbar, une troisième zone de protection est ajouter pour
contrôler les deux busbars.
4. Types de protection

 Deux types de protection sont communément utilisés dans la protection


des busbar :
- Protection différentielles :

- Protection des défauts à la terre: cette protection est généralement associée


aux postes blindés (SF6) et dans les réseaux de distribution, mais elle est
généralement comme une protection supplémentaire à la protection
différentielle.
5. LES SCHÉMAS DE
PROTECTION
5. Les schémas de protection

 Le schéma de protection d’un busbar dépond de la configuration du


poste, six configuration de busbar sont généralement utilisés:
- Singl bus
- Main and transfer Bus
- Double Bus Singl Breaker
- Double Bus Double Breaker
- Breaker and a Half
- Ring Bus
5.1 Single bus
• the single bus configuration consists of a single bus with all
network elements connected directly with breakers.
• This configuration is simple and economical.
• However, from the system point of view it is the least reliable
and least flexible in terms of network switching and
equipment maintenance.
• All network elements in the single bus configuration are taken
out of service upon a bus fault or for bus maintenance.
• Maintenance or problems with a given breaker call for taking
its associated network element out of service.
• Under a BF condition, the entire bus is cleared.
Single bus configuration
• From the protection point of view, the measurement
zone of protection for the single bus configuration is
bounded by CTs on all the connected network
elements, and all the connected breakers are tripped
upon a bus fault.
• Figure 1 shows a desired situation with CTs available
on both sides of each breaker, allowing the bus
measurement zone and the measurement zones of
protection of the network elements to overlap thus
eliminating any blind spots.
• Often to increase reliability and reduce
breaker fault duty requirements, a single bus
is split into—typically
• two—sections with a switching device (tie)
between them. The multiple sections are
preferably supplied
• from multiple sources with some degree of
independence.
Single bus sectionalized with a tie breaker
Main and transfer bus
• This bus configuration is an extension of the single bus
arrangement and is aimed at bringing extra equipment
maintenance and switching flexibility without adding extra
breakers.
• In reference to Figure 4, a second bus, called a transfer bus
or an auxiliary bus, is added to the single bus
configuration.
• Each network element is connected to the main bus via a
breaker, and to the transfer bus via a disconnect switch.
An extra breaker, called a bus tie (TB), or a bus coupler is
inserted between the main and transfer buses.
Main and transfer bus configuration
Double-bus double-breaker
• This bus configuration provides for both reliability
and operational flexibility at the expense of using
two
• circuit breakers per each network element, hence
the designation double-breaker. Two bus sections
are set
• up and connected via diameters of two breakers.
Each of the network elements is supplied from two
• breakers in each diameter as shown in Figure 6.
Double-bus double-breaker configuration
Double-bus single-breaker
Double-bus single-breaker configuration
An example of a network element
transferred to the bus tie breaker
Breaker-and-a-half
Breaker-and-a-half
Ring bus
Introduction to bus protection
• The major types of bus protection systems are
as follows:
• a) Differential
• b) Zone-interlocked schemes
• c) Time-coordinated relays that overlap the
bus zone
• d) Fault bus
Zones of bus protection
• In terms of its ability to detect bus faults, the
bus protection zone is defined by location of
CTs surrounding the bus.
• In terms of its ability to clear the fault once
detected, the bus protection zone is defined
by location of breakers surrounding the bus.
Types of bus protection
• It is convenient to describe the general types
of bus protection schemes and their
characteristics before describing their
suitability for a given application.
Differential
• Any relay that has information on the sum of all currents entering
and exiting the zone of protection and operates on the difference
in these currents falls under the category of differential relaying.
There are five general categories of differential relays used in bus
applications, as follows:
• ⎯Differentially connected overcurrent (instantaneous or time
delayed)
• ⎯Percentage-restrained differential (or differential with other
means of dealing with CT saturation)
• ⎯High-impedance differential
• ⎯Partial differential overcurrent
• ⎯Fault bus
Differentially connected overcurrent
• Differentially connected overcurrent relays respond to the magnitude
of the inherent limitation is that they can operate on false differential
current caused by CT saturation so they are relatively insecure
compared to most enhance their security, as follows:
• ⎯Set the pickup above the worst case anticipated false differential
current.
• ⎯Use time delay, typically inverse timing, that will trip fast for high
differential current but slow enough to ride through asymmetrical
saturation until the CT recovers.
• ⎯Add a small stabilizing resistance to the differential leg of the CT
circuit to reduce the amount of
• false differential current that flows to the relay.
Percentage-restrained differential
5.2.1.3 High-impedance differential
5.2.1.4 Partial differential overcurrent
EXEMPLE
High-impedance bus differential application example

