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# Module 3

Harmonic Analysis
Module 3
Harmonic Analysis Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
A. Define harmonic analysis and its purpose.

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Harmonic Analysis
A. Definition & Purpose Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
What is harmonic analysis?

## • A technique to determine the steady state response of a structure

to sinusoidal (harmonic) loads of known frequency.

• Input:
– Harmonic loads (forces, pressures, and imposed displacements) of
known magnitude and frequency.
– May be multiple loads all at the same frequency. Forces and
displacements can be in-phase or out-of phase. Surface and body
loads can only be specified with a phase angle of zero.

• Output:
– Harmonic displacements at each DOF, usually out of phase with the
– Other derived quantities, such as stresses and strains.

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Harmonic Analysis
… Definition & Purpose Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Harmonic analysis is used in the design of:

## • Supports, fixtures, and components of rotating equipment such

as compressors, engines, pumps, and turbomachinery.

## • Structures subjected to vortex shedding (swirling motion of

fluids) such as turbine blades, airplane wings, bridges, and
towers.

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Harmonic Analysis
… Definition & Purpose Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Why should you do a harmonic analysis?

## • To make sure that a given design can withstand sinusoidal loads

at different frequencies (e.g, an engine running at different
speeds).

## • To detect resonant response and avoid it if necessary (by using

dampers, for example).

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Harmonic Analysis
B. Terminology & Concepts Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Topics covered:

• Equation of motion

## • Nature of harmonic loads

• Complex displacements

• Solution methods

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts
Equation of Motion Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• General equation of motion:

[ M ]{u } + [ C]{ u } + [ K ]{ u} = { F}

## { F} = {Fmax eiψ }eiωt = ({ F1} + i{ F2 } )eiωt

{ u} = {u max eiφ}eiωt = ({ u1} + i{ u 2 } )eiωt

## (−ω2 [ M ] + iω[ C] + [ K ] )({ u1} + i{ u 2 } ) = ({ F1} + i{ F2 } )

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts
Nature of Harmonic Loads Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• Sinusoidally varying, at known
frequencies.

Imaginary
ψ
• Phase angle ψ allows multiple,
out-of-phase loads to be applied. Real

Defaults to zero.

## • All applied loads are assumed to

be harmonic, including
temperatures and gravity.

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts
Complex Displacements Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• Calculated displacements will be complex if:
– Damping is specified.
– Applied load is complex (i.e, imaginary part is non-zero).

applied force).

## • Results can be viewed in the form of real and imaginary parts or

amplitude and phase angle.

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts
Solution Methods Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Three methods of solving the harmonic equation of motion:
• Full method
– Default method, easiest of all.
– Uses full structure matrices. Unsymmetric matrices (e.g, acoustics) are
allowed.
• Reduced method*
– Uses reduced matrices, faster than full method.
– Requires master DOF selection, which results in approximate [M] and [C].
• Mode superposition**
– Sums factored mode shapes from a preceding modal analysis.
– Fastest of all methods.

*Not covered in this seminar; see ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for information.
**Discussed in Module 6.

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts
… Solution Methods Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
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Harmonic Analysis
C. Procedure Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Four main steps:

• Review results

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
Build the Model Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Model

## • Linear elements and materials only. Nonlinearities are ignored.

• Remember density!

both ALPX (coefficient of thermal expansion) and ∆ T are non-
zero. To avoid this, set ALPX to zero.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
Choose Analysis Type & Options Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
 Build the model

## • Enter Solution and choose

harmonic analysis.

## • Main analysis option is solution

method - discussed next.

next.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Choose Analysis Type & Options Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Analysis options

## • Solution method - full, reduced, or mode

superposition. Defaults to full method.

## • Lumped mass matrix

– Recommended if the structure is small in one dimension
compared to the other two dimensions, e.g, slender
beams and thin shells.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Choose Analysis Type & Options Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Analysis options (…continued)

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Choose Analysis Type & Options Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Damping

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
 Build the model

## • All applied loads vary harmonically at the specified frequency

– Displacement constraints - zero or non-zero.
– Forces
– Pressures

• Caution: If gravity and thermal loads are applied, they are also

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0

## • Amplitude and phase angle

• Frequency
F2max

Imaginary
• Stepped vs. ramped specification
ψ
Amplitude and phase angle F1max
Real

## • The load value (magnitude) represents

the amplitude Fmax.

## • Phase angle Ψ is the phase shift between

two or more harmonic loads. Not
required if only one load is present. Non-
zero Ψ only valid for force and
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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Amplitude and phase angle (continued)
• ANSYS does not allow direct input of amplitude and
phase angle. Instead, you specify the real and
imaginary components.
• For example, given two harmonic forces F1 and F2
that are out of phase by angle Ψ :
F2max

Imaginary
F1real = F1max (amplitude of F1)
F1imag = 0
F2real = F2maxcosΨ
Ψ F1max
Real
F2imag = F2maxsinΨ
• You can use APDL for these calculations, but make
sure angular units are set to degrees (default is

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• Utility Menu > Parameters > Angular Units …

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• Specified in cycles per second (Hertz) by a frequency range and
number of substeps within that range.
• For example, a range of 0-50 Hz with 10 substeps gives
solutions at frequencies of 5, 10, 15, …, 45, and 50 Hz. Same
range with 1 substep gives one solution at 50 Hz.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
or all at once in the first substep (stepped).
represents maximum amplitude.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• After applying the harmonic loads, the next
step is to start the solution.
• Typically one load step, but you may use
multiple substeps within a single load step.
The frequency range is defined over the

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
Review Results Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
 Build the model

##  Apply harmonic loads and solve

Review results

• Three steps:
– Plot displacement vs. frequency at specific
points in the structure. Use POST26, the time-
– Identify critical frequencies and history postprocessor
corresponding phase angles.
– Review displacements and stresses over
entire structure at the critical frequencies and
Use POST1, the general
phase angles.
postprocessor

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
Review Results - POST26 Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Displacement vs. frequency plots

## • First define POST26 variables.

– Tables of nodal or element data.
– Identified by a number ≥ 2.
– Variable 1 contains frequencies and is predefined.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Review Results - POST26 Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• Define variables (cont'd.)
– Pick nodes that might deform the most, then choose the DOF
direction.
– List of defined variables is updated.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Review Results - POST26 Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• Define variables.
A Graphed Response in the Frequency Domain
• Then graph them.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Review Results - POST26 Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Identify critical frequencies and phase angles
• Graph shows frequency at which highest amplitude occurs.
• Since the displacements are out-of-phase with the applied loads (if
damping is present), the phase angle at which the peak amplitude
occurs needs to be determined.
– To do this, first choose amplitude + phase format ...

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Review Results - POST26 Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
– … then list the variable(s).
• Notice that peak amplitude = 3.7 occurs at 48 Hz, - 85.7°.
• Next step is to review displacements and stresses over the entire
model at that frequency and phase angle (using POST1).

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
Review Results - POST1 Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
Review results over entire structure
• Enter POST1 and list results summary to identify load step and
substep number of critical frequency.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
… Review Results - POST1 Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• Use the HRCPLX command to read in results at desired
frequency and phase angle:
– HRCPLX, LOADSTEP, SUBSTEP, PHASE, ...
– Example: HRCPLX,2,4,-88.2754
• Plot deformed shape, stress contours, and other desired
results.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
 Build the model

 Review results

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Lesson D:
Workshop - Harmonic Analysis Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0
• In this workshop, you will examine the harmonic response of a fixed-
fixed beam to harmonic forces caused by rotating machinery
mounted on the beam.

## • See your Dynamics Workshop supplement for details

Harmonic Analysis Workshop - Fixed-Fixed Beam, Page W-27

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