 Consider a high-impedance bus differential protection application of


Figure A.1, with the following data:
 ⎯Maximum three-phase (3PH) and single-line-to-ground (SLG) short-
circuit contributions from
- Network element F-1 ………………………….2 kA (3PH), 1.2 kA (SLG)
- Network element F-2 ………………………….8 kA (3PH), 8.8 kA (SLG)
- Network element F-3 ………………………….5 kA (3PH), 3.5 kA (SLG)
- Network element F-4 ………………………….5 kA (3PH), 3.5 kA (SLG)
- Minimum bus fault current ……………………1.8 kA (3PH), 0.9 kA (SLG)
High-impedance bus differential application example

 ⎯Wire resistance between CT and the junction box (RL) …………0.4 Ω


 ⎯Stabilizing resistance (RS) …………………...…………………..2000 Ω
 ⎯CT ratio (N) ….……………………………………………………..1200:5
 ⎯CT class ……………………………..……………………………….C400
 ⎯CT secondary winding resistance (RCT) …………………………0.6 Ω
 ⎯MOV characteristic …………………………………………… Figure A.2
High-impedance bus differential application example
High-impedance bus differential application example
Short-circuit levels

 Maximum bus fault current is 2 kA + 8 kA + 5 kA + 5 kA = 20 kA. This is a


three-phase fault.
 Maximum bus fault current is 1.2 kA + 8.8 kA + 3.5 kA + 3.5 kA = 17 kA.
This is a single-line-to-ground fault.
 Minimum bus fault current is 1.8 kA (three-phase) and 0.9 kA (single-line-
to-ground).
 Maximum external fault current (three-phase) is 8 kA + 5 kA + 5 kA = 18
kA for a fault on network element F-1.
 Maximum external fault current (single-line-to-ground) is 8.8 kA + 3.5 kA +
3.5 kA = 15.8 kA for a fault on network element F-1.
Stability on external faults (security check)

 External fault on F-1 is the worst-case scenario. Assume CT on F-1


saturates completely and delivers no secondary current. All other CTs
perform with no saturation and deliver the full fault current (IF) reflected
into the secondary side. If so, the voltage developed at the differential
relay (VR) equals:

 where k is 1 for three-phase faults, and k is 2 for single-line-to-ground


faults (assuming the neutral is made up at the CT terminals, which is a
common practice).
Stability on external faults (security check)

 In general with CTs having different lead resistances external faults at


several network elements are considered and the highest relay voltage is
calculated. In this example, the highest voltage under an external fault is
92 V.
 Assume a 1.6 protection security margin when deciding on a pickup
setting of the voltage actuator (59) of the scheme:

 If the current actuator (50) is used in the scheme, its pickup setting is
required to be below the minimum fault current. Assume a 0.5
dependability margin.
Verification of CT voltage ratings (dependability check)

 It is recommended that the voltage setting be below 0.67 to 0.5 of the


accuracy class voltage to maintain high-speed, positive operation for
genuine internal faults:
Sensitivity on internal faults

 Considering equivalent circuit diagram of Figure A.3, sensitivity of the


scheme is limited by the current leakage through the excitation branches
of the CTs and the MOV leakage current. These currents leak around the
relay operate path.
 The minimum operating current in primary Amperes for the bus protection
system is estimated using Equation (A.6) [Equation (1) from 7.1.2.4].
- The excitation current at the voltage setting is read from the CT excitation curve
—assume 0.025 A at 147 V. Since there are four CTs in parallel, IEX is 4 ⋅ 0.025 A
= 0.1 A.
- The MOV current at the voltage setting is obtained from the MOV characteristic
(Figure A.2). The MOV characteristic is given in peak volts and amps so they
need to be converted to RMS values. 147V⋅sqrt(2) = 208V .
- The MOV current is below the range of the characteristic so it can be neglected
as insignificant in the calculation.
- The burden impedance current at the voltage setting is 147 V/2000 Ω = 0.0735
A.

 With the minimum fault current of 0.9 kA (single-phase) and 1.8 kA (three-
phase) the dependability criteria is met. There is no station service
transformer within the bus zone, so security for inrush and secondary
faults is also acceptable